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I 




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T JtONTlSPIECE. 




Wff i iimi—pii^T— 

.*)<>/ //tr //h*i>m i'/ ff/n mei cttif 'iJ/tffli 







ifftoittl)^ (3ntf lltajmrci 



VOL.XLIX. 

ForlAeYEHXL rf8o. 




By His MAJJiSTTs taStewag 



« 



* 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

JVTO greater proof can be given of the advantage and pleafure refulting from , 
*" literary production, than the conjiant, voluntary fupport of the Public. ( 
unwearied exertions to give general fatisfatlion have been again crovjned with) 
cefs, and we have the bappinefs to find \ at the conclufion of the year 1780, tbut 
number of our friends is confidently increafed. 

It is with great plcaf^e therefore, that ive repeat our annual tribute of grit 
acknowledgements to evfry individual) who has been pleafed to countenance this 
dertaking, either as a purchaferj or as a genervus contributor to our labours. 
' The patronage we have fo long enjoyed is the more flattering, as, of late yet 
we lave been furr'ounded with competitors, who have taken, no f mall pains, to 
tain the fame favourable difiinclion. 

Emulat'10.1 has been excited by this laudable conteft, and it has been producliv 
confiderable improvements. To the ftrength and JbliJity of our ancient edifice, 
-been addedi every modern decoration and embellijbment, fuited to the reigning taftt 
r Our Jubilee commences with the enfuing year, when we fhall think it r 

" efpecialty incumbent upon us, to make cur Fiftieth volume, a confpicuous mt 
ment of gratitude for pafi favours, and afignal of our earneft defire to miritfu 
fuccefs. 

The perplexed fituation of public affairs, is likely to afford us many fubjeQs t 
ferious and interfiling nature. The progrefs of a war in wbieb our all feemtt 
f- at flake, will demand a confiderable jbare of our attention, being determined ft ec 
to purfue, the approved cuftom t of giving juft defcriptiom, with accurate pi 
charts, and maps of the countries, cities, and coafts, that may hereafter be theft 
ofa&ion : to tbefejball be annexed every paper communicating authentic intellige 
or recording the fpirited conduct of our gracious Sovereign in the fupport of the 
nity of his crown, and the rights of/usfubjeds, againft the treachery offalfiefrie 
and the perfidy of the ancient fivor/i foes to the Britijb empire. 

Portraits, with the befit memoirs that can be procured, of tbofe gallant offit 

in the land andfeafervice, who fignalife themfelves at this awful crifts, in m 

taining the honour, independence, and envied fuperiority of their country, will 

ftitute the chief ornament of our work, and may viclory attend them in every que 

of the globe ! 

Hiflory will, as ufual, occupy a limited f pace, for the infiruclion of youth j an 

a relief Jrom fubjecls of a ferious, and ftiulious caft ; fprigbtly dialogues ; <u/r// 

fays ; elegant letters ; anecdotes ; extracts from entertaining publications 5 jug] 

pieces on topics of the day ; an account of our theatrical exhibitions j arid infim 

other articles generally inferted in fimilar produelions, will find a place in. < 

when they are not poflponed for more important objeels. 

\ Evety alteration in our commercial fyfi em is worthy of notice in a maritime, < 

merciat ft ate ; the penuine fpirit of Britijb generqfity has at length furmoun ted 

judice, and the felfifh views of individuals j the freedom of trade granted and 

firmed to Ireland in the courfe of the laft year, forms an ara in the. annals of . 

merce which deferves commemoration. Tbefkill of the artift could not well bt 

ployed upon a more pleafing fubjecl *. ■ The moft beneficial conftfusnees mi 

\ expeclcdfirom this union of interefts between the two kingdoms ; // willfurni 

' with additional ftrength in time of war, and will cramp the power of our ene 

by diminijhing their fupplies of provifions. And in times of peace, by augment in 

population and ihduftry of the Irifb, it will afford new refources to the united en 

of Great Britain. IVe bid adieu to our readers for theprefent, with a bint tha 

fball open the new year, with a portrait of our young royal naval /ffifet P 

WiUiam % Hemy (to wbdm otir Magazine for January 1781, will be dedicated) 

with an accurate chart of the coafts of England and Holland. • 

# Sec the Frontifpiccc. 
Loxd. Mag, App. 1779. ^^ 



II 






GEORGE £. 

WHEREAS Ourtruftyand well-beloved RitbarJ Bal 
mJltr-Roia, in Our City of !»*/*», Bookfeller, hit!., 
humblj repi r i ._■ 1 ■ - ed unto U >, that he it the Proprietor of a Vt 
lifted monthly, entitled, 

The LONDON MAGAZI 

In which ii contained many original Piters, that were never be 
that he is at a great espence in paying Authors for their Labou 
compiling the laid Work, which has been published once a 
Thirty Yean pall, and hath met with great approbation from 
Thai he is now publilhiog therein 

An Impartial and Succinift History of the 
Progrefs of the Present W A R 

To be illuftrated with many Maps and Charts, which hath alt 
received, ai to induce feveral Pcrfons to reprint it in other pi 
rions i and being dotirwi of reaping the Fruits of hii very gr 
Labour, in the Profecution of this Work, and enjoying the fu 
nefit that may arile from printing and vending the fame, wiihi 
Ion interfering in his jurt Property, he moll humbly prays I 
Cur Royal Licence and Protection, for the teleprinting, publ 
ing the laid Work. And We do, therefore, hy thefe Prefen 
bo agreeable to the Statute in that cafe made and provided, gr: 
faid Richard BaLtaii«, his Executors, Admin iftrators, and All 
for the foie printing, publ! Hi tig, and Tending (he faid Work, 
Fourteen Years, ftiiflly forbidding all Our Subjects, withii 
and Dominions, to reprint, abridge, or, publifli the fame, ei 
any other Volume, or Volumes whatfbever, or to import, buj 
ilirtiibute, any Copies thereof, reprinted beyond the Seas, du 
Term of Fourteen Years, without the Confent and Approb; 
Richard Baldwin, Ins Hein, Executors, or Afligns, under 
Seals rirft had and obtained, aa they will anfwer the contrai 
Whereof, the Comrmmonerc, and other Officers of Our Cut 
Warden*, and Company of Stationers, are to take Notice, Tl 
■nay be rendered to Our Will and Plcafure herein declare! 
Court at KixfiagiM, the ijd Day of OSober, 1759, in the T 
of Our Reign, 

Hit Majesty's Command. 



KK)OSQ*»«»0« ■»»»»80O0S 



THE LONDON MAGAZINE : 




Or, GENTLEMAN'S .Monthly Intelligencer. 
For JANUARY, 17S0. 



'afcripiion to hi* Royal High ocii the 
BiuW of Olnabrilf: J 

ThcHviwhon.lvwsk,Na.XXVII[. 5 
Se.'cS Mtti.nl 7 

—On Ydiiih ibid. 

On Chaltity t 

On Dancing (for and igalnft it)ib. 
I-sSsire III. on Modern Hiftory 9 
— Conrinmtion of the Hiftory of the 

Saracen Empire ibid. 

Or" the [Iifterv of Spain 10 

-^Foundaiirn of th« Umpire of the 

Wefttni Prsnfei 11 

MHiioirt of Charlemagne it 

— — Ot i.jiii* Ir Dobnnnaire ibid. 

— — Ol" C: i.-ie., Louil II. and Pepin 

hi. Sen, i] 

— - CominuiLji of the Hiftory of 

Fnnte 14. 

A Letter to (he Editor on Lotteries 15 
J}«fcription ot" tut Queen's new Palace 

at V.*i u1:oi- " 16 

KiAoucai Anecdote nf MahmouJ, Em 
p.-ror ofthtTurki ibid, 

PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

D;-t)*u-i in the Huui of L.ii'-ij 17 
On the Earl of SlirHiurne'j Mo- 
tion lor cciifuring Admin iltisi ion ib. 



Debates in the Houfe of Ccrr.rr.uin 

On LordG. Uurdni'd Muil.in 

—Mr. Hanky's Snitch u:i lite 

nvrican War 
— — »On T.ord Oflbrjr'l Mulirn ti c 

fare Adinir.iitration il 

A Letter to the Editor, en the A.ln 

Ugejand DiiadvaniT?.* cf Lxu 

3 Mifrreli inltrr.d of marr.i. " 
Hifioiy of Col. C— and Hi! M 

tie's 
On i'opifli Ceremonies 
■—— Defer! ntion of biptifin* a Chri 

Bell 
Eifjyson vu:oiKStibi<\ ( lf 1 No.XVI. 

Review nr \ >: w Pi; -.Lit ah-.n , 

01 Msilliiit Bfi-%vif.fe*i M- iii.Im 

Of CV.Imji-'* P«!i:iiv.l Il.do/y 

the Colonic* 

Ode for 



Prologue m 
Prvl^ie a. 
The rVilijmin 
Monthly Ubim 



1 New Y«i, by 



An elegantly engraved Head of His Kiy-.l Hig'u 
A North-End View of, llie teen's 

LONDOS, printed for R. BALntriM, at 

Of mom may be h»d cmyletiSeti, [»m the Ytjr 17 
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T © 



HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS 



PRINCE FREDERICK, 

BISHOP OF OS NAB RUG, 

KNIGHT OF THE MOST NOBLE ORDERS 

OF 

i 

THE GARTER AND THE BATH, &c. &c. &c. 



THE CONTINUATION, 



FOR THE CURRENT YEAR, 



OF THEIR LONG ESTABLISHED AND UNIVERSALLY 
APPROVED MISCELLANY OF INSTRUCTION, 

INTELLIGENCE, AND ENTERTAINMENT, 



IS MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED* 



BY 



BIS ROYAL HIGHNESS'? 



MOST OBEDIENT 



HUMBLE SERVANTS, 



THE PROPRIETORS. 



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MHafaMla 



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LONDON MAGAZINE 

FOR JANUARY, 1780. 



> 



THEHYPOCHONDRIACK. No. XXVIII. 

Inter** fidos adit baud fecurus amicos 

Vtque vdint inimicum ammum front if que fever* 

Dura fuper cilia induere & turn farcer e culp* 

Has iterum atque ittrum rogat, adtmnitufque latent'u . 

Grates Letus mgtt <vitii & peccata faUtur 

Sfontefua quamw etiam damnetur iaiquo 

Indick & faifum qaeat ore refeUere crimen. TlDA* 

" He feck* his friend* nor trufts himfelf alone, 

" But afies their' judgement and refrgns his own, 

" Begs them with urgent prayers to be fkicere, 

*« Jutt, and exa&, and rigidly fevere. 

a Due verdift to pronounce oh *vYy thought, 

«* Nor fpare the flighted madow of a fault. 

«« But bent agairift bmrielf, and ftriftly nice 

" He thanks each critick that detects a rice, 

** Tho* charg'd with what his judgement can defend 

" He joins the partial fen ten ce of his friend. PlTT« 

MY laft number treated of reviHon decifive appearance. If it is meant 
and correction by an authour of that they lofe half the praife they 
/ his own works. It may perhaps be ,J v- ■.«.». - 

thought by fome, that this felF- 
criticifm will be always exceeding- 
ly gentle, as Protectants are .apt to 



reprefent the flagellation which Roraifh 
penitents admimfterto themfelves. But 
this will depend much upon the dif- 
ferent tempers of authoura. One who 
is conceited and vain, will, like a har- 
dened finner be infenfible of bis im- 
perfections and faults, while one who 
is mode ft and diffident will, like a pe- 
nitent whole heart is broken with con* 
trition, be perhaps too fevare in judg- 
ing of his performances. 

Pope maintains the opinion, that fuc- 
cefcful authours have Veen very rigid 
criticks upon their own works. For 
he tells us they 

w_«< Lofe half the fraifc they wetild hum 



u Were it bat known what they duerettk 
Blot** 

But I am not fure that this is a juft 
ftmark, though its (juaintnefs baa a. 



would have got, had they preferred 
what they have blotted, their blotting 
was not difcreet. And if it is meant 
that their additional praife would have 
arifen from their difcretion in blotting 
being known, I think it is rated too. 
high, if it is to have half as much 
praife as excellent compofition. 

It has been again and again recom- 
mended to authours to diitruff their 
own opinion of their works, and to 
have recourfe to the judgement of 
friends. This we know has fuggefted 
to fo many authours, that one mould 
think tbey would now be afhamed of 
it as worn out, the plaufible pretext 
of publishing at the requeft, or by tho 
advice of friends. I know not if toQ 
much diffidence be either reafonable or 
at all advantageous 5 and it feems to 
me ftrange to Xuppole that a mind ca- 
pable ofproducing performances wor- 
thy of praife moold be fo deftitute of 
the faculty of judgement as to be al- 
together unconfeious of their merit, 
and on the other hand that they ftiould 

not 



4 THE HYFOCHON 

not be fenfible of failing when their Th 

intellectual powers are occasionally ea- at lit 

feebled, or the light of their genius Critic 

obf«ured« are ev 

Fida reprefents as an example in his certaii 

didaclich poem, an authour filled with the p 

extreme diftruft of himfelf, and the cifin c 

motfc abject fubmif&on to tfct opinion than \ 

of his friends, in fo much as even ac- Yet v 

quiefcinc in what his judgement tells with 

him and can demonftrate to be wrong find p 

in their fen ten ce upon his works. of oth 

That this is an example which au - yers h 

tbours mould imitate I cannot agree, of inj 

For he who has not a decent confi- lie. 

dence in himfelf muft be fo weak that to em 

nobody will fet any value upon him, «a fuit 

er upon his works," That a fondnefs called 

for our own compofitions may prevent theref 

vs in many inttances from perceiving queftii 

their faults I allow ; and therefore the the gr; 

opinion of impartial friends may be Son 

of ufe. But unlef* I am convinced calls 1 

that my friends are in the right I will lignan 

not comply with their opinion. forma 

Merely faying that a compofition, or fulted. 

any part or a compofition does not it is d- 

pleafe, without explaining why, is fay- by fa 

ing nothing that mould influence an limes 

authour. It ft only another inftance both i 

Of what* has ever been and ever will is a c 

be, that there are different taftes j fo thour 

(hat if an authour himfelf, after having fond, 

bis critical attention awakened, is not him tl 

fenfible that what is objected to mould perfor 

not pleafe, he would be much in the faying 

wrong to make an alteration. ing tl 

A ftory it told which being proba,- world 

ble is very likely to be true, that an rouftt 

authour put a play which he had writ- i* an 

ten into the hands of a number of hit ticifm 

critical friends feparately, begging to An ai 

Save their candid remarks upon it $ Jfcrfon 

and that when their remarks came to purch; 

be collected and compared, he found dence 

that all of them had objections to parts anthoi 

of the performance, but that each bad opinio 

happened to object to a different fcene. is to 

If therefore he had been to follow im- ing th 

plicitly the judgement of bis friends given, 

in (taking out what was objectionable, rable 

be would not have had the veftige of a mould 

play left. But would have refembled a liter 

the man in the fable who had two defer* 

wives, a young one and an old one, tying 

tach of whom wifhing to have his hair bafe n 

of her own colour, one pulled out the It i; 

grey hairs and one the black, till the cult ts 

poor fubmifiive hufband was left quite authoi 



T#£ HYPOCHONDRIACK. 



ithout offending him. What- 
raay affect, and though he 
even exprpfs himfelf in the 
f the motto to this paper, there 
moft cafes be found inch a fe« 
lrd in an authour's breaft for 
ig he has written, that he will 
fy if any one elfe does not view 
; fame light. His parental af- 
m\\ make him tender even of 
hteft expreffions and he will 
y forgive the falutary touches 
:ifm. Thomfon, it is (aid, ufed 
le in pain when players were 
his long fcenes of tragedy, 
ugh " he loathed much to 
he was fond of what he once 



had written. Goldfmith limply enough 
congratulated himfelf on having at laft 
an opportunity to make himfelf of 
fome confluence by doing a favour 
to a certain lord; for, faid he, hit 
lordfhip has given me his poems to 
correct, not confidering that any cor- 
rection would probably make his lord* 
(hip hi* enemy for ever. Suth correc- 
tion, we are told, loft Voltaire the* 
friendship of an illuftrious monarch 
who is not quite fans fouci as to poeti- 
cal fame \ and alt who are much ac- 
quainted with writers, who, be their 
compofitions profe or verfe, are for the 
moft part an irritable race, will recol- 
lect many fuch inftances. 



:t maxims of ancient and modern celebrated 

AUTHORS. 
Continued from laft November Magazine, Vol. XL VIII. page 498.J 



OF YOUTH. 

JTH is the third ibge in the 
>urney of man, arrived at it 
i up at the inn of Hope, and 
long reft to indemnify him for 
tings and diftempers of infancy; 
igues, pains, and punifhments 
ling fchools. Expectation ufhers 
> magnificent apartments, health 
h blood incite him to regale at 
:ly banquet, and he rambles, to 
5 digeftion, in the gardens of 
e. 

1 voluptafem mifrecordsam* 

h mould be painted like the 
Rofcius, who is reprefented in- 
r allured by Comedy and Tra- 
ind undetermined to which he 
im. So Vice and Virtue accoft 
b, and his fickle fancy keeps 
a time undetermined to either* 

feal of Vice having made an 
ion on Youth, Virtue may by 
idly warmth melt the wax, and 
the fecrets of the heart, but (he 
dom fucceed, if (he breaks the 
h violence. 

ig men are not left bound to 
li tors, for the wife inftru&ions 
ve them, than to their parents 
ir exiftence. 

ility is one of the btft It (Tons 
a be taught to youtfi* 



A man is apt to follow all his life, 
the influence of the ruling paflion that 
governs him in his youth. 

Thus, where vice, ifays Cicero, ia 
embraced in Youth, there commonly 
virtue is neglected in age. 

The mind of a Youth is momentary, 
his fancv and affections variable at 
the weather, his love uncertain, his 
friendship as^ light as the wind, his 
fancy fired with every new face, and 
his mind agitated by a thoufahd con- 
tending whims and projects of ambi- 
tion, fortune, Or pleafure, often de- 
tefting that which he did love, and 
fometimes returning again to that 
which he had difcovered to be the 
moft worthlefs of all objects. He is 
an inhabitant of the Torrid Zone one 
day and of tlje Frigid the next. 

Young willows bend eaflly, and 
green wits are readily entangled. 

Nothing is fweeter than youth, nor 
fwifter in decreaung while it in* 
creafeth. 

Pleafure and recreation ufed with 
temperance are as neceflary to Youtb\ 
as the fun, air, and water to plants 
and flowers. 

The in (tractions given to Youth, 
ought not to be tedious ; for being 
pithy and fhort, they will more wil- 
lingly attend to them, and better re- 
tain them* 

9? 



* 



7?f 



SELECT 

Of CHASTtTY. 

Chaftity is beauty to our 
fouls, grace to our bodies, and peace 
to our defires. Sol$x. 
frugality is a token of Chaftity. 
Fortitude is the champion of Chaf- 
tity. 

Chaftity without charity for the 
failings of others, is like a lamp with- 
out oil. 

Chaftity, humility, and charity are 
the three united, real graces. 

Though the body be ever fo fair, it 
cannot be beautiful without Chaftity. 
Gracious is the face that promiletb 
nothing but lore, and celeftial the re* 
folution that tempcreth it with Chaf- 
tity, 

Chaftity doth not con lift in total ab- 
ftinencc from lawful pleafares . It is 
a virtue common to both fexes, and 
belongs to the married as well as the 9 
Jingle (late. 

Celibacy is the fon of Aufterity. 
Chaftity the daughter of Modefty. 

Beauty is like the flowers of lpring, 
and Chaftity like the ftars in the hea* 
ytns. 

A wandering eye is a manifeft token 
of an unchafte heart* 
^ Idlenefs is the gceateft foe to Chaf- 
tity. 

Chaftity and modefty often enrich 
the poor. 

' Rather make choice of honcfty and 
manners in a female, than of loofc be- 
haviour with great lands and rich pof- 
feflions. 

It is cowardly and cruel to afTault 
fcdale Chaftity with the combined 
forces of dignity, wealth, and an 
agreeable perfon. 

OF DANCING, 
(Per, tmdagmtiftit.) 

DANCING is an a aire motion of 
the body, which p r o ccc de th from the 
ljghtncfs of the heart, judiciouily ob- 
serving the true time and' meafure of 
imifick. 

Time and Dancing are twins. Time, 
the firft born, being the meafure of all 
moving j and Dancing the movement 
•of all in meafure. 

Dancing is the child of Mufick and 
Love. 

It is ncccflary that our foorfteps be 
as well ruled as our words ought to be, 



MAXIMS. Jam 

The virgins of were Baftl a ecu dom- 
ed to dance publickly on feftivals, 
without the company of men, and 
to Gng chafte fongs : by this exercife 
effeminacy, idlenefs, and lafcivioufhe()i 
being avoided, when they married they 
became the mothers of a manly, ro- 
butl, virtuous race. 

Pyrrhus's play was invented in Crete, 
for the foldiers to exercife theralWves, 
wherein he taught diverl'e geftures, and 
fundry (hifis and motions, fo that the 
training to 'war was by dancing in 
arms. 

The foberer and wifer fort however 
of the heathens utterly diiliked dance- 
ing; and among the ancient Romans 
in the Abu riming time of tne common - 
wealth it was accounted a (haiiie to 
- dance well. 

Sempronia, a Roman lady, although 
fortunate in her hufband and children, 
and famous tor her learning, loft her 
reputation by her great dexterity in 
footing a dance. 

' Plato *nd Ariftippus being invited 
to a banquet by Diooyfius, and being 
both commanded by him to drefs tbein- 
felve* in purple, and to dance j Plato 
.refuted, with this anfwer, I am born 
a man, and know not how to demean 
mvielf in fuch woman ifh effeminacy. 
Aiiftippus drelfed himfelf in purple, 
and prepared himfclf to dance, lay- 
iug, •« At the foiemnitics of our father 
Libtr a chafte mind knoweth not how 
to be corrupted." 

Callifthenes, King of Sicyon, having 
a daughter marriageable, commanded 
that it mould be proclaimed at the 
games of Olympus, that he that would 
he accounted Cnllifthenes's fon-io-lnw 
thould within fixty days repair to Si- 
cyon. When many wooers had met 
together, Hipnoclides, the Athenian, 
Con of Tifander, ieemed the fitteft s 
but when he had trod theLaconick snd 
An tick measures, and had perfo«iated 
them with his legs and aims, Callif- 
thenes refenting it, faid, " O thou foa 
of Tifaoder, thou haft danced away 
thy marriage/ 1 

Frederick the Third; Emperor of . 
Rome, often ufed to fay, that he had 
rather be ftck of a burning fever than 
give himfelf to dancing. 

No man danceth except he be drunk 
or mad. TuUj. 

LECTURES 



*77$« 



«* 



II. .Iff " H 1 



U Ifci 



55S 



LECTURES ON MODERN HI8TORY. 

UCTURE III. 
(Cimtimud from §ur Msgmtinefmr Nowmbtr 1779, Vol. XL VIII. /. 5*4. J 

ABUBEKER thus girded with the freely pafs iirto the port between tbtj 
fword oif the prophet, affumed 
the title of Caliph, qv Vicar, which his 
fticceffors cpntmued for feveral gene- 
rations. A fuperftitious difpute' arofe 
at firft among the difciples, fome af- 
firming that Mahomet was not dead, 
that his body would furvive the ftroke 
of death, and he would foon relume 
his function*. Abbas was the en- 
courager of this fanaticifm, but by the 
wifdom of Abubeker the deception 
was overcome. To fix their minds on 
the fubiect of religion he caufed 
fhe di (petted leaves of the Koran to be 
feikfted into a book, and to be fre- 
quently read to the troops, he then led 
pis army into Arabia, where he fup- 
furt&d a rebellion j from thence fie 
palled into Palestine, defeated Hera- 
clius, took Jerufalem, and advanced to 
XHmas, apa after having made him- 
felf matter of the whole country down 
to the fea coaft, he died admired for 
bis wifdom and clemency. Omar fuc- 
ceeded him and took from the Ro- 
mans in one campaign Syria, Phoeni- 
cia, Mefpootamia, and Chaldea. In 
two years tie fubdued Pcrfia, and efta- 
blifhed the religion of Mahomet 
throughout that fubverted empire. At 
the lame time, his lieuteflants oon- 

Suered Egypt* Lybia, and Numidia. 
ut neither thefe victories, nor his 
virtues could fecure him from the rage 
of blind zeal, he was affaflinated on a 
falfe fufpicion of defpifing the Koran, 
which he had taken fo much pains to 
propagate. 

The valiant Othman was bis fuccef- 
for, and had for his general the re- 
nowned Moavia his relation and friend $ 
thefe warriors extended the dominion 



legs: they afterwards entered Sicilyj 
and alarmed all the coafts of Italy. 
But the Abbaifides and the Alides 
uniting* formed a powerful fa&iofl 
againff Othman, an enraged pepolac* 
inverted the palace and murdered him. 
even Raining the Koran, which he held 
in his hand at a protection, with hi* 
blood. 

Ali, fon .in-law to Mahomet, now 
feifed the throne, and considering hit 
predecefTors as ufurpers, face the pro* 
phet by his will had appointed him to 
be his fucceftbr, he lavifbly beftowed 
his curfes on them, and by relaxing the 
rigour of the law, to gained the af- 
fections of the people 1 ht expunged 
feveral chapters from the Koran, al- 
ledginjg that they had been put in bf 
Abubeker, and this is the origin of 
the two feels of Abubeker and Ali in 
the Mahometan religion. The former 
forbidding the ufe of wine, and the 
latter permitting it. Moavia and hi* 
party, frill puruiing their conquefts no 
fooner heard of Othman* s fate, than 
they quitted Sicily with their victori- 
ous army, revived to revenge hie 
death, and to raife their general to the 
throne. After many indecifive battles 
between the troope of Ali and Moavia, 
three of the friends of the latter made 
a vow to affaflinate the author of thefe 
civil wars, and Ali felt a viftim to 
their rage. ' 

Huflain, his fon, and the chief of the 
Fatimites, fucceeded him, but he was 
foon cut off, and the Ottoman empire 
now pafled from the family of Maho- 
met into that of Moavia. The con- 
queror changed the feat of empire, he 
fixed his refidence at Damafcus; he 



of the Saracens to Baftria, a part of added Armenia and Natolia to his do- 

Tartary, and the weftern coafts of minions, and carried his arms to the 

Africa. They ravaged the iflands of very ramparts of Constantinople. This 

the Archipelago, feifed on Rhodes, de- great general and politician died in the 



ftroyed the famous Coloflus, a gigan- 
tick ftatue made of brafs, and fixed 
. upon two points of a rock at the en- 
trance of the harbour, the feet of the 
Sure, reding on the rocks on each 
t, tradition fays that flaps cgujd 
£ond v Mao. Jan. 1789, 



vear 679, in the 75th year of his age 1 
ne tarniihftd die luftre of his reign by 
his cruel jealoufy, which made him 
facrifice a greater number of his fub- 
jefts and his hatred to learning and 
the fine arts, many monuments of 
B whiefc 



IS LECTURES ON Jjo} 

•htehh.' deltroyed., will lit remembered in 6gi, becaufein a fit of weakness, 

as often as bit name it mentioned. to which he had been reduced by * 

Here we muft quit the hiftory of the dilleinper, he. had clothed lunuelf in 

Canteen* to take up that of the king- the habit of * penitent. Erwigo wbe 

dom of Spain, connected with it, and bad brought about this revolution poi- 

with the hiftory of France, that we foned Wainba, and wst confirmed in 

may draw them all into one point of the ibvereignty by a council. Anu- 

view, and bringthem down to the fame ther council during hi* reign prohibit- 

*ra. ed their kings from marrying the wi- 

Prom the time that the Vifigoths had dows of their prcdecenora. 
cftablithed their monarchy in Spain, In 710, a civil war was occifioned 

their clergy were generally more ab- by the cruelties and rice* of tf-7;. ; ;c, 

foiute than their princes, who confe- who permitted the clergy to marry, and 

fluently 1'carce delerve to be named, laymen to keep ai many concubine* as 

The oilhops frequently decided the they plcafcd. He was dethroned by 

great affairs of the nation in the great RodericorRoderigo, who likewise mi 

council compoled of the nobility, depofed by the barecens. The occa- 

among whom they held the firft rank, lion according to Tome traditions wax 

they even dilpofal of the crown which this : RoJenc had difhonourcd >',<* 

was:«ther elective than hereditary, daughter of Count Julian, a noblemsa 

and the kingdom was a theatre of re- of great power, who invited the Sara- 

volutions and bloody fceues. The cens in revenge to invade his countr 

■umber of kings murdered ftrikes us but this ftory 11 not well authentic*) 

with horror. all we know for certain it, that 

The few reigns that contain any Saracens about this time were ml 

memorable events (hall be briefly no- of Mauritania, whence they seqi 

ticed. Lrvigil.i, who died in 585, is the name of Moors, that they rat 

celebrated fur hit victories over the Spain, and in 711, gained thed 

Survi, and his memory is detefted for baltle of Xtrti in Andalufia, aflr 

his cruel treatment of Htrmnipld his we hear no more of the kitty 

Ton, whom he put to death for em- Vtligoths. Mtufa who comir 

bracing chriftlanlty. Yet his other Afnta for t'aliJ I. immedia' 

foa KtcartJc, who Succeeded him, ab- pleted the conqticft of Spain, 

jured arianifm, and that fefl was per- tng to the prudent policy of 

iecuted in its turn. The tpirit of per- he offered to grant the inbar 

fecutton prevailed more in Spain at cxcrcile. of their religionand 

this zra, than in any other country, to be fatisfied with the fi 

Infill, Siftbut obliged the Jews, uii- they had paid to their ' 

derpain of death, to be baptifed j in greatelt psrt of the towr 

other re . . he was a wile and mer- lubmittcd to him : the re 

ciful prince ; by the valour of his ed and burned. Oppas, 

arm* he deprived the emperors of the Seville, and uncle to 1 

Baft of their rennining pofTetiiont in dren, fought on the fid 

Spain, on the cuafts of the MeJiterm- cens, and facrificed hi 

man. Cliatilla bitniflied all the Jews, his religion to hit hatr 

and it was decreed by a council, that deric. But Ptlagia, 

no prince could alienJ the throne till royal blood, retired ii 

he hadfwotnlo abler ve the laws euaft- of Afturiaj and Bur 

ed againit that unhappy people. Here multitude of Chrii 

feme hiftoriios fix the firft rile of in- founded the feparate 

cjuiGtions. Under Kreefithith, the elec- rie. After his de; 

tion of kings was veiled, by a decree fun-in-law, afcende 

of council, lulely in the bilhupt ; and this new kingdom 

the Palatines who were the principal territories, by toki 

officers of the ctown. By this rtgiila- civil wars which d 
tion the bedy of rht people loft one of In ?j», Aidiri 

its moft valuable |ni<ilege>. nor of Spain, ini 

Wamfra after defeatir— • l ~ c * it, netrr— J — *— - 

who for tha firft tit ,ed »«IG 

Spain, ! excluded -^> 



i7«b« MODERN HISTORY. it 

duke, and advanced to the heart of the his power. He was preparing lor a 
kingdom. Charles Mattel was dcf- journey to Italy on an invitation of 
fined to (top the courfe of this torrent Pope Gregory the Third, who pro- 
ber a bloody battle fought between ?<?/- mi fed to acknowledge him Conful of 
tiers and 4ours, in which the Saracen Rome, when he died in 741. He had 
emir was (lain and upwards of three appointed Carloman, one of his fons, 
hundred thou find of his troops. The to fucceed him in Auftrafia, and to 
enemy, notwithftanding their defeat, Pepin the Short, his other fon, he be* 
kept a footing for fome years in Pro- queathed Neuftria, or Weftern France 
menct and Languedoc 9 till they were and Burgundy, 
totally driven from France by this . Carloman turned monk, and his re- 
hero, treat threw the whole power of the 

As for Spain it was at firft very un- kingdom into the hands of Pepin, who 
happy under the government of its afpired to the monarchy of the whole, 
new matters. The emirs being de- and was favoured in his ambitious 
pendent on the viceroys of Africa, views by the Pope, who wanted his 
who differing them to continue but a affiQance againft the Greek Emperor 
fliort time in this dignity, they were and the Lombards. A general aifem- 
more eager to exhauft the provinces to bly of the nobility and clergy de- 
enrich them fe Ives, than to adminifter pnved Childeric the Third, who had 
juftice. And the califfs who refided been proclaimed, and all the family 
at Damafeus, were at too great a dif- of Clovis of the crown, which they 
tance, and too deeply engaged in civil placed on the head of Pepin. This 
wars to remedy the evils complained great prince died in 768, and was'luc- 
of. At length the dignity of calif ceedea'by his fon, Charles, who car- 
being transferred by a bloody revolu- ried the glory of France to the higheft 
tion from the houfe of Moavia to that pitch, by the valour of bis arms, and 
of Abbas, it happily occafioned the the wifdom of his councils. He fub- 
deliverance of Spain from the Otto- verted the kingdom of the Lombards, 
man yoke. A fecond Abederaman, by which he added one half of Italy to 
better known by the name of Alman- his dominions. Germany fubmitted to 
ater, a prince of the line of Moavia, his fway ; the Elbe, the Ocean, thsj 
having efcaped the general maflacre of Pyrenean Mountains, and the Baltic, 
his family, came and laid the founda- were the limits of hit extenfive do~ 
tion of an independent kingdom in mains. The popes acknowledged him 
that country. Being proclaimed king, their Sovereign, the kings of England 
he fubdued all the provinces, except courted his friendmip; the Greek Em* 
what Alphonfo preferved in Afturia. peror and the celebrated Aaron A1-. 
He fixed his refidence at Cordova, rached, Calif of the Saracens, vied 
which he made the feat of arts, mag- with each other in exprefling their ad- 
nificence, and pleafure ; but without miration of this potent monarch, whom 
periecuting the Chriftians, he totally we muft now diftingniJh by the name 
extirpated Chriftianity by depriving and title of Charlemagne, Emperor of 
them of bifhops, by referving all fa- the Weft, King of France and Lorn* 
vours and dignities for Mahometans, bardy, Sovereign of Rome, and by the 
and by encouraging intermarriages, death of Almanfor the Arabian in 788, 

We may now refume the annals of King of Spain. The governors of 
France. After the victory of Poitiers, Saragofa and Arragon had revolted ten 
-Charles M artel, equally politick and years before, and had called in Char- 
brave, and more powerful with the lemagne to whom the Chriftian inha* 
plain title, of Mayor of the Palace, bitants of Spain flocked in great nura- 
than any fovereign of Europe, conti- hers, acknowledging him for their fo- 
liaally increafed the glory of his coun- vereign. The detail of his victories 
try. • The throne becoming vacant in would fill a volume, but as we mean 
737, by the death of Thierry IV. he only to give a fuccinft relation of the 
cxeretfed the fupreme authority with principal events of modern hiftory in 
the title of Duke, preventing the elec- theie lectures, it will be fufficicnt to 
tion of a king, and avoiding the af- obferve, that in the year 800, being 
-fumptum of. that alluring but empty crowned Emperor of the Weft, in bun 
.tide, which would not have added to began the dyriafty of the Wcftec* 



I* 



L E C T U-R E 8 O 



Franks, which continued 47 s years, 
to the time of the acceflion of Redo I - 
phut of Hapfbourg, the founder of the 
Houfe of Auftria. Charlemagne was 
at illuftrious in the cabinet as in the 
field * and though he could not write 
his name, he was the patron of men 
of letters, the reftorer of learning, and 
a wife legiflator, in fhort, he wanted 
only the virtue of humanity to render 
him the moft accomplished of man- 
kind { but when we read of the maiTa- 
cre of 4100 Saxons cut off deliberately 
by the hands of executioners folcly for 
having prefumed to defend their civil 
and religious liberties againit his vic- 
torious arms, w-_- cannot a (lent to the 
unlimited encomiums bellowed on him 
by all the French hiilorians except the 
impartial Mi Hot. He died in the year 
814, in the 74th year of his age, and 
the 47th of bis reign. 

At this period it will be proper to 
introduce the other nations of Europe, 
whofe hiliory is not important, but 
merits fome notice, in the order of 
time. Irene, Einprcfs of the Eh ft, 
(rained with the blood of her Ion, 
reigned at Conftantinpple, tottering 
upon a throne (hook by faction and re- 
bellion : her dominions extending from 
the Adriatic to the Bofphorus were 
capofed to the Bulgares, the anceftor* 
of the Pruftiansj on the north, and by 
the Saracens from every other quarter. 
feat me had the courage to fupport herfclf 
again ft thefe powerful enemies. Den- 
mark .refilled the ambition of Charle- 
magne under the government of God- 
frey its valiant monarch, who likewife 
lent out a fwarm of warriors from 
Norway to ravage the frontiers of the 
Empire. Sweden weakened by emigra- 
tions, and Ruflia funk in Wbariim 
made no figure. Poland was become 
an elective, independent monarchy, but 
So unci vili fed that it offered no event! 
worthy of record. Bohemia was a 
prey to a fct of barbarians called 
Sclaves, whom the dcfiie of plunder 
had drawn into Germany. As for 
Britain, its glory was obfeured by the 
divilion of its provinces under the 
Saxon Heptarchy. And the intelligent 
Englifh reader will hardly expect us 
to dwell on this uninteresting part of 
the Br iti ft feiftory. In a few years 
after the age of Charlemagne, we (hall 
begin to trace the omlints of regular 
government at home, and the dawn of 



that fun of 

its meridian 

is we fear cr 

of France hi 

in this early 

than thole o 

return to i! 

great caufe < 

monarchy 1111 

w«*s the div 

petty lbverci 

bition of tl 

princes. Th 

ing the force 

the iecorjd 

fwayed by 

made his wi 

dominions t 

Peuin, and I 

before him, 

Louis in th 

be crowned, 

vailed in the 

its decline, a 

The fplendo 

buried thenc 

Under Lou 

thing, fays 

of approachi 

mous devot 

narrow geni 

ed him ir.ca F 

of fuch an el 

his whole co 

who was or 

moraftcry, 1 

his iinbecilit 

among his 

He gave Aq 

to Louis, ai 

ner in the 

gave offence 

grandfon to 

army, and m 

defiance of 

which his < 

abandoned 1 

prifoner, tri 

but the Ernj 

put out, wh 

pofe, for h( 

cruel tormc 

frefli troubl 

alfo fttut up 

lemagne in 

ing thefe acl 

with remorf 

general alter 

as the mun 

tyrant to hi 



MODERN HISTORY. 



ij 



miblick penance. The clergy 
ded to be edified by this example 
nilitv, but in reality faw the ad- 
jes they might reap from the ma* 
lent of a man of inch weak wi- 
lding, and he had rendered him- 
iious to them by reformat ions, 

checked the liceotioufnefs of 
manners. The feeds of revolt 
ottered by Judith of Bavaria his 
I wife, who finding her fon 
»s (who was afterwards king 
the name of Charles the Bald) 
led from the fucceflion by the . 
ror's partition in favour of his 
y the firft marriage, formed the 

of compelling him to make a 
>artition in his favour. She even 
means to obtain the cenfent of 
ire, who-was the moft interefted 
iftrate her plan j but he fopn re- 
1, and Joining with his brothers 
made fo powerful a party with 
elates ana monks, that the em* 
was obliged to fubmit to have 
ife confined in a convent; and 
irrowly efcapcd the fame fate, 
capricioufneft of his temper made 
it times aftume the matter, and 
he was in this difpofition, he re* 
i every thing that his devotion 
leannefs had induced him to fub* 
>. He recalled Judith, who ex- 
ited asainft her persecutors, and 
ittd by ambition foon produced 
changes. Vala, Abbot of Cor- 
he head of (lie party who op- 

her interefts was banimed> the 
or declared that Lothaire had for- 
the fucceffion to the empire, and 
erited the King of Aquitaine in 
r of Charles the fon of Judith. 
; meafores occafioned an unnatu- 
ar, his three fons took up arms 
ft their father, and Pope Gre- 
IV. under pretence of acling as 
iior, openly abetted them* An 
r iew took place between the Pope 
the Emperor at the head of his 
a, which he was leading on to bat- 
;ainft his fons, what paffed isun- 
o, but he was fuddeniy abandon- 
f his forces, and voluntarily de- 
d himfelf into the hands of Lo- 
:, by whofe army he was tumul- 
ly depofed, and the empire with 
ipclion of the Pope was conferred 
>thaire. The French prelates con- 
d this revolution, and h* was con- 
ed to be Jhut-upin i cleiftex a* a. 



penitent, incapable by the can6n law 
of holding any civil office, a written 
confeflion of his crimes was extorted 
from him, he was ft ripped of his royal 
robes and clothed in lackcloth. But 
the people were not fatisfied with theli 
proceedings, Lothaire became the ob- 
ject of univerfal deteftation, and hit 
two brothers united againft him. An 
infune&ion took place, Lothaire to 
flic Iter himfelf from the fury of the 
populace took his father out of the 
convent and carried him with him to 
Ajx la Chapelle* and back again to 
Paris, where he left him at the Abbey 
of St. Dennis, being obliged to feek 
his own fafety in flight. The nobility 
immediately repaired to their old fo* 
vereign and did him homage, but ha 
would not content to refume the im- 
perial dignity till he had received ab- 
solution. Having obtained it, and 
made his peace with the Pope and the 
prelates, he was reftored. Soon after 
Pepin, his feeond fon, died, and Ju- 
dith dripped his children of their inhe- 
ritance in favour of her fan, Lothaire 
having a j>art of the fpoils fupported 
the intereft of Charles, but young 
Louis the King of Bavaria relenting 
this exclufion from any part of Pepin's 
eftates, once more took up arms again ft 
his unfortunate father, who though the 
moft indulgent of parents, and the 
moft clement prince on earth, was al- 
ways attacked as a tyrant, thus we fee 
that imbecility in a monarch may be 
as odious as defpotifm. In the year 
840, the emperor, while on his march, 
again ft this rebellious fon, was terri* 
fied by an eclipfe pf the fun which he' 
took for an omen of his death, and 
being worn out with grief and fatigue^ 
his djfturbed imagination occafioned t 
real illnefs, of which he died in the 
neighbourhood of Mentz. He was 
not deftitute of erudition, he had the. 
virtues of a private man, and waswety 

? qualified for a monk, but by no means 
orafovereign. .. . 

As foon as the remains of their far- 
ther were consigned to the tern b, the 
three brothers appeared in the field 
with three powerful armies ; the am» 
bition of Lothaire, obliged ihe others 
to unite, and after a ofoody battfc 
fought by one hundred thouiaml French- 
men to contcft the rights of three con- 
temptible orifice* ^ IaxVbni*. ^wvs 'vxA«- 



If LECTURES O 

treaty by which he kept with the title of domains alnr 
of Emperor, Italy, Province, and the 
fertile countries fituared between the 
Son* and the Rhine. Louis had Ger- 
many* and Charles the youngeft, the 
kingdom of France. Lothaire could 
not be bound by any treaties, he foon 
attempted to violate the laft, but being 
furprifed, and his projects fm ft rated, 
he fuddenly took the monaftick habit 
and ended the life of a tyrant in the 
retreat of a cloiftcr. 

Louis II. his fon, foccetded him in 
the empire, and mowed himfelf more 
worthy of his defcent from Charle- 
magne, he recovered fome authority at 
Rome, he repulfed his ambitious un- 
cles who invaded his dominions, he 
marched again ft the Saracens, drove 
them out of Italy, and attacked them 
in Africa, where a fudden death took 
him off in the flower of his age. Ger- 
many then fell to the lot of Charles the 
Fat, fon of Louis, and nephew to 
Charles the Bald, whofe weak reign 
expofed France to every calamity ; and 
whofe death was haftened by the trea- 
chery of his pbyfician. Charles the 
Fat, already matter of Germany added 
Italy to his dominions, and took the 
title of Csefar. Louis the Stammerer 
fucceeded his father Charles the Bald 
as King of France, but he fubmitted 
to conditions prefcribed to him by the 
nobHity and prelates, which leuened 
the royal atnoority, and brought on 
the rum of the French' empire ; he died 
in 879, alter an inglorious reign > and 
his two fons Louis III. and Carloman 
equally divided bis kingdom but reign- 
ed together as co-heirs* Unhappily, 
however, Carloman had married the 
daughter of Duke Bofon, an ambitious 
nobleman, who called a council at 
Mante* in Dauphine*, which by divine 
inspiration, as they faid, gave him the 
kingdom of Aries or Provence, and 
thus laid the foundation of the fubver- 
£on of the Houfe of Charlemagne. 
After the death of the amicable bro- 
thers, whole happy union does honour 
to their memory, the nation refufed to 
acknowledge Charles the Simple their 
half brother, an infant of five years of vcral principa 
age, the fon of Louis the Stammerer afterwards un 
by his iecond wife; and flattered with 
die hopes of preferring the publick 
tranquillity, the bifhops and fecular 
lords beftowed the fceptie on Charles 
the Fatt who thus came into poflefu'qn 

a 



of Charlemagn 

not equal to 

Though the ¥ 

united under o 

vinces h*!d 

Charles had nc 

Norman invad< 

followed the c 

purchafed the 

plunderers. J 

them of Fricz 

pay them a ti 

by an a& of 1 

turned to Frai 

and laid liege 

celebrated in 1 

Italy, but Eu< 

brother Rober 

nalized them 

again ft the en 

length the coi 

with a n inn ere 

fighting the I s 

a negociation 

feven nundred 

of filver, anc 

march into B 

for the payme 

they continue 

tions. All tl 

empire were 

and prepared 

Germans firit 

emperor was 

which he wa» 

his lubfittence 

Bifliop of M 

natural fon 

Sovereign of ( 

ted to Berengc 

Guy Duke of 

from the roy 

the mother's 

had faved Pa 

France, but 1 

and virtue, th 

ci own only as 

the Simple. 1 

of the fall of 

and of the 1 

ments in Eurc 

of the throne 



and Counts in 
graves, Land 
Germany, til 
pendent, mad 
the provinces < 



MODERN HISTORY. 



le ufurpation held the people 
ry. Tnus was formed a Feudal 
rration, that is to fay* a defpo- 
iftocracy, fuch as we have fince 
i in Poland, where the nobles. 
i matters of their vafials* and 
imong themfelves* crowned a 
nth the title of king only to 
their orders. At the fame pe- 
ince* Italy* and Germany which 



H 



had been united under one head* be- 
came three diftmct* independent ftateV 

Rebert the Strong* Duke of France*, 
and Count Eudes his ion* who afcend- 
ed the throne* were the anceftors of 
Hugo Capit the firft king of the third 
race. -^ 

The fcene of hiftory in oar next muft 
be changed to England* 






THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZINE. 

[R, 

HEN we confider the fatal ten- 
dency of lotteries*- to deftroy 

>pine(s of mankind by pro* 

that deteflable fpirit of gaming* 

s already fo prevalent among 

Ics of men in thefe kingdoms, 

iftanding every dictate of reafon 

Science* and the dill more pow- 

e of felf-intereft* it is a matter 

fmall furpriie* that our rulers 

fo long nave continued, year 

ar* to raife a part of the annual 

t by this means. It is true* 

■ifling fteps were taken during 

: feJ&oris of Parliament* with a 

n fome meafure* to counteract 

xnicious effe&s $ but the reme- 
very partial 5 only cutting off 

inch when- the whole tree was 

decayed. Among other things 
then ena&ed, that no perfon 

livide a lottery ticket into more 

iteen (hares* from a fuppofition 

e poor at leaft would be pre- 

from engaging in it* when the 

i was fo mucff encreafed. Our 

office- keepers* however, pitied 

ard cafe* and with the utmoft 

ence contrived various expedi- 
ence to fill their own Dockets* 
gratify the vitiated tafte of the 

* by inventing chances and po- 

witn which they very kindly re- 

to accommodate their friends 

'. publick in general, from the 
one milling up to a guinea ; at 

ie time giving the moft pofitive 

:es, that theirs was the moft 

tgeous plan ever offered to the 



>f all the evils attendant on lot- 
that of infuring feemt the woriL 
c ruin of trade* the parent of 



poverty* and the deftru&ion of moralf* 
ty. ii proof of which I appeal to the 
numberlefs inftances we have every 
year of apprentices and fervants* and 
even labouring perfons* who* after 
having loft all their money, and even 
fold their clothes to raife more* have 
committed robberies privately, until 
fuch time as the theft was difcovered $ 
when* being deftitute of both fortune 
and reputation, they are under a ne- 
ceffiry of flying their native country- 
left they mould fall a (acrifice to its 
juftice. Thus many individuals are 
loft to fociety* who otherwife might 
have been both ufeful and honourable 
members of it. 

Perhaps it will be pleaded in behalf 
of lotteries* " That of all the mode* 
of taxation ever invented* they are fub- 
roitted to with the leaft reluctance.** 
However* for the honour of my fellow 
countrymen* I would hope they poflefs 
too large a portion of publick fpirit 
ever to oppole any tax on the nece£- 
farios, much lefs on the luxuries of 
life* if by that means a repetition of 
them can be avoided: for can any 
tiling come in competition with the 
morals of a nation ? Was it not a ge- 
neral corruption of manners which, 
overthrew the once mighty, though now 
almoft forgotten empires of antiquity r 
And will not the fame eaufes now 
produce (imilar effects ? Surely then 
it is incumbent upon thofe whole bufi* 
nefs it is to contrive the ways and 
means for railing the yearly fupplies* 
to try every expedient* rather than thus 
endanger the prefent and future hap* 
pinefs of fuch numbers of their un* 
thinking fellow fubjeQt. 

CATO, 



ffl 



«*^ 



■*■**■ 



• DESCRIPTION OF THE QUEEN'S PA 

(With a V- E* Fipw qfthi Palace, frcm a Dra 

WINDSOR, fituated at the dif- the Hill, 

tance of twenty-four mealured part of th 

ttttct well flf London, it fuppofcd to will fide, 

be one of the jntf beautiful foots of the plate, 

ground in England, as it commands cait angle 

from its lofty hill, very ortenfive and mauds a 

fertile vales, adorned with woods, and town 

towns, villages* and elegant villas ; the Little 

which furnifh a variegated landfcape as it is fepai 

rich as it could well be deligned by is a very 

the united efforts of nature and art. edifice, fi 

It has been moftly celebrated for its tlcments I 

ancient and magnificent Cattle, which whale is 

has been a royal palace ever fince the Simplicity 

reign of William the Conqueror, who proportioi 

tool; great delight in hunting, for treraely p 

which anraferaent he found this part it is defig 

of the country fo convenient, that he large fain 

built the Cartle and feveral lodges in as a retire 

the adjacent large foreft. rcfide in i 

The hiftory of this Caftle, including week, an 

the alterations and amendments that during t 

were made to it, by different princes, apartment 

and every article of cuhofity or fple n- city unkei 

dour in the decorations within, hat died rath* 

been fo often laid before the pub lick out the w 
in various fhapes, that we ft* all not The to 

take any further notice of it than is to, fince i 

neceflary to explain the plate. Mured w 

The new building lately erefted for jetties, m 

the Qccafional re fide nee of the King ing been t 

and Queen, and their royal progeny, giveadefi 

in compliment to her majefty, is called in a fut\ 

the Queen's Palace r it is moft delight- weft view 

fully fituated almoit at the fuinmtt of the old C; 



i i i r p 9+mimrm^r* 



*m 



HISTORICAL AN 



MAHMOUD, Eraperqr of the 
Turks, A. p. 173 <, being in- 
formed that a Turk of high rank and 
a foldicr, had driven a man from his 
houfe in order to poftefs himfelf of his 
wealth, and to difhojiour his wife 1 
the incenftd monarch repaired nrivately 
with only two or three of hit atten- 
dants to t]>e houfe of the injured party, 
when he knew the officer was there, 
and aa fbon as he was afiured, that be 
was rejpofing on a fopha in an apart- 
ment defcribed to him, he ordered all 
the lights in the houfe to be extin- 
guifhtd, and then with his own hand 
.he poignarded the culprit: the execu- 
tion being over 9 he ordered torches to 



be light* 
dead bodi 
£nees and 
His attest 
hrm comt 
reafon of 
I firmly 
that r»d p 
have dare 
except on 
refolved 
fender, a 
paternal t 
expoied t< 
as I thou] 
perceiving 
I fervent) 



f 4 



-•»/7* 



*7 



mt^m^m 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

A Cenctfe Hi/hty fftke Proceedings $f the frtfaet Seffien of Parl iam ent, bepmmtd 
boUen at Weftnunfar, 9H Thurfday the %$tb Day rf November, 1779. &*&!£ 
tbe SIXTH Srfmn if the Fourteenth ParRaenent s/ Great-Britain. 

(fiaxHn&d /rem mr Dumber Magazine, 1779, page 559.) 
HOUSE OF LORDS. 



Wedntfdaji Dee ember 1. 
PTtHIS day the Earl of Shelburne, as 
i an introduction to a motion he 
intended to make on the affairs of Ire- 
land, defired that the order of the Houfe 
of the nth of laft May, for an ad* 
. dreft to his majefty, together with the 
addrefs, and his ma jelly** anfwer there- 
to) and the motion for another ad- 
dreft, made by a noble Lord (the 
Marquis of Rockingham) in June, 
might be read by the clerk, which pa- 

£xs being accordingly read ; his lord- 
ip exprefied his furprife, that not- 
. withftanding the tenor of the addrefs, 
and of his majefty's anfwer, both of 
which demon ft rated, that the affairs of 
.Ireland would not admit of a moment's 
delay, they had been fo mamefully 
neglected j that the whole fummer had 
palled without any one dep being taken 
to relieve the diftreiTes of that oppref- 
fed and unfortunate kingdom. He then 
adverted to the rejection of the motion 
made by his friend, the noble Marquis 5 
and gave it as his opinion, that it ought 
to have been agreed to, in which cafe 
Parliament indead of being prorogued, 
would have come to refolutions that 
might have (atisfied the Irifli, while 
their demands were moderate. Alarmed 
for the change of affairs in Ireland, 
during the recefs of Parliament, 
which he reprefented as highly detri- 
mental to England, and apprchenuVe 
of the confluences of the delay of re- 
lief j he made thefe confiderations the 
ground for the following refolution of 
cenfure on the' conduct of adminidra- 
tiou. 

" Refolved, That it is highly cri- 
minal in his majefty *s minifters to have 
neglected to take effectual meafures for 
the relief of Ireland, in confeqnence 
of the addrefs of the Houfe of May 
.1779, and of his majedy's anfwer 1 by 
which neglect they have brought on di- 
tifions and diflcnlioni in that kingdom, 
mad frefli erobarraflments on his ma- 
jeaVa government, at a period when 

£o*d. Mac, Jaa» 1780, 



real unanimity between the two- king- 
doms is moft wanted." 

His lordihip's further explanations 
of this motion were given in a long, 
elaborate fpeech, the fubftanee of 
which may be comprifed within a nar- 
row compafs. His lord/hip informed 
the Houfe, that matters had been car- 
ried to a dangerous length in Ireland, 
owing to neglect here. Military af- 
fociations making together a formida- 
ble force, now demanded more from 
England than me could with policy 
grant : thefe military aflbciations he 
confidered as illegal, becaufe an army 
was raifed without the authority of the 
fovereign, who by law is vened with 
the fupreme command of all the armiea 
raifed in his dominions. Yet, to thefe 
aflbciations he faid, he ftood indebted 
for the fafety of bis property in Ire- 
land, which had been abandoned by 
adminidration. He dated feveral griev- 
ances under which Ireland laboured, 
and faid, the people of that country 
would not be content till thofe were 
removed as well as their commercial 
oppreilions. The conditution of Ire- 
land is wrong } for it confifts of four 
eftates, the King, Lords, Commons, 
and Privy Councils, by which eda- 
blimment the Commons are deprived of 
the right inherent in the Commons of 
Great Britain, the money bills do not 
originate with them. The revenue of 
Ireland is hereditary j this renders the 
date politically poor ! incumbrances on 
it are more eafily contracted, appro- 
priations are more eafy, and the vile 
practice of indiscriminate perfons oa 
the cftablimment facilitated. The 
tythes and glebes enacted by the clergy, 
and the extenfive jurifdiction of the 
biihops he complained of as another 

grievance which they would remedy. In 
ne, his lord (hip exprefled his ap- 
prehenfions that Ireland was now 
treading in the footdeps of America, 
a commerce being ooened tote****, ^da 
North q£ letWtos»£awe^^^J?^ 
C 



Jsul 

which I 



18 PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

innflion of the Congrefs, and perhaps Houfe 10 take the only ftep which' 

t>F France. Under thefe circumftan- could fave the nation, by palling a cen- 

cei he thought the. cenfure of the fure on thole men, who, by refilling to 

Houfe, the gtnteelclt method of obtain- keep parliament fitting a few days Ion- 

' ing from the crown a new fyftem of ger, and not catling the Irifb Parlia- 

government, and he preferrwi it to roent together at the fame critical ti 

punilhmcnt (though a miniftry who had made the p 

had loft America, the Weft Indies, and arms to redreli 

were on the point of loiing Ireland de- the end of which might be another ei- 

ferved the fciereft) in order to Alow vil war. He lamented the fcudi and 

that he was not influenced by motives animofilies which the conduct of ad- 

of perfonal refentment or animouty. miniftration had already occafioncd in 

Hcmadeadiftinclion between fome of this country, and congratulated the 

the numbers of adminiftration and nation that a late event had not proved 

others, paid a compliment (o the Lord fatal lo a moft ufeful and able member 

Chancellor's abilities, and Teemed to be of the other Houfe of Parliament. 

pointedly fevere on the Earl of Mans- Then taking a view of the ftate of the 

iii'li.1 . Lord North, and the Earl of revenue in Ireland, he introduced Mr. 

Hilllborough. He reprobated the idea Fox a* a proof of the lavilh expenditure 

of a union of parties, and declared he of the publick money] that gentleman, 

never would unite in public k employ- having came into the potl'effion of a 

ment with filch men confiderable poft in Ireland, which the 

Lord Hilllborough in reply, objected marquis faitl brought in 1400I. Irila 

to the motion as being contrary to currency, the minifter at the head <»f 

every principle of juftice ; it was an the Trcnfury department had contrived 

accufation unfupporird by evidence, on to get Mr- Fox to difpofe of, and Mr. 

a condemnation to be parted upon Aip- "Jenkinfon now enjoys, by which nc- 

■ofed ! .in-.. He then reftcd the de- goclation the charge on the Irifh rcve- 

fence of adminiftration on the pipers nue is coulidcrably increafed. Thr 

already before the Houfe, which (hewed marquis difclaimed all idea of unv 

that the proper official meafures had (which had been hinted at by L 

been taken by his predeceffor Lord Mansfield in a former debate) with 

Weymouth, in conicqucnce of the of the prefent miniften ; and bel 

addrefsofthe uthofMayi enquiries them all to be tinder the influence 

had beenfeton fogt refpeftiug the (late feeret agent. 

jrrelpondeiice with the Earl Go-wer (late prefident c 

of mat kingdom, and council) in juftification of hit cw 

his an Twer, daied the ad of June, a duct, afier declaring hewas »g 

very able and material paper, evidently motion, beeaufe he thought 

proved that no time had been loft, to proceed to punifhment witr 

Many other papers containing impor- of criminality, explained t 

tant information for the Houfe, pre- of his rcngnation. He faid 

Gred by Lord Weymouth, would be divilioni prevailed in the cs 

d upon the table in a few days, in had pledged himfelf to the F 

the mean time, he defned their lord- end of the lift felfion, that 

fhips to believe that he would refign fures would be taken for 

the feals, if the proportions he under- Ireland, and he found th; 

-flood were intended to be made for the pcfted to be done was r 

teticf of Ireland, ware not brought England or Ireland : tr 

into parliament without delay. All faid, great reluurces in 

that the Irifh expected, he knew, be- but he did not think 

fore he accepted the feals would be managed in the Treaf 

granted. Ireland fhould enjoy the the head department, 

fame immunities In trade as England 1 in honour and conft 

there lliouldbe no diftintlion between accjuiefce under fuch 
fngbnd and Ireland, and he was fully He thought every 

perluadcd '.he people of Ireland did not in tile kingdom call- 

■wifh lorany thing more. that and the natic 

Tlit Marquit ej Kmiin^bam fupporr- eireumftane.es 1 an 

ed the motion, and called upon the menu or honours 



tyto. 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



»9 



any weight at fuch a time as this, to 
prevent men from acting according to 
their confciences. It was from prin- 
ciple he wifhed to fee America brought 
back to obedience to this country ; if 
that could be accompli (hed> he always 
propoled (he Should be treated with 
kindncis : other meifures, not condu- 
cive to thefe ends, had been lately 
purfued ; and in not confenting to 
them, he had not changed his princi- 
ples. 

The Duke of Richmond thought the 
noble lord, in thus fpeaking his fen- 
timcnts, had removed all objections to 
the juftice of the motion, for he had 
given proof of the criminal neglect of 
the miniftry. 

His grace then openly declared that 
the influence which ruined this country 
was that of the Earl of Bute, who 
from the beginning of this reign had 
made all men in office acknowledge a 
dependence on him, but had not fhown 
it openly upon their firft coming in : 
but the changes of administration had 
Known that thole who would not con- 
defcend to act under him were dif- 
miSTed. 

He obferved, that no man could an- 
fwer for the tranquillity of Ireland 
three weeks, and defired a real union 
of independent men would (land forth 
and lave their country ; the firft mea- 
fure to which was pafunc a cenfure on 
thofe who had brought it to the brink 
of ruin. 

Earl Go<wer in explanation faid, that 
fince he had been in office he knew of fave any. 

no fuch influence as that mentioned by The Lord Chancellor made a long and 
the noble duke ; neither did he be- able fpeech againft the motion, at pre- 
iieve it exifted 5 the Firft Lord of the mature. 

Treafury appeared to him to be the Lord Shelbume replied, but nothing 
real miniftcr, with great extent of new was offered. 

J>owerj if he privately was under any Lord Radnor moved to adjourn the 
uch influence, he was ignorant of it, debate for two months, becauSe he 



dence of an amiable nobleman Juft de. 
ceafed (Lord Lyttelton) declare, that 
it was not the paltry confederation of a- 
place mould keep him from declaring 
his fentiments freely of the criminal 
neglect of ministers j and had he lived 
to this day, it was his intention to 
have gone much deeper into the con- 
duct of adminiftration, than he did at 
the opening of the JeSIion. 

The Dukes ofMancbefler and Grafton 
fpoke warmly upon the prefent alarm- 
ing pofture of affairs ; the firft parti- 
cularly reminded the Houfe, on what 
account Edward II. was depofed,. and 
Charles I. loft his crown ana life 5 and 
talked much of the people being ready 
to defend their own caufe, by demand* 
ing a change of men and mea Aires. 

Lord Camden fpoke to the juftice of 
the motion, and pleafantly faid, as no- 
thing had been done by the miniftry 
for Ireland, nothing could be proved. 
It refted upon them to (how they had 
done any thing j if they had not, the 
cenfure was juft. All the meafures 
propoled, he considered as the effect of 
fear, and coming too late j he did not 
think a free trade would remedy all 
the evils of Ireland. A reformation 
muft take place here and there, a new) 
fyftem of government muft be eftabiim- 
ed, and the refources of the nation be 
managed with ceconomy. The noble 
lord at the head of the rreafury could 
always project ways and means of get* 
ting more money, but there was no 
mention in his nuance books how to 



and could anfwer for himlelf and others 
of the fame adminiftration, they acted 
as principals. 

Lord Abingdon was amazed that mi- 
ni fters ihould have called the lords in 



could not vote on either fide ; for he 
thought impeachments and fair trials 
the proper mode of proceeding. This! 
motion being over-rultd, the queftion 
was put on Lord Shelburne's motion," 



oppo(ition factious. If majorities of and it was rejected on a diviiion, by 
placemen and pensioners would not 82 votes againft 37. 
Men to the grievances of America, 



England, and Ireland, to whom were 
the people to look for redrefs but to 
independent noblemen and gentlemen. 
With men of integrity no emoluments 
of office or penfions could have weight. 



HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

Lord George Gordon complained of 
. the printer of an evening paper, con- 
He bad heard a perfon in the confi- cerning forac fuwk f& ^Cv. Va&fcfc^gv^ 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTUiw. 

d the complaint was referral to the the glorious line hit country was 

jmmittee of privileges. feven yean ago, and this could not 

In the Committee of Supply, voted done but by building more fhipi ». 

5,000 feamcn. a I ) I''y'"g 'be grcaielf part of the 1 

Sir CkarUs Hard) took occafion to fources of the kingdom to render 

uftify his conduit with relpcA to not once more formidable to all Europe I 

engaging the French fleet, and raid fta. All trade, he faid, mould be p 

they ran away, or avoided coming to a ftopto till this was accoroplilhed, ai 

an engagement, not a nail be ftruck in any orin 

liurfitay, Dec. 1. dock-yard in th kingdom but lor t 

The Chairman of the Committee of fen-ice of government 

Supply attending at the bar with the The motion was fecondeo* by W 

report of the relolution) of that Com- Turner, who was the more inclined 

roil tee ihe day before, voting B;,coo it, becaufe he had opcofed railing » 

feamen, the Speaker put the queftion luntccrs in the North Riding of Tot] 

for bringing up (lie report, when Mr. (hire, upon a full conviction that o 

William Hujfo, member for Salisbury, land forces were already more tit 

got up and objected to it ; at the fame fufficient, and could not potfibiy defei 

time moving a re -commitment, not this country, if the enemy remain 

with any intention to obftrutt the Tup- luperior at tea. 

ply, but in order to move the Com- Mr, BulLr chjcclcd to the re -cot 

nittee for 100, coo inftead of 85,000 mitment as unpailiamentary, and fa 

feamcn ; the realbn he gave for this it was unufual to vote more money th: 

augmentation was, that notwithftand- wai actually necefTary for the fori 

ing the alftrtioii three years ago of the required s though B j.ooo feamen wi 

Fint Lord of the Admiralty, " That voted in the Committee, it was uncle 

the miniiter of that deparunent ought flood the Admiralty would employ 7 

to lofe his head if be had not a fleet 8ooo men more, and it was lie 

ready to put to lea fuperior to the naval enough 10 provide for that expen 

force of France and Spain," it was when the fcrvice wasincuned. 
evident by wtai happened in the fum- Mr, TempU LuttriU iupported t 

r.'.i, and by the prelcnt date of our motion, found fault with the dii'pc 

navy, that France and Spain are fu- tion of the fleet lalt fumtner, and fi 

perior to us in every pari of the world thai 

in naval force in the proportion of fine, 

tirte to two ; and as he considered this be deducted, . 

country in imminent danger of being tion, that they would not be al 

ruined if her commerce was to be crip- next Ipring. 

J led by the marine of the Houfe of Lord Muigr&uc complained of 

eurbon, he thought no time ought to mover for referring to words Ipo 

be loft, but every nerve be ftrained to a debate in another Houfe of P 

accomplilh the grand point of making nicnt as unparliamentary al all 

■us fuperior at lea ; for the l'afety of but more fo after fo long a tit 

cur liberty and properties depended on elapfeil. He tiprclfed himfelf 

it. He thought too much of the pub- lofty ftrain about going to tli 

lick money voted laft year was applied Houfe to hear their debates; 

to the land lirvicc, which was carried not, he faid, of noble blood tc 

to a degree of lavifh ex pence j and In him to the privilege of" ftandtn/ 

order to fix the application of much the throne, and he thought it 

larger fum* to the naval fcrvice, he his dignity to mix with a m 

■wilhed to vote 100,000 feamen. It had the bar. He was again!) tJ 

been allowed by one of the Lords of becaufe the number of men 

the Admiralty the day before, t'i..t fufficient, but he could n 

£5,000 men are actually borne on the tber our navy would be fl: 

ships books of our preterit navy, and next year than this, it de 

Sooo more employed in the periling many circumftances ; all 

lei vi> t i he iheiefore could fee no harm wa», that he had no reafc 

in voting 7000 more. For his own part would be weaker, 
Jie was willing to fieri lice the lafl mil- C*U*tt Barri made 

ling of hit fortune if he could recover he £ud, when ininiilers 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



*t 



a toy place, at any time, he 
never tnink it out of order to 
back in his teeth j the nation 
n deceived by it, and the repre- 
es of the people, when voting 
► for the naval fervice, "had a 
< canvafs the conduct of thofe 
re entrufted with the manage- 

• • 

: it. 

len arraigned the difpofition of 
ts la It fummer, and aiked why 
arles Hardy did not block up 
nch fleet at Brtft, the beginning 
, to prevent their junction with 
iniards. Lord Mulgrawe re- 
be was prevented by Admiral 
tot thinking it proper to go with 
fion to Jerfey, upon hearing it 
ttacked j after this he was 
to join his convoy at Torbay, 
Kcauoned a delay, and hinder- 
grand fleet from going to Bi eft. 
ral Conway (Governor of Jer- 
>ught this no excufe 5 the French 
d Jerfey on the nth of May, 
e appearance of Admiral Ar- 
t would not have been necefla- 
: Admiralty had been properly in- 
that there were two frigates 
which were fufficient for the fer- 
However, Admiral Arbuthnot 
only two days. The general 
i wiihed the navy was increafed 
t lofs of time, and the army too 
were neceflary. 

Charles Banbury faid, the duty 
:d his country obliged him to 
[own to vote for this motion, 
heard that the Admiralty could 
ild more (hips for want of dock 
ind carpenters ; he defired every 
dock might be taken, by a& of 
lent, for government ufe, and 
ery town in the kingdom mould 
a houfe carpenter. 
George Womb*weU ridiculed this 
le expected to hear of fome great 
tions from the gentlemen in op- 
i to fave their country j but all 
in talk, in declamation, and 
llefs accufations, without pro- 
any culprit at the bar. Some 
r had mentioned, that the fend- 
• Edward Hughes to India was 
. He a iked if they would have 
the Company's fettlements taken 
: French, and a commerce de- 
. which brings in two millions 
ly to government. He faid the 
belonging to the Kail India 



Company are actually filled with large 
(hips building for government. 

Sir Grey Cooper obferved, that if 
100,000 feamen were voted, it would 
be an addition of 1 5000, which at +1« 
per month, would be 75,0001, added 
to the money to be raiied, and would 
increafe the publick burthen of the 
year, whether the addition of men 
were ufed by the Admiralty or not; 
and it was not cuftouiary for parlia- 
ment to vote fo much money to lay in 
the hands of mini/try unemployed. 

Mr. Rous remarked, upon the want 
of dock yards j that Ireland had many 
convenient places, and this was one 
motive for conciliation with that coun- 
try. 

Mr, Gregory thought we fhould build 
(hips in foreign ports $ and Colonel On-, 
Jloto complained of the conduct of G*V. 
noa and Naples; he faid they built 
(hips for the French laft war* and werV 
doing the fame now. Genoa was by 
this means at war with us, and it, 
ought to be noticed. He was likewife ' 
for fortifying the kingdom in feveral 
parts, and therefore thought the mo- 
tion improper, and that the nation 
mould be defended as well by land a* 
fea. 

Mr. Huffey in explanation declared, 
he meant only to take fome effectual 
method to make us actually fupexior 
again at fea. He contended, in point 
of order, that what fell from muufters , 
in either Houfe of Parliament, ought 
to be repeated when it concerned the 
welfare of the nation \ and both this 
gentleman and Mr. Rous declared 
Lord Sandwich had /poke the worsts 
mentioned. 

Sir George Womb%ueU having faid the 
noble earl was incapable of uttering a 
falfehood, General Conway archJyob* 
ferved, that it was well for his. lord- 
(hip, however, that he had uttered a 
falfehood \ for if it had been true, his 
head mud have been off long before now. 

Mr. Huffey concluded with wiuVog 
that the Admiralty member (Lord 
Mulgrave) had faid nothing at all, ra- 
ther than have exprefled a doubt, alter 
all the boafting or the Firft Lord, and 
all our immenfe expences, whetuer our * 
fleet would be next year as ftrong as it 
was this. It was the moft melancholy 
news he ever heard. 

The motion was rejected on a divi- 
Hon by 69 votes againii 13, 



1* 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTOF 



Friday, Dec. 3. 
Lord George Gordon moved an hum- 
ble addrefs to his majefty, befeeching 
him to order the proper officers to lay 
before the Houfe copies of all letters 
from any of the inhabitants of North 
Britain to the Secretary at War, or to 
his majefty** minifters, requefting ftands 
of arms, ammunition, and military ac- 
coutrements to be fent to that country, 
with copies of the anfwers given to 
fuch applications. The reafons affign- 
cd by his lordfhip for this motion were, 
that Scotland had been left in a de- 
fenceless ftatc during the whole fum- 
mer, expofed to invafions from the 
fleets of the Houfe of Bourbon, and 
that the young able-bodied men had 
been fent to America to carry on the 
deftru&ive war in that part of the 
world. It was alfo a ftrange partiality 
in his opinion, to refufe the applica- 
tions of himfejf and other refpectable 
gentlemen in this cafe, while the ap- 
plications made by federal gentlemen 
in different parts of Englandhad been 
complied with. 

Air. Dempjter feconded the motion, 
becaufe he thought the correfpondence 
on this fubjeft •ught to be laid before 
the Houfe. 

Sir George Tonge propofed an amend- 
ment by leaving out the word North, 
and putting in Great j that the whole 
correfpondence might be got at. 

Tbe Secretary at JPar, declared he 
had no objection to laying the whole 
correfpondence before the Houfe, and 
therefore he wifhed the motion might 
be amended to extend it to Great Bri- 
tain t he added, that he knew of but 
one application for arms from Scotland, 
which had been refufed on folid 
grounds : it was thought the military 
force at that time in Scotland was 
Sufficient for its defence, and no part 
of it had fince been drafted off for 
any other fcrvice. Lord George had 
obfervedthatin the Bill of Rights there 
was an article, that the Pro t eft ant fub- 
je&s had a right to arm themfelvcs ; 
but this right did not infer an obliga- 
tion on the part of government to fup- 
ply them with arms, ammunition, and 
accoutrements whenever they thought 
proper to apply for them. 

Mr. T. vowx/bertd exprefTed an ear- 
ned defire to perufe the correfpondence, 
becaufe to his knowledge offers for 
railing volunteer regiments had been 



refufed, while other 
'with eagemefs, whicl 
pedient j and he wiflu 
tinclion properly accc 
queflion on the amenc 
put, was carried unar 
Lord North then mc 
mittee of Supply, a 
millings in the pound 
the year 1780 j no opp 
to the resolution, bu 
reminded his lordfhip 
given him lad year, 
the long arrears of ' 
maining in the hands • 
he considered this as a 
fince it occafioned 1 
many counties, where 
be wanted, if the arr 
paid in : by this cone 
people were doubly 
was ftill more extraoi 
nifter fuffered a navy 
lions to remain undifch 
he was obliged to p 
while if the money en 
the land-tax was for 
ceivers it would pay o 
accounted for this d< 
fluence of mini Aerial 
faid, we mould neve: 
that patronage was de 
propofed as a remed; 
ihould be inferted in 
empowering the comn 
point receivers inftead 
Board. Lord North, 
clared that the land- 
much in arrear, as it 
hints thrown out by 
member having engag 
to make every ponVibl 
medy the evil, in whi< 
ly fucceeded. The ch 
in the country he belie 
to the indulgence of tl 
to the receivers, th< 
neighbours, and the c 
not fubjecfc to the contr 
fury-Board. As to th 
was Aire the Treafury 
objection to it, if th 
approved it. 

Mr. Baldwin, Mr. 
other old commiflioner 
againft the propofitior 
them to a refponfibili 
racier and conduit of tl 
declared if fuch an al 
take place, that they \ 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY; 

i commiffioners ; and thus the 



ition was dropped. 

David Hartley now called the 
on of the Houfe to a fubje& 

he had before faid he would 
m when the Jand-tax was voted, 
» upon hit leg* in hit firft Speech, 
explain, above two hours. The 

was remarkably full when he 
, but remarkably thin in a very 
irae after. 

aid he bad declared hie readinefs 
e the fupplics, and to fupport 
mcnt agreeable to the king's 
i his fpeech, if it was meant to 
the money voted to carrying on 
r againft the Houfe of Bourbon ; 
i apprehended a deception was 

in the fpeech, and he was con- 

in it by a pamphlet written by 
den, a member of that Houfe, 
office, addre/Ted to the Earl of 
?. He fuppofed it would be ad- 

to be good authority. It was 
acntioned that the firft object of 
might often become the Second 
i j that this was the cafe of the 
ran war at prefent; a revenue 
i firft objeft, we were not to 
ht of it, though the dependence 
lerica on the Crown and Par- 
t of Great Britain was the firft. 
i this he concluded that the 
:an war was to be purfued with 
, and in that cafe he could not 

to vote the land-tax. He next 

into a long detail of very high 
portance, reSpe&ing his Setting 

a negociation for a truce with 
laft year, on the bafis of a tacit 
'ledgement of the independence 
erica, which he did with the 

of adminiftration. He paid 

compliments to Lord North, 
1 he had always fupported his 
Iration, laying great ftrefs on 
ftance he nad given him; but 
llhip after all had deceived him, 
gd an inconfiftent part j for at 
r time he had countenanced him 
ciating a truce with France, on 
idition of allowing tacitly the 
dence of America, it appeared 
King of Spain* 8 memorial, that 
ifh miniftry had been tampering 
ly with the Court of France, 
idon their alliance with the 
an Congrefs. He called upon 
dmip to explain hiraSelf. He 
advanced, that America was 



gone, and that it was not in die power 
of human wifdom to recover it s and 
he warned his lordwip, as well as the 
noble lord at the head of the American, 
department, that perfonal danger to 
them was much nearer than they ap- 
prehended, yet he was not their enemy* 
Lord North made a fliort defence, and 
(poke very plain upon the fubje&of 
America. He faid the fpeech held 
out no delufion. The dangerous con* 
federacy againft this nation, mention* 
ed by his majefty, certainly meant that 
of France, Spain, and , the rebels in 
America. He did not think it necef- 
fary to make a feparate claufe of Ame- 
rica. It was comprehended, and he 
certainly did not mean to withdraw 
the troops from America, nor yet to 
allow the independence of the colo- 
nies. His lordfhip Spoke (lightly of a 
converfation that had parted between 
him and Mr. Hartley, about a truce 
with France, but he did not approve 
of the proposition j for he would not 
tacitly acknowledge the independence 
of America: and as to a truce, he 
looked upon it in the fame light as the 
truces which Spain made with Holland 
and Portugal, when thofe countries 
were Separating from the Crown of 
Spain. They ended in a peace, ac- 
knowledging that Separation. Thia 
was the lure held out to draw Great- 
Britain by a truce to acknowledge the 
independence of America, that it might 
be the ground for confirming it in a 
treaty of peace. 

He did not doubt the gentleman 
meant well, but he had the misfortune 
not to agree with him in opinion, and 
he never expected to hear a loofe con- 
verfation repeated. 

Mr. Hartley ftuck to his point, and 
then went into finances, calculations, 
and faid twenty-two millions muft be 
raifed this year, and the nation could 
not bear it. Lord North, on the con- 
trary, maintained that the refources 
and exertions of the kingdom would 

n >rove an overmatch for the Houfe 
ourbon, but he did not add for 
America. 

Lord John Cwendtjb and Mr, Ro- 
berts were much di {Satisfied with the 
minuter' s anfwer to Mr. Hartley j how- 
ever, the land-tax was voted ; and the 
duties on malt, mum, cyder, &c« 
Monday, Dec* 6. 
Lord OJJory made a motion for cen- 



U * A RX I AWE NTT A R Y H I B TORI 



faring Ae ftriniftry to* iierieWbg the 
affairs of Mend, irttriy Si the fane 
Words an the Emrl of SheJburnt'a m the 
•tber Houfe on the fane fubjeft. Ha- 
ting given' in the Lords- debate upon 
it) all Repetition of tine nine argu- 
ments in tne* Houfe of Commons mail 
be -avoided. The principal fpeakers in 
fttpport of the motion were Lord Mid- 
dleton, Mir. Burke, Mr. Pox, Mr. T. 
Town mend, and Col. Barrl. Ami nil 
h, Lord Beavchamp, the Lord Advo- 
cate for Scotland, and Mr* Welbore 
Ellis. 

* The conteft in point of argument 
and eloquence upon this oeeafion lay 
between the Lord Advocate and Mr. 
Fox, and as both their fpeeches were 
uncommonly animated, we infert the 
fub (lance (with a degree of accuracy 
we can roach for) nearly in the* Very 
words of the fpeakers. 

The Lord advocate with great zeal 
againft the motion, called it premature, 
urijuft, and founded upon falfe rafts. 
The grievances of Ireland, he (aid, 
were entirely commercial, and origina- 
ting in laws made by England long 
before this adminiftration ; mod of them 
in the time of William III. They 
might have been politick then,- but as 
tiiey became more and more oppremVe, 
they ought to have been relaxed ; but 
the prejudices of the Engliffi traders 
and manufacturers had prevented it 
hitherto. Proportions had been brought 
'into the Houfe two feffions ago, and 
gentlemen mnft remember that they 
were ftrongty bppofed by thofe, who 
now take the part of Ireland fo warmly. 

As to the laffc feflion/ramiftry had 
done all that was required by the 
Houfe, and if Ireland was not then- re- 
lieved it was the neglect, of Parliament, 
not of the minifter ; information was 
all that was called for, that informa- 
tion is now procured, it lies on the 
table ; the meeting - of the Irifh Par- 
liament has furnifhed more, and- the 
minifter having prom i fed to lay a plan 
before the Houfe fo early asTTiurfday 
next, he thought it could anfwer no 
good purpofe to Ireland or this coun- 
try, but on the contrary would in* 
flame both, to pafs fuch a motion. 

He faid the Irifh had no other 
grievances bat fuch as refpeQed their 
trade, except fuch political grievances 
as were furnifhed them, and feat over 
from hence j and he concluded with 



ItecofitMtiidiiig a cool ai 
cuffion of the plan for 
Ireland on Thurtdey nc 
inflammatory declamarfd 
jail morion. 

• Mr. Fbx in the first ] 
upon the Lord Advocan 
tion of inflammatory decl 
told htm cautions of th 
not have come from a 
had furnimed inflamm* 
rions that had involved t 
a war with America. J 
who it was that talked « 
Hancock and his Crew, < 
Congrefs, and uttered ev 
expreffion againft the / 
flead of attending to t 
Who had prevented a 
at a time when it might 
reded upon honourable t 
land, by the moft infl 
ve&ires, and had purl 
fame conduft with refpet 
they had juft putfued % 
Ireland, refufed to gr 
terms from a ffcc rio n , an< 
bafe fear offered snore 
ftitution of this country t 
Who had forced Irelanc 
fteps as fhowed they w 
rapidly to independence? 
them to take up arms r i 
men ready with their bay 
England to comply wht 
mandsf He laid the k 
had followed new maxm 
of fupporting die king 
they had lowered his 
taught him to fdbdue lai 
Inftead of being the hea 
and granting altmilitar 
41,000 of his (objects 
receive arms from the go 
had refufed to accept cot 
the king j from the c 
drummer , all ware appdi 
felvea. 

He observed* fust the 
Ireland had in raft giv 
his majenVe government 
try only for is months- 
it would be dhTolved 1: 
Parliament did not eon 
demands j and he afked i 
ten were not higjily crir 
reduced their country tc 
tion. 

He was very warm i 
charge bftmght agaiaft 



>t}So. 



ON KEPT MISTRESSES. 



*5 



his friends, of fending over political 
grievances to Ireland, ami Paid it be- 
trayed great ignorance of the fcnti- 

. ments and writings of the firft people 
in Ireland not to know that ail their 
grievances are not confined to trade. 
Jit avowed that the aim of himfelf ind 

'his friends is to crufh the prefent mi- 

. niftry, becaufe their ignorance, obtti- 
mcy, and repeated errors had loll 
America, brought on a war with the 
Houfe of Bourbon, woM iofe the Weft 
India iflands and Ireland— in fliort, 

. would totally ruin us if not prevented 

He faid, the noble lord in the blue 

ribbon, and his friends, talked of 

union of parties, but that noble lord 

had no party j he was fupportcd folely 



that was to defeit him, he would hot 
fin 4 fifteen members to vote for him". 
He warned him not to think oif any 
coalition, for ihcre whs now no divi- 
fion in opposition j they ate all united 
in one parry, an J the voice of all K115- 
land is with them to rcniove an admi- 
niftration contemptible in the eyes of 
all Europe, and even of one another* 
He did not wifh to fee ihtm punifhed* 
unlefs it would produce good in future ; 
for punifhment, he faid, mould never 
go back, it mould look forward, and 
that was the intent of the prefent mo- 
tion 5 it would be the bell aflunnce 
Parliament could give of being ferious 
in their deligns to relieve Ireland. 
On a divilion, the motion was re- 



by the influence of the Crown, and if jetted by 192 votes agitnit 100. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZINE. 



SIR, 

THE reigning folly of keeping mif- 
trefles has fuch an influence oh 
pur religious and political fyftera, as 
we Ha* on (he manners of the neople,that 
it is become a fit fubjelt for ferious 
animadveffion. But as a general re- 
laxation prevails with refpelt to reli- 
gion and morality, it will be in vain 
to preach fermons or read moral lec- 
tures on the fubjeft. 

The reafoning mod likely to prove 
fuccefsful with the prefent generation 
is, that which comes nearelt to their 
immediate feelings ; we mud con fid er 
the matter upon the principles of in- 
terest and worldly felicity : for intcreft 
and pleafure are the wheels on which 
moft human- carriages run the career 
of life* But there is a national intcreft 
and a national felicity which ought to 
fuperiede that of individuals. Our 
country calls upon us by every en- 
dearing tic, for reformation of every 
kind, her almoft exhaufted ftrength 
wants recruiting, by legitimate, healthy 
population, by frugality, temperance, 
and foher manners ; all of which are 
to be attained by the encouragement of 
matrimony, now unhappily finking in- 
to difcredit, and comparatively f peak- 
ing, with refpeft to former times, into 
dilufe. 

It mall be my bu fin eft, fir, to de- 

TOonftrate from familiar pictures drawn 

after the life, that marriage is not ne- 

ccflfary to enable a woman of a bad 

Load. Mag, Jan, 1720. 



difpofition, to ruin a man with whom 
fhe is clofrly confte&ed 5 that neither 
liberty, intcreft, nor felicity are in 
any degree fo wtll provided for in the 
criminal alliance between a kept mif- 
trefs and her keeper, as between a 
hulband arid his wife ; and that it 19 
the fuperlative degree of folly ; in bat- 
chelors who are not too ugly, too ill- 
natured, or too old, to be accepted as 
hufband s, to deny themfelves the en- 

i'oyment of the chief of ail ibcial com- 
oris. 

Nothing is a more common refolu- 
tion, among the gay unmarried men of 
the age, than that of keeping them- 
felves free, as they call it, by taking 
a miftrels infte:id of marrying. On 
their own principle let us try the me- 
rits of the caulc confined to liberty. 
The very title of miflrefs mould alarm 
them, when about to enter into fuch 
an engagement, for in it cad of a more 
humble and dependent creature than a 
wife, the kept woman will indeed prove 
a miftrefs too powerful for any inafter 
whatever. Has the keeper more liber- 
ty than the hufband? Undoubtedly 
not, for without mutual coufidence 
there can be no fecurity, confequchtly 
no peace of mind. Her con fciou fuels 
of her own criminal difpofirion ren- 
ders every other woman I'm peeked, and 
he is reproached for every innocent re- 
gard paid to female accomplifhmcnts, 
but more cfpecially if the attcaiuret V%. 
D ttafexit 



a6 



ON KEPT MISTRESSES 



directed to a virtuous lady. His cer- 
tain cxpcritnce of the wantonnefs of 
the woman he keeps, renders him 
equally on the watch and the alarm, 
fo that he is eternally fufpicious of her 
conduct, and he hardly dares inform 
her of an appointment that will make 
his abfence certain, even for a fliort 
time, left (he mould make the very 
worft ufe of it. Well aware that (he 
is not certain of the duration of the 
connexion, this uncertainty lays the 
foundation for a thoufand intrigues. 

An admirable French writer fays, 
there are many women who never had 
cue intrigue, but there are fcarce any 
who have had but one. Where vice 
has once broke down the fence, the 
path lies always open and familiar to 
it. The hope of providing a friend in 
reiei ve, or, as the ladies of this ftarop 
generally exprefs it, the policy of 
keeping two firings to their bow, will 
lead them into every infidelity from 
which they fee a profpecl of fuccefs. 
A further confequence may be, and 
frequently is, the communication of 
difeafc to the injured keeper, and thus 
ends the chapter on liberty. 

But is not the keeper much better off 
on the fcore of intereft than the huf- 
bahd; cannot he oblige a dependent 
milbcis to fubmit to what domeftick 
regulations he thinks proper j to an 
o bleu re lodging, in (lead of an elegant- 
ly furnifiitd houfe $ to inferior and 
iefs abundant apparel $ to fewer fer- 
v.ints ; :.nd to a more frugal board, 
than would fatisfy a wife, whofc de- 
mands would rife in propoition to her 
rank, her fortune, or her diftinguiftied 
accomplishments; and to complete the 
jniichii-f, if a wife h denied any luxu- 
rious gratifications, cannot flic command 
them by her credit, and oblige the 
hufband to pay her debts. It is cer- 
tain the law allows fuch a liberty, but 
it is very feldom ufed, but by tihe very 
v/oi ft of wives, whole* conduct gene- 
rally puts their hulbands upon their 
guard, and affords them an opportunity 
of preventing this ruinous privilege. 

The only rule we have tor judging 
the difference in rujard to the iecmity 
of a man's fortune in both iituations, 
1.1. to look into the world and obfervc 
ijie liatc of facts j but let it bz rcmem- 
bwr-.-d thniwc are not treating of pro- 
mifLuous concubinage; the common 
luiiot will bs fatisficd with the i'e:rct 



midnight viiit at her ob; 
but where is the kept 
being, from her domefti 
acquainted with the circu 
miftrefs by penetration s 
fome important fecrets of 
not extort from him mo 
fonable wife would prefu 
in furniture, drefs, diet, j 
ments, and every cxpen 
luxury : let it be added, 
is a vacancy in the mind 
deft female, which cannc 
by proper reading or fob 
a fucceflion of diflipatio: 
worldly pleafures, and a 
introduction of novelty a 
keep her in fpirits and g< 

If a man is fool en 
give every thing to a wi 
loves a thoufand times 
deferves, and diftrefTes hi 
it ; it is full as fatal to h 
ed by his own folly, as 
vagancc of a wife whe 
prevent ; the only differe 
ft If, feems to be, that i 
he has no claim to the pit 
and the afliftance of his : 
other, he is intitled to be 
ftands the odds, as the f\ 
v/hy Jifty to one againft t 
if we confider the educaf 
of life, the intercourfes 
part of the community, 
ral reftraint of women 
forfeited their honour, ; 
moft commonly the doul 
and affection, of wife a 
will be no unfair inferem 
that for one man who is 
extravagance of his wife, 
keepers undone by their 

Well, but ftill there 
balance in favour of mil 
opinion of moft fingle m 
felicity is often deft rove 
ranny of a wife 5 fhc kr 
legal right "to exercife ; 
will demand an account 
of time ; flic will infpeel 
a difagrecable (hare in th 
of the hufband's affairs j 
trol his mode of living, 
fines ; flic will even breal 
retirement. Admit for a 
whole extent of this rcaf 
mult be allowed after all. 
tivts are atFoclion, tendc 
the welfare of a beloved 



AND. WIVES. 27 

todc founded upon an unalicna- and yet he could not comply, for ho 

mdivided intcreft, which sever had left word at home, that he mould 

s be&veen the keeper and his return immediately after the play waa 

fs. However, the inftances of over. I preffed him repeatedly, and 

\ tyranny in matrimony are fo bantered him upon his ideas of liberty. 

few, and the examples of fools, with a miftrefs, when I, who had a 

ds, and brutes who exercife a wife, to whom I had made the fame 

rule over their wives, beyond promifc, found no fcruple in breaking 

the laws of nature or nations al- it for him. All my rhetorick proved 

lem, are fo many in all parts of in vain j he told me, he could not hurt 

nd, that a modeft man, blufhing the peace of a poor creature, who, he 

s countrymen, woufd reaily be knew, loved him to diftra&ion, and. 

ed to talk of the imperious con- would be in agon its at his not keeping 

f Britifh wives, in a company of his word. With much perfuafion, I 

ncrs. On the other hand, we have went home with him to lee this won- 

ces of generals, admirals, ftatef- der, and to fup with hirn to prevent 

lawyers, and I am lorry to add, giving her uneauneis. 
s — who are infinitely more go- We had no fooner parted the ftreet> 

1 by their kept women, than the door, but I heard a dreadful curie, ut-. 

ft of hutbands by the worft of tered in a female voice, which I found 

to be the lady's : it was directed to her 

now not a more vapouring, info- maid, was followed by fome. names too 

iece of military clock-work than coarie and vulgar to repeat j and con- 

C— , the fofteft phrafe in eluded with alking, why me had not 

mouth is hell and damnation, come and acquainted her that it was 
hole heroick rafhnefs, proceeding half after ten, when (he knew her maf- 
nnate fury, qualifies him for any ter was to be home at that time. I 
:xpedition, where perfonal valour muft confefs this introduction gave me 
apetuofity alone is required. I no favourable idea of the lady's cha- 
xt this gentleman not long fince racier : (he was coming down (lairs to 
play, it was " Much Ado about vent the remainder of her fury on the 
ng," and the character of Bene- colonel for returning before his time, . 
laturally led us into a converfa- fupper not being ready, when he ftop- 
lpon matrimony, as we quitted ped her, by presenting me. This time- 
>ufe, and being old acquaintances, ly interpoution enabled us to get up 
.the liberty to recommend a wife ftairs in peace, and I was ufhered into 
n; his anfwer, with a terrible an elegant apartment by the fond mif- 
was— " No, no, Harry, I am not trefs, who told me me was always nap- 
temper to Bear a wite — Zounds, py to fee any of the colonel's friends, 
man of my fpirit could not live and though we had never feen one ano- 
rtnight in the married ftate. I ther before, (he accompanied this ci- 
l be hanged for (hooting my wife vility, with a very familiar fqueeze by 
3*h the head, or throwing her out the hand. The colonel with great con- 
indow, on the firft occafion of defcenfion afked her, what had put her 
:ercifing a manoeuvre of matrinio- out of humour, and then offered her a' 
nlblence to me. No, no, I am kifs for confolation, for which (he re- 
, love with the gallows ; I have turned him a hearty (lap on the face : 
imble creature who does me all he (hook his head a little, bit his lips, 
tod offices of a wife, and is con- and exclaimed— Damn it, Harry, who 
nd thankful, with about the nun- would be married ! I replied, any body' 
1 part of the expence, and who,' who liked a kifs better than a (lap of 
5 knows I can turn her out of the face. The lady took the hint,* 

whenever I pleafe, finds it her gave her difgraced keeper half a dozen 
ft to keep me in good humour." kites, and almoft in the fame inftant 
; were not in a difpofition to part, gave me fome private tokens of ier ex- 
it foon as we got clear of the treme difguft. He was now the hap*. 
i, I propofed (tepping into the pieft man in the world, we fat dawn to- 
rd Coffee-houfe, and ending our (upper in perfect good humour, iho- 
t over a bottle. My hero told frequently exprcflcd a defire to fee me, 
ic hardly knew how to refufe me,* at any other ttmt, Vvtawx ctxttcvw^* 



a8 



ON POPISH CEREMONIES, 



and left me no doubt, that infidelity vat 
riot the leaft of her vices. I went 
home fomewhat better pleafed with ma- 
trimony, than I (hould otherwise have 
txen without fuch an advantageous 
companion ; and refolvcd to make 
fome further enquiries among the colo- 
nel's more intimate acquaintance con- 
cerning his prefent attachment. The 
fhoit hiftory of it, I found to be this, 
he had taken her from an infamous 
houle under the Piazza — and me was 
no fooncr his private miftrefs, but (he 
got herfelf arreted for a pretended 
debt of one hundred pounds, which 
the enamoured colonel paid, and /he 
ihared with her hair-drerTer, the prin- 
cipal agent in this bufinefs, and in her 
fubfequent intrigues. From this time, 
confidering thnt men's minds might 
change, (he had been making free with 
his purfe in fo many ways, that he 
be£;an to find himfeU" unable to fatisfy 
any other demands but her's, and had 
taken to gaming as a wretched re- 
lburce. His hours of abfencc were fo 
regular, and (he had fo much employ- 
ment for the time, that his return be- 
fore the expected moment never failed 
to enrage her, and as it fometimes was 
necctfary to call off his attention, a 
coftly pier glafs, or a valuable fet of 
china fell & facrifice to her fury, when 
a gallant was to efcape unperceived 
through another apartment. In fliort, 
he is likely to be duped, as long as he 
has a guinea If ft, and then perhaps 
his miftrefs will turn him out of doors 
by way of gratitude. I could fumiAi 
many fuch narratives of the folly of 
keeping miftreHes; but one is as for- 
cible as a thou land j and I have a more 
egregious error to notice, which will 
ciolc this letter, with better profit to 
thofe who are likely to fall into it, 



and may in time he cautioi 
it. 

The mean vice I have in i 
of marrying a lewd woman, 
divorced wife, or any other 
been the miftrefs of the man 
ries her, and perhaps to I 
ledge of half a dozen more \ 
be a degree of meannefs, o 
tion equal to this-— or with 
can thofe who have Aibmitte* 
tend to the rank and eharai 
bles, or men of quality. 

If a young fellow of fa (hi 
ufe of his titles, and fortune 
with an infinuating addrefs, 
five prom i firs, to obtain thefj 
from an artlcfs, unfufpe&ii 
cuftom and example teach hii 
don the deluded young creat 
umph in his perfidy, to relat 
to the world, and to proteft i 
infamy of marrying her wi 
made infamous. He even a 
trimony, and yet the fame 
able fcoundrel (hall afterwa 
a woman whom he found a 
before, and whom he has ' 
miftrefs, or an ungrateful a 
in dead of efpoufing one who 
treachery would have fet upoi 
againft every delufion of his 
ture, he marries an abandoi 
whofe treachery to other mi 
and fuccefsful, will teach 
honour him with every man 
likes better, or from whom fl 
rive more pecuniary advantac 

To conclude, honefty is tl 
licy jthe pleafures of wedlock 
and as they are healthy and oe 
foare they ftriftly confident ' 
policy. I am, &c. 

Leicester Square, 

January iotb 17*0, 



TO THE EDITOR OF THI LONDON MAGAZIN 



S I R, 

IObferve by your note pf acknow- 
ledgements to your correfpondents, 
that you are determined not to infer* any 
papers that may lead you into a pro 
lix, religious comroverfy j I highly 
applaud this refbhition, efpecialfy as 
your mifcellany muft contain as mu£h 
variety as poffinle j but I do not think 
jteu can have any objection to guard- 
ing your cppntfyAen againft the pVfcj- 



fions of Popery 5 at a time w 
dulgence granted to the Rom 
licks fives their pricfts and t 
profenors of that religion, ai 
nity to fpread all their fnares 
every engine to work for m; 
fcrts, it is but fair, on t 
rood Proteftants, to expo& t 
Sitious rites and ceremonit 
proper light, Jnftcad of oni 



i 7 8o. THE. BAPTISM OF BELLS. a* 

theological controverfy, in the vain at the ceremony. The pillars and 

liope of convincing thofe who are do walls of the church were richly adorned 

tennined againft conviction, I Jrinll, with curious embroidered iilks and pu> 

-with your pcrmifllon, occafion ally trou- turcs. Clolchy the Bell an altar was 

ble you with a few entertaining rafts, erected which was fupcrbly orna- 

colltcted by perfons of rank and repu- merited, and upon it was laid a white 

tation in their travels through coun- fatin robe, which was to be put upon 

tries, in which the Romifti is the eft a- the Bell, as foon as it was baptifed, and 

blifhed religion. The firft ceremony I over it, a beautiful garland of the 

Jhall introduce to your notice, is very choiceft flowers. There were alfo upon 

little known in England, becaufe the the altar, a Roman ritual, a center, 

Roman Catholicks have not yet reco- and a veflel with water, and feveralcl* 

vered the ufe of cathedrals and parifti bow chairs covered with velvet were 

churches, but thofe who know their fet for the priefts who were to perform 

intents, cannot be ignorant of their the office. Oppo/lte the altar two 

veneration for Bells, without which thrones were creeled for the godfather. 

Mai's cannot be celebrated in publickor and godmother to the Bell, moil Tump* 

private. The recollection of this cir- tuoufly adorned. 

cumftance, induced me to tranfmit you About ten o'clock the company came, 

an account of the ceremony of baptiz- and having taken their feveral placet, 

jng church Bells, which you will find the priefts began the ceremony. A 

cnclofed. 1 am fir, your humble fa*- bifhop whofe chair was placed on the 

Tant, fteps of the high altar, began to chaunt 

CAifcj ridge, TheopHILUS. the firft pfalm, which was continued by 

Jsdumry 8, 1780. the other prielis, and accompanied by 

P an excellent' band of mufick. The 

THE BAPTISM OF BELLS, pfalms for this office, which may be 

j v~*'a r> * ecn * n tfc ritual, have as muLh re- 

A Fopijb Lermoy. . ftrence to baptifmg a Bell as to bap- 

AN En glim gentleman, on his tra- tifingthc moon, David probably not 
, vels, was fptftator at a ceremony having had the leaft notion of this fpe- 
tt Naples, the incidents of which he cics of devotion. After the Pfalms 
thus relates in a letter to his friend. were ended, the Bifhop began blcifing 
' I was informed foon after my arrival, the water, in order to fan&iiy it, that 
that the next day a great Bell was to it might afterwards, being holy- water, 
a* baptifed in the cathedral, that a no- fanttify the Bell. This benediction is 
We lord was to be the godfather, and a too long and too ridiculous to bears re- 
lady of quality the godmother, which cital. The Bifliop and the other priefts 
jfcrouid occafion the attendance of moft of then dipped fponges in holy-water, and 
the principal nobility, and a great con* fqucezed them upon the Bell, which 
courfe of other company.. I had heard they rubbed with them from top to bot- 
of thebaptifm of Bells in France, but torn, within and without. At the fame 
knowing that the Italians lurpai's all time, they repeated a number of pray- 
other nations in the magnificence of ers, moftly ending with the following 
their religious ceremonks, and that words addrefTed to the Supreme Being. 
they iikewife have a double portion of Ut hoc TinttmuiMuM calcfti benediction* 
Jupcrftition, I refolved to be prefent. I pcrfundere, purificare, Jan3ificare 9 et 
went to the cathedral early in the morn- conjecrart digneris. " That thou 
ing to view the preparations which had wouldft be pleafed torinfe, purify, fane- 
employed the workmen for a week be- tify, and con ice rate this Bell, with thy 
fore. * heavenly benediction." The Bell was 
The Bell was placed at the lower end then drud with clean napkins, and 
of the body of the church, hanging the bifliop having taken the phial of 
upon two gudgeons, covered with lich holy oils, which are thofe they blefsou 
hangings of violet coloured velvet, and Holy Thu rid ay, for the enfumgycar; 
the bell itfelf was decorated wirtj a he therewith anointed the crofs on the 
iind of robe of the fame velvet.' There top of the Bell, in order to make the 
were two ftages on each fide of it for devils depart at the found or ringing of 
the muficians, and an amphitheatre it, ufing thefe words : Ut hoc avdtntti 
^jbrtht ladies who were to be prefent Tintixtabulum tnmifiant & fttgiant^ 

ante 



<& 



ON BENEVOLENCE. 



Bell, till the infule was filled 
facrcd fumes j condantly 
prayers and invocations that 
lie tilled with the dew of the i 
rit, fo th <t at the found of it 
my of all good might take I 
The L:itin Sentences were i 
hoc lint'innabulum fpiritus fi 
perfunJr'y ut ante fonitum mil 



ante cruch in eo depiflum. He afterwards 
ma 1c liven other erodes with the oil 
ii]j>n the outfulc, nnd four on the infide 
of the Bell. This dor.e, he made the 
£0(!fdil.cr and godmother approach, and 
he demanded of them in Italian, whe- 
ther they were the per funs who pre- 
fent^d this Bell to be conli-.cr.ittd, and 
whether the metal and work man mi p 

had heen paid for to the artificers, to "fught benorum inimiau. T 
which they anfwered in the affirmative, was continued with Pialms fi 
Tin i en Jon of the lad demand was, be- 
came it had famctimes happened, that 
for want of payment, the workmen 
had t?ken away the holy Bells, and 
melted them down for profane ufes. 
The Billiop then afltcd them, if they be- 
lieved all that the Catholick, apof- 
tolick, Roman Church believes, con- 
cen;ing the holinefsand virtue of Bells? 
To which having likewife given their 
a (Tent t he demanded what name they 
would h.v.r put upon the Bell ; 
then the lady anfwered Mary. The 
Biftiop now took two broad filk ribbons, 
whic'i rnd been fadeiud to the gudg- 
eons of the Bell, and gave each of 
them one to hold, and pronounced with 

a loud voice the following words of religiculiy believe is; that I 
conlecration : Corfecrctur & far.8if.ca- jnciit in the prayers made to 
tur fignum ifud, in nomine Pairis, & 
Filit, & Spiritus Sandi, Amen. " Let 
this lign be confecrated and fa notified 
in the name of the Father, Son and 

Holy Ghoft." Then turning himfelf and tempeds, for which rea 
to the people, he fa id, the name of this are ordered to be rung, and 
Bell is Mary. Afterwards he took the ringing during dorms in all < 
cenfer, fumigated the Bell on the out- countries; and that evil i 
fide, and then put the cenfer under the from their found. 



lick, and then the Bifhop to 
ceremony, arrayed the Hell 
white robe which had been 
profclytc or convert, and in 
l?lc voice, read the gofpel of 1 
Martha. I imagined the re aft 
reading this golpel was, be 
Bell was called Mary; but 
fince into the ritual, and I f 
the lame eol'pel is read at th 
of all Sells. The whole 
being thus ended, the Bifl 
the ufual benediction to the pi 
the priefts received handfom* 
from the godfather and godaaa 
The doctrine of the church 
concerning Bells, which the yi 



the living and the dead ; t 
produce, by a divine virtue 
upon them, devotion in the 
believers 5 that they drive 



ESSAYS ON VARIOUS SUBJECTS. No. 

ON BENEVOLENCE. 

Cwfuctudinem benignitatis largitioni muncrum hnp t e antepono. Hac eji 
bominum at que tna^norum ; ilia quafi ajjentator 
Urn voluptatc quaji t'ttUlantium* 

OF all the virtues that adorn the hu- 
man foul, benevolence is the mod 
amiable; it comprehends all the focial 
affections, and is the mcafure by which 
we jud:je of the moral rectitude of all 
the pillions, which receive their tincture 
ef vice and virtue in proportion to the 
decree of this divine habit that ac- 
companies them. 

Nnt'.iril love, or that jnffion that p3f- 
fes between the fexes, has its advan- 
tages in fecicty; it is the raft link in 



r/« m*\\\. »»r**fci< v»v • lint mi* 

mtatorum populi, multitude 

the great chain of focial life, 
rics with it a healing balm t 
bitters of domcrtic ties : yet 
much ab for bed in fenfc, fo ch 
ncelcd with our irrational pa 
ought to be ranked in the laft 
ed clafs of the focial affection 
Particular friendfliip bctw 
and man advances a ttcp ncai 
purity and perfection ot unit 
nevolencc, it is a fpecies of lo 
man enjoys above the brute 



ON BENEVOLENCE* 3* 

fear, and to a certain horrour that feife* 
them on the fight of any moving ob- 



le pleafure refulting from it is 
ible to his nature, as a rational 
re ; efpecially if its motives and 
ation are free from the alloy of 
pailions, which is feldom or never 
fe ; for whim, caprice, ambition, 
ft, and connections even the moft 
s, frequently form the cement 
nites the particular friendships that 
be met with in this age of fenfe 
trance. 

e love of our country is ftill more 
ifrom fenfe,andadds indelible luf- 
the character that is poffeffed of it ; 
: is confined to a particular fpot 
rth, to a certain number of indi- 
ls, and frequently hurries us on 
at acts of injuftice and inhuina- 

whereas univerfal benevolence is 
It i mate of human perfection, it 

true emanation of that divine 
that fpoke this fyftem of the uni- 
into exiftence, and called forth 
nothing myriads of beings into 
ious happinefs. It is confined by 
ice, nor connected with any par- 
r number of individuals, but 
in the whole .fpecies, and breathes 
ind fecial fympathy upon the whole 
on. It ftrengthens all the other 
i of fociety, purges the grofler 
ns from their drofs of fenfe and ap- 
, and diffuses peace, joy, and tran- 



ject j the fight gives them pain, and out 
of regard to themfelves, and for their 
own eafe, they wifh the object removed, 
or perhaps relieved ; but the mind, the 
rational and focial part of man, is no 
ways affected; for at the fame time 
that they are adminiftering to the Teem- 
ing want and diftreffes, perhaps of a 
cunning counterfeit, who has got the 
art of moving this weaknefs of hu- 
man nature, their mind boils over with 
hatred again ft half the fpecies, and 
they would not part with an hour's reft, 
or a (hilling, to promote the happinefs 
ef a thoufand others who are removed 
at too great a diftance to affect the fen- 
fes. In a word, fympathy is a foftnef* 
of nature, a milkinefs of blood, and 
fcarce to be ranked in the clefs of 
moral virtues 5 whereas Benevolence is 
a fteady virtue, founded upori rational 
principles, and actuated as little by 
fenfe as it is poffible for humanity* And 
though it is impouible for the truely 
benevolent man not to be affected witb 
the pain, anguilh, and diftrefs of hie 
fellow creatures; yet that feeling 
does not deprive him of his reflection, 
he can leifurely enquire into the caufe, 
.and deliberately examine the circum- 



ex amine 

ftances that affect him, and wifhes of 

ty over the mind that is poueued adminifters relief to the object, not 

In a word, it is the effence of becaufe the fight of his diftrefs , gave 

him pain, but becaufe he feels in him- 
felf the molt ravifhing joy, when he 
has communicated happinefs to any of 
his fpecies, and this joy he feels, is 
not in proportion to the painful re- 
flection raifed by fympathy, but in pro- 
portion to the degree of pleafure com- 
municated to the diftreffed object. To 
explain the difference between this ef- 
feminate virtue fympathy, and the god- 
like habit Benevolence, let us fuppofe a 
beggar in the ftreet, with fome putrid 
ulcer attacks one of the female fex i 
the woman is highly fliocked at the 
fight, (he fcreams out with pity, and 
is moved to the hightft degree with the 
diftrefs of the poor fuffering wretch ; 
flic gives him fometning out of charity, 
aid he vanifhes ; ihe is plealedat his re- 
moval, juft in proportion to * the pain 
Ike fdt whilft he was prefent. Her 
pleafure may be very great, becaufe her 
delicacy might have been much affected 
by the mocking fight, but neither the 
plcaiure nor the pain has anj relation to 



ntellectual being ; it is the fource 
pring of our happinefs here, and 
>pe of our felicity hereafter, 
sevolence may be defined, that 
of the mind that takes delight in 
lppinefs of the human fpecies, and 
ires its own felicity by the degrees 
eafure it can, or is willing to 
tunicate to the reft of its fellow 
ires. It differs from fympathy as 
does from pleafure, for fympathy, 
y fpeaking, is that painful re« 
in which we feel, when we fee any 
ir lpecics in diftrefs. Sympathy 
ilways be Found where there is 
-olence, but it may be likewife 
I where there is very little of that 
i affection; for it is obferv.iblc, 
vomen and men of the weakeft 
s, are fooneft moved with the vi- 
iiftrefs of the objects they con- 
with ; but on other Occafions have 
fmall, or very confined notions of 
rolence. The emotion they feel 
ing to the craiHs of the blood, to 



jt ON BENE 

the unhappy object, nor rifes from the 
reflection on his anguiih, or the relief 
rase has afforded him, which may he 
irery trifling. Now mark the differ- 
ence between a perfon actuated by Be- 
nevolence, and this charitable lady. 
The fight may equally offend his fen- 
Jes, and in that refpect he may feel the 
fame degree of pain, but he feels more, 
for he joins to it/ the reflection on what 
the object differs, which pierces his 
companionate nature to the quick, he 
wifhes it in his power to heal the ma- 
lady, and gives in proportion to his 
abilities, to fupply prefent necelfities. 
The object is removed, but the pain 
of the benevolent man is not, for 
though his ftnfes are not affected with 
the loath fome iifeafe, yet his foul feels 
the anguifh of the fuffering wretch, and 
as he knows what he was able to give 
him could contribute very little to re- 
move his fuffciings, the thoughts of his 
cwn libevality give him very little fa- 
tis faction, at Icaft the pleafurc refult- 
ingfrom the confeioufnefs of having 
done his duty, is much allayed by the 
gainful thought, that one of his fpe- 
cies was trucly miferablc, and that it 
«vas not in his power to make him 
happy. 

However, though fympathy or pity 
diners fo much from Benovolence, that 
unlefs it is accompanied with it, it de- 
generates into weaknefs, if not into 
vice ; vet it is a habit of the mind, 
that it carefully cultivated, cfpecially 
in young people, may beget a habit of 
benignity and univerfal Benevolence, 
and may be productive of the great eft 
happinefs both to the perfon poffefled 
of it, and to the peace of focicty. For 
a mind eafily touched with the diftrcfles 
of others, is fitly and naturally dif- 
pofed to acts of Benevolence and hu- 
manity, and may in time, and by due 
culture, be brought to relifh the true 
habits out of regard to mankind and 
the pure pleafurc of doing good, with- 
out regard to felf, and the pain it feels 
fi om the (hocking objects of compaf- 
iion ; and it is the eaficr nourifhed in 
the mind of man, as that Benevolence 
and comp:t4Tion feems to be alinoft an 
ir.nate affection in the human foul ; for 
expciicnce teaches us, that unlefs the 
mi iid is perverted by the force of habit, 
or wsrpcd by fome accident that changes 
its dilpuiition, that it naturally com- 
psflionatcs the fufterings of others, and 



y o L e n c E. 

is inclinable to do them all the g 
its power, and 6nds a kind of n 
when it is obliged to do arTy thin 
gives its fellow creature* pain, 
where it is neceffary, or fortneir 
It is only practice that enables tft 
geon to go through an ampntatii 
make uie of the Knife or lancet 
operations of his profeflion, whE 
tremor oj pon his nerves, anting 
a fear of giving pain to hit p: 
Even the executioners, who are c 
from a clafs of people the inoft 
rate, go about the nrft offices of 
function with a degree of relu 
and regret; this is owing; ti 
remains of companion and Benevo 
that cannot be eradicated all at 
from the mind. It is more Tifil 
moil children, who cry as heartily 
times for the, correction of othe 
for the pain they feel nemfi 
which difpofition, if cultivatcdt * 
as reafon advanced, grow up inn 
verfal Benevolence towards the 
fpecie6, and branch itfelf out in 
the fecial and friendly ajfeftioni 
fweeten life, and heighten the ]c 
rational fociety ; ana without * 
man would be the moft rmdignai 
unhappy animal of the whole ere 
for as the fir ft and grand princij 
his action is felf-love, except the 
affection had been tempered by 
volence towards the reft of hit fj 
man would be a mere favage, ui 
animal, and worfe than the moft 
of the wild beafts. 

But the wife author of our ' 
who defigned us for fociety, and c 
us with a mutual dependency on 
other, has implanted in us this 
affection, and breathed into us wi 
breath of life, this pure emanat 
his own divine being, which mi 
fluence all our actions, unlefs we 
its dictates, by yielding ourfelves 
to the tumultuous and unfocial ps 
of anger, envy, hatred and mall 

Benevolence takes its rife in th 
from a plea Aire we take- in vi 
every thing that refcmbles our 
and brings back to our memo 
confeious pleafurc of onr own 
•ence ; for ft is as natural for a n 
love his owii likenefs, as to be j 
with himfelf. As often as we 
upon ourfelves, we are pleafed wj 
own exiftence, and confequently 
objeft that renews in pi the idea < 

cxi 



1780. 

exi&eace, at all objeSs like ourfclves 
Draft necefiarily do,, communicates a 
certain degree of pleasure to the foul. 
This is the fourcc of that fympathy we 
ftel for every man we fee, whjn we 
confidcr him only as a man, without 
toy other acquaintance or connection 
with him ; and perhaps a fuppoied 
greater rclcinblancc between ourfclves, 
and one of any two men we chance to 
fee, may be the reafon of that partia- 
lity we find in ourielves for pcrlbns at 
firrt fi^ht, without being able to ac- 
count te ourfclvei for the caufe of the 
diftinctron we make on fuch oicallons. 
And as we can conceive the idea of a 
man, or many men, without the intcr- 
pofition of the cat, and the relation 
they have to us by likencfs, the fame 
idea of pleafure is raifed in our minds, 
and fpreads the foci al atfeft ion to all the 
diftant corners of the habitable globe. 

This is the natural foundation of 
univerfal Benevolence, which the ibul 
difcoverg on the firlt dawuings of rca- 
ifon, and is aft u a ted by it almoft intui- 
tively. But when aififted by reafon, 
and by confiderxng its own nature, its 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



33 



own wants and ncceflities, and the re- 
courfe iris obliged to have to its fellow 
creatures, in order to obtain and pud'u* 
its own happinefs, then thefochl flame 
g-uhers irrength, and diii'ufcth itfelf 
over all its faculties j and a i;ian not 
under the dominion of fome of the nar- 
row fcnfual pafllons and appetites, and 
actmtrdby the dictates of tinpieiudiced 
reafon, nourifne? the godlike affection, 
as the only means of proem ing real 
felicity, and as the hifthelt gratification 
of felr love. For here he lays up a 
fflnd of 1'atisf.icVion, independent of 
ail the other palfions $ a ibtuce of plea- 
fure he can anive at in all circumltan- 
ces, in all places; and of which it is 
impoflihle to rob him by any accident 
that can happen in life. 

lie finds a charm to calm the ftorms 
that are raifed in the mind, by the tu- 
multuous palfions, and joy, peace, and 
tranquillity is ditfuled over the wholo 
mind is often as he reflects upon the 
happinefsof the fpecies in general, or 
the pleafure communicated to any indir 
vidua!. 



tttm 



>*••■««* 



An Impartial Review of New Publications. 



ARTICLE I. 

TUfEMOlkS of the Mar/bsl D*U ef 
«**■*• Berwick, written by timfe//, vj'itv - 
Juwmary CtntinuatUn /ran ttt Ytar 1726, to 
his Dta'b in 1734. Tranjlated from tin 
frtmb, 8*0. 1 Vols. C-dt:il. 

IT i* -ftnru(hin£ that compete memo J r«, 
•ad Inch are the pref'enr. 01 ;n;« ccirbrarrd 
General and ablt polkician, were net made 
•public k neirer tbc asra of his dca.h. Many 
years fince ;he memoirs of Maiih^l Saxe 
Wtio cicd i;i 1750, written by l.i nfolf, ap- 
peared in print t they were ^inflated fr<rn 
the French, and puM fliefi at Loci en 111757. 
Some explanation therrtcre fecmed nrrtfttry 
to unfold themyftery of delaying I»erw-.ck's 
memoirs to the preient time, near half a 
■century fincc his eiiflencc. 

Id the advcrtifeoicnt of the o-ginal editor 
4>f the Frenxh work now trar.flatcd (fald to 
be Mr. Hooke, a doctor of tnc Sorauni-.e, 
■od fon of H-ioice uho wrote the Roxan 
Hiftory) we are i'if rmed, that immediately 
after the Martini's death, a puMuaiion ap- 
peared ur.d-r the title of Merm-ir- of the 
Jbfarfiwl D. of Berwick, which n *n irrcv.ul.ir 
complication, totally unintercfting, aril al- 
moft void of truth, but we have no djtc 10 
iheprclent publication, nriiher from the ori- 
Xono. Mac, Jan. J7S0. 



ginal editor nor the translator; all we know 
i«, thjt thetranfjaiiun i* juft published, and 
we (hall endeavour to throw lomc light on 
the virw? w ; rh which it rrukes in apptir- 
*nc- at a time fo far diftant from the cute of 
rhe meft important incidents in the Mar* 
fiiai'slitc, that one would hardly be induced to 
read it. 

The evident defign of pobliftiingthi* tMn f * 
latino i* to fur port the character of Sir Jchn 
Da'rymplc'i Memoirs or Grr.it Rniaiii and 
Ire'an.-*, the Memoir* of King J.-mcs If. 
written by himVcIf, ?.n-J publifbul from the 
CufccVir-n of o^ins! pj»p*rs I y James Mac- 
piierl'on, and Mscph^r Ion's Hiftory of Enf*« 
lanc'. The r : were all or them expenhre 
wcrkf, ant' having b?en publ Ihea ne< r fevca 
yrar?, they rrr:iircd forrte new fpm to recover 
the ?ttrn»i'?n \>t t!i" rc^'lrrs or dcuched» pn* 
lirieal hift^ry. Wc wifli Marftial Berwick's 
M-moir« may .r.fwr the purpofe,for the lake 
of Mr. Cavidl, the ruMifhrr, if not the 
proprietor, of A\r whole c- llcclion. In oyr 
review cf Sir J«-hn Dalrymnle and Mr. 
MjtCi.he;lon v «- Hifloncs. fee Vol. XLII. »'•* 
th- year 1773, P a t e '<lS. And Vol. Xl.1V 
for 1775. ji ,, S c? '47 an ^ 31. >i wen-*? our 
Cpinion cmtcrjiihg llic dc t -rrc ii crrd't th.it 
oof; ht to be given to the Mrtiicnlicity ot v a<a 



34 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



pcrs that had remained fo many years in the 
hands of a feciety ot Roman Catholick priefts, 
more efpccwlly fuch as were found in ihe 
Scotch college at St. Germain's Without 
repeating the objections there rta ed. we (hall 
only inform our readers, that the plan of de- 
faming the characters of the friends and 
accompli fhers cf the glorious revolution, and 
of the Hanoverian fucceflion not being tho- 
roughly completed, Marflial Berwick's me- 
moirs, written (as were King James's) by 
himOit', are dragged from obfeurity, forty- 
fix years after i.is death, translated and illuf- 
trrted with notes by an anonymous hand, 
probably Mr. Macpherfon hirnfelf; frem 
diicovcries are made for the improvement of 
the prelect generation, by Marmal Berwick 
• nd his illuiVious EngliOt annotator. " King 
William ccafivned all the difturbancei and 
iaba)s in the reign cf Charles II. and after 
his death, he encouraged the Ear) of Argyll 
and the Duke cf Monmouth in thofe enter- 
prises whicii led them to the fcafTold. The 
nubility ai,d gentry who invited William 
rvrrto F.nfiand, had no intention to make 
him their king, but being once in poflcflxon 
of the power of government, he afted the part 
ui a conqueror, and compelled the extraor- 
dinary an^ i onftitutiohal aflembly of lords 
and per Tons of conference aiTembled under 
the title of a convention, after King James 
left the kingdom, to make him their fove- 
reign. All their fubfequent debates ufon 
th? original contract, the vacancy of the 
throne, and the abdication of King Jamcs f 
were ridiculous} and ferved only to (how 
liut they were got out of their depth, and 
lhat they accepted William for their kin?, 
becaufe they could not do otherwife." An 
accoant of the death and character of 
lames 11. ii given, which defcribes him as 
i he fir A of men, and the beft of monarch*. 
" The Britifh nation was never more happy 
than in his reign : he made them enjoy all 
the lwe-t«- and advantages of peace, and 
turned all his attention to protect and extend 
their commerce. The great and principal 
caufe of his being dethroned was, his con- 
stant rrfiii.il to enter into the league of Aug- 
Lurg, and to abet the animofity of the em- 
peror, the King of Spain, the.Crince of 
Orange, and Pope Innocent XI, againft Le- 
wis XIV. He had not incurred the hatred 
of his (upjrcls. The difcontents were not 
occaficned by any aft of cruelty or injoftice, 1 * 
or by any infraction of the fundamental laws. 
The chancier of William HI, it blackened 
beyond all former malicious attempts, he is 
here made out to be one of the moft finifhed 
villains lhat ever difgraced human nature, 
who trampled under foot every natural and 
facial tie to gain the crown. H: was a ty- 
rant in Holland j an unfuccefsful warrior, 
unda contemned ufuiper in England J in fine, 
):\\ perfonal bravery (after fo many hair- 
breadth cf capes in different battles) is dii* 



puted. Such is the language held 

pie notes annexed to Vol. I. < 

Berwick's memoirs, by the En| 

lator. There is prefixed to thi 

/ketch of an hiftorica) panegyric 

Duke of Berwick, drawn by tl 

Preildent De M ontefquieu, with 

dour and ability; if to this ik etc 

added only his campaign, a valui 

mance would have been offered ' 

Tic, for there are many things in t 

walk that may be of great ufe 1 

men ; but by entering deeply into 

of England at the critical arras an 

and after the revolution, the whoh 

vehicle for partial representations 

ters and event, which will gain 

but with the friends of the Stoar 

ever, we hope thefe memoirs will 

the ftrft perfonage in this kingdo 

deeply intercfted in that part in 

volume which relates to trie placin 

trious houfc on the throne. Shosj 

defcend to perufe thefe meets, hb 

be opened and he will fee the foun 

bamming every Stuart, and ever) 

of a Stuart from his court, and 

poffiWefrom his dominions, for tl 

of hia throne to hit offspring. 

Two anecdotes moft not be ami 
which we fhall clofe this article, 
ter affirms, that Queen Mary fore 
for reitoring her father, and took 
for that purpofe, had flie furvivsjd 
band King William.— and that thi 
terwards, the great Dak© of Mai 
three years after the revolution, 
King James II, erprtifing his repci 
having defer ted him j he alked pan 
King and Queen, which was gra 
took upon himfolf the bufinefs of 
charge des ofmiret^ for Tames in Epfl 
vately) and preficd him to make 
with zocoomen, engaging in iosw 
to alienate the atfedion of the in 
King William. 

if. Politic*! Annals of the prep 
Ccfc flies, /rem tbiir Settlement t$ tit 
1763, compiled chiefly from Record*, 
tlnijcd often by the Infrrthn of, 
pert. By George Chalmers, Eff» . 
4to. 1). Bowen. 

THIS is one of the moft arduous 1 
has been undertaken by any Britisn 1 
many years, and we may venture to 
of the moft ufrful and important ' 
the prefent reign. Had fuch a civ 
of the colonies been extant at hit 
acceffion, the war with America < 
ver have happened j for the princip 
northern colonies being traced sip tt 
gin of their fcttlement, and their 
conduit at different periods amply if 
ed, no wife government would have 
upon the meafures which brought 
rupture* On the other hand, the 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



review of their owe hiftory Anting the 
elssdedin this firft book or volume, 
awe ftmddered at the idea of a fepa- 
tocn the parent ftate, efpecially to 
immature! alliance with jts ancient 
ite enemy. 



35 



Chaimcra has the advantage of moft fcnt reign. 



was sealoufly contended that a different rulo 
of colonial administration had been adopted 
fonn after the peace of 1763, it became ne- 
ceflary to exhibit the genuine fpirit of every 
government, whether of kings or parlia- 
ments, or protectors, antecedent to the pre- 



ss, he hat compiled the hiftory of 
i, whofe firft feulcment is not involv- 
faboloui obfeurity, or' dependent on 
a. The origin of their fettlcdienr, 



opeans, is certain j every publick 
ion relative to their population, cul- 
, govenuncnt^ laws, and commerce 
ifily afcertained, and capable of be- 
rell authenticated, as any domeftic 
nee* of onr own time. With thefe 
lances in hit favour, found judge- 
liKenimrnt, a facred regard for truth, 
gable industry, and accefs to proper 
nts, were all the requifites for com- 
. mitt flferol hiftory for the mutual 
of Great Britain and her colonies in 
America. After a diligent furvey of 
sane jvft pobliffjed, which begins the 

off each colony feparately from its 
dement, down to the revolution in 
we have found that Mr. Chalmers 
filled all the duties of an able and 
al historian. The work is large, 
■ nature of treating the fubject ; the 
lafacxioni of every colony being ju- 
sted by extracts from the provin- 
orda, from official papers in the PJan- 
afice at Whitehall, and from other 
sera It which the hiftorian had free 

This has rendered his performance 
implctc than any of the hifioiical ac- 
of the colonies published before. 
ign in this compilation will be beft 
cd by a quotation from his preface, 
thing more was originally intended, 
offer a general account of the civil 
ions of thftfc colonics prior to the pre- 
IP, in otecr to lay before the pub- 
Bctbingas an introduction to the bif- 
a war, the moft lingular in many 
to be met with in the annals 0/ re- 
times, put, upon a nearer view of 
ijejfifc, it was perceived that almoft 
apital facx had bean coutroverted j 
17 piinciple of publick law had been 
I that a made had been thrown over 
»lc» cither by the inattention of for- 
cers* or the mitreprefcntation of the 
And the author was foon convinced 
necefflfjr of ■fcertaining the doubt- 
ttuhliminf the controverted, of illu- 
g the oVTcore* When ancient pri- 
arerc laid to have been invaded, it 
rf thegreateft importance to invefti* 
th protjfion, what immunities the 
were originally entitled to poflefs $ 
lartcrcd rites were laid to have been 
1, it was deemed of efe to afcertain 
;rtjtf»^f**Jry contained; when k 



In order to render late fignal events, what 
Lord Bolingbroke calls, a complete exam- 
ple; and to.develope, as he fays, all the ho- 
neft and falutary precepts with which it is 
p regnant both to king and people, it waa 
deemed of the greateft confequence to look 
back to the fettlement of the colonies, to af- 
certain the nature of their connexions with, 
the parent ftate, of their original confutations, 
to mark the progreflion of their privileges and 
pretentions} to point out the chief caufea 
that have led imperceptibly to the fubver- 
fion of their "ancient fVflemi, that have 
brought on a crifis which England has fel- 
dom experienced before, and the production 
has intcnubly fwelled to the fize in which it 
now appears.'* The fecond book, we .ire 
informed, is in great forwardness, and will 
fpecdily be publithed. We have only to wifli 
that no young member of parliament will 
pre (time to fpeak in cither r^oufe in debits 
upon a fubject of fuch magnitude as the 
American war, till he has read this book 
carefully, and indeed if the oldeft would con- 
defcend to Andy it, their opinions would be 
formed with more accuracy and knowledge. 

Our review of this hiftory following im- 
mediately that of Berwick's memoirs, we 
have a fair opportunity of doing juftice to 
the memory of King William. 

In the annals of Virginia, Mr. ChaJ- 
meis abferve*, that no cixcumftance in the 
annals of coionial jurifprudence is better 
eftabli/hed than this fa& : '< That the 
habeas corf ui act was not extended to the 
plantations till the reign cf Queen 4nn." 
It is at the fame time pleafing to remark, 
that a prince (William III) who has been 
mifreprefented by the voice of faction as a 
defpot, whofc milrule demanded refiftunce, 
ir.ftructcd the governor of a neighbouring 
colony in thefe words — " Security to per- 
fi.nal liberty is a fundamental principle in 
all free governments, and the making due 
piovifion for that, is an object the legislature 
eight nrver to lofe light of j nor ran ihry 
f;)io\v a better example than tluc which the 
common law of this kingdom ha'h fet in the 
provifion made for a writ of habeas corpus 
vvWich is the right of every Britilh fubjecl." 
There is in this volume a great vaneiy of 
hiftorical and political anecdotes, and of 
ftate papers of confequence, 

111. Obfervstiont made during m Tour 
through Parts ef E*gland t Scotland and 
Wakiy \n a Sines cf Letters, 4X0. 10s. 6d # 
in board*. Becket. 

THESE letters are penned in an animating 
jtjle, they afford confidcuble envttUkuintTrt. 



36 REVIEW OF BOOKS. Jan. ■ 

bcrre and there. in 1 detailed irregular manner; ing : " From Raby Cafile we n?at proceeded* ■' 

thrv iccosint a hun>.nti juu.ney from pl«*ce to to Bilhop Auk>and, a large and populous '■ 

p 1 4< e, jn.,;n j'cr.i-rci, 1. -v«- the rradtr cjuire town, where the Bifhop of Durham hat an 

ciiTtrftcd v. : 'h if; rravcller. who fcaicrly excellent park and palace in which he gene- 

ei i r- in ■ a dr c r p: on of a place brfor- he rJly refide*, ana from thence to Durham." . 

cVfes a abruptly, U .-A r.urrieson to another j Bifhop Aukland deferved more attention, it 

torr.'.kr dtr.c.J* tor this v.r have an ac- i& neither large nor populou?, but iti fitoa* f 

count oi !'»rri- cu i f-tirv that we never re- tion is romantick, the palace and park full of 

m-mbcr t-> iiavc m.t wiih before, and thefe natural beauties, and there are fome ftorici '•' 

a" 1 oefcrire.i wi!m a i^ree of intelligence and anrrdotr; c ncerning both the palace and 

ar.«: t ' rfVr.uMv, v h *!i Oiow that t/£ writrr the town, better worth recording than many { 

is .i ^r.>. ^m.T.i. arui a man of taftc, a traveller our author has picked up, and published re- 

vhi. ;ji; v.f..-d :-,:ti t :n ccuBiries as well at fp'& ; N\; other obfeure places, 

his '.- vii. lie takes a regular fcp from Durham to 

In :h ti ■ it J-Urr, \vr h:.vr a lively ac- Newc-fllr, and then jumps from thence to 

ciu.-i.ir i\:\n t i-i t> ■• flate of nature, of the Edinbu-th i lk:ppinj! (is he forewarned us) 

princ;- '.«> t n wiiL . civil Society w-s n.r;..cd, light a? ■» fairy over Morpeth, Alnwick, Ber- 

ar.d'f ih- .. rrn '■.' tr.^v-Iling, as introduc- wick, Dunbar, H.<datngtOii and Leith. A 

ley I-"- t! c author's t.u- # His deducli'-n fleppcror paj»r« wi!I however be highly df- 

frcm •«';'• } rrri iT: 1 , ir thu> ccncifely dr«wn. Xhted with thi- performance, and like the 

" If vi !•.,■•, in a f"u »-i:^ry m.mner, fhwn flc pper over b-rrcn Heaths, will find fertile 

yci. ih:.: ;;r vidr-cr !.:■; :■ u'niverfally pUnted vale, and lich mines to repay him for piflcd 

tl.c: .pl.r of aft:»ity in the mind of man, ftrriii'y. 

tnJ tr..i i-. vv;,:itcvcr f:uation he may be Painting, Arch : trclarc, and Poetry, feem 

y-'.ac:;, \:z\;'- \ : ,:t a!i times ncccfl'-ry to to riaim thr principal attrnticn of our travel- 

]»:•!. • I £,...! r. xi ; i. ->J to r ngc the fe vera! Jrr, and by his accurate catalogues of picloret 

<l.f! < v'.'ch .iic •:■>'•. • whirrng round the inn ftatues at the principal feats he viniedj 

\v~:!.i, ;-. p;.. .1 ; •' i).. fr i>J j-.-.cV which im- tnere i& no room to queft.on his jod^ement » 

ii.'iiiatc.y ouii.v tl: ir fevtr.il atrrntionf. in -i her particulars he i* ioo mgligent, but it 

Fr(t r.T.c y.iir ir. ■ --. o" fcirr.ee, imO!i,;ft mull bt remembered that he was accompa* 

wi.'Ti m.iy 1-c ti u r,.-, CI emifls and Muficians ni:d by other yiur.jj grntlemen and three 

— N'aru" iiii^ <i-.il T n-ithdrawers — Aftrono- ladies, trmpany t f a n rhplexion to renacr • 

mt \ ..«-.ii (^ ... • - P ilitfupheri and Tai- writer un ftu d'firj'i:* Now and then a 

!,»., — Pn:.i. t:..'l" ;■■.■ :r'. Arid in ^orr,a thou- little btfide Jiimfcil, 

iji,.:MJiiY..i: f '.L.ii;,i luilicrouj a numer. IV'. Ot>l\rr.it'r.r.s en the jfnftuer %J tbt 

N x. vC-.^l- ys.ur tr..vt.;;ci» of ti.n — Chii- King cf G>d;t Brit a':r. t f) tbt Man'ifefi^Qfem 

dr'-r, •■[ v»i-.-' !.y F nv.lies — Heirs apparent if tie dart if ' I'erjaii.'es. By an independent 

<•! ii. i-.., in « .mil r.ii'inlli'tnt — W*n- *Fl-£» 1*. Fielding and Walker, 

1. -». jjV..v fr.M ii:f o. :>rf-« of Newmrrkct, THIS is a feveie but fenftble criticifm on 

AViii... . .u:-.\ ti: J., mej'j— Spendthrifts thr juilityinp memorial infer ted in our ap- 

1i[] t >t.ii ^ r .' -;i «.rt,i t.,rs,* and Di!lit=nti t pendixj ii it i» not a ft ate paper, fay • our an* 

fi;i.r:n-.ji . 'ii ii.,r. . t \i imwlcd ?c- fo»- a tap- ihor, it has the n. arks of authenticity, and 

jn t - w!i: ii A:..: * «i (1 o r all, jour travellers has been given to the world m the answer of 

v: c. r. . 'j'(:i ^. win pmceed abn>ad for his rnaj-.-fty to the) mauitcfto of the Court of 

ht..! \i . .s.'jjili ;r <:f f.ntiment, who farth Vctf-iIUs, FIc ccrfider' it as a moan, weak 

f.r l.» pinrK . ., mjoy tiie blcfling where- minificriai appral to other nations, unprece- 

cvl. in-;, r.:,i fir': r. d ■ i-ted, beneath the dignity of an indepen* 

J.-i .:■ n-j.im.cr in r^i^ure may we rank the dent k-vritign, and a proof of our national 

jrr.:.--.'ijy •■' u>i' ; v.p'-, wl.o ro<>in <Jt pre- imp t^ncc. The general prinriplei and the 

irj : ;S .; h ih- r-.v 'i/.-.d rc|:inns cf all Lu- unguaroid afT-fticn- hazarded in the memo* 

' ':*■■. I ■ »i . Ijn.-rv.r, a (t'ticrent taik is >ia!, w hjVh i« a good literary production, but 

fo-.ui. .£ y . :'. - d ; urn iluj iv 6 ?y fci'.ncr, a ba.! poiiiical paper, he torn bats- with great 

sin'f-vrn !-v : . ri-c- iljty ti» i ur ca»err, we t:tce o*. argument, and he dr-ws juft con* 

i*rni« . h.^.-'ii.^ c jp a :,. ri - ihe bcro rs of tlie linfu'iu j but hit language is iumetimei 

I.;;.- :.no , «1 iwir::: iui fancy leids u« to Harfn Mir. iru-ece:<t. Thufe who want man* 

e-^j'.ii--. ■.'! v. ..f.icr r,» our faculties and ners themfclves can hardly expect it from 

i i i; u..'.:ii.,. n. ■. n:. . :.< ui for a niomnii," othm. Let us f r once then follow in ft 

Wi:> 'i.; !..ii r >, r. c^ r of himfrlf and his (inall di-gree his bold example, by afleiug a 

trav-i-t;»: r J ,r :* p- : ared to ramble wiih few qn-fttuns. Will this writer confeienci- 

i- "i' : '" ' ;i '-" : <i:. irrn, which will cm- <.i.!ly ..{;i»m, after reading this article, that ne 

i.-itt i-::?. '\. t ii* --c ..nd ditfh, in a hup, is -.i ir.cz. ernJ-nt whig.' He mentions hire- 

flip. ..r.r. ;»-i j , h. m I.midnn to theptir.r'pal ling lcnb:»kr". in the pay of government; . i| 

i :.ic w. J / .» >.:vvl),r'« notice in the Weft he not a needy dependent on the hotted lcad- 

a I \' :■..! if Lr-'arJ, in Wale«, ar.d in rr« ot (pin.-f.ti.--n ^ and lus he not at the 

&• r ' •' '• iare t'i?if found mean? to delude fome mem- 

A - - ■■; »ier. of a !.o;, *im.c the follow- be: o: tbc weak ;.cd w.ckcd miniilry be ac- 

cuft* 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



37 



.bitter terms, 10 grant him a 
:e of zool. per annum, which 

[be tbtSlgnjU a Vols* nmo. 

i of excellent lcttcrt written by 
fince dead, in the year 177 1, 
(l to caution his ward, a young 

I againft inlifting under the b in- 
patient. The falwary advice he 
is applicable to ail the tiring (e- 
r whofe ofe it is published ; and 
r think, with the eaitor, ttut 
»t 10 difpel the del u five charm it 
raifc, and that to ldminifter an 
ii:ifk the poil'on of thii Circean 
cd cf patriotifm and humanity. 
is happily chofen, and it is illuf- 

II elegant emblematical frontif- 
Inight is not here the fignal for a 
ignaiioo, or 1 beafliy debauch; 
lal for the fobec, the virtuou*, and 
oth fezes to retire trom the cir- 
pat ton, bat it is more particularly 

to the' fair (ex. The danger of 
n purfuit of amu foment to tender 
s is dcovmftraicd j nocturnal 
re mown to be the means of de- 
ijugal felicity. The unhappinefs 
5 tine in the modern tafte at dif- 
egcmplificd* The reigning f am- 
oved 10 be only bad habits j and 
gradqally raifed to take a view of 
le enjoyments under the imme- 
xion of the Supreme Being. This 
a recommendation of the a >i ven- 
ial virtue, and of a rational and 
ifcj the p)«n cvncluds* with a 
education lor a young lady uncer a 
:ref» dirKnguiihed for piety and 
The fljle of this performance is 
nd the defign benevolent j we 
ope it will not be thought too Te- 



nons for ladies of the fir ft fa (hi on, both 
young and old, efpecially as an example of a 
relormed old lady is Art before the eyes of 
the young in a mafterly manner. 

VI. Letter 1 between Clara and jfttottia, in 
which are inter fperffd the inter rfiing Me- 
m$in of Lurd Dei Lunette*, a Character in 
real Life 2 Volt. i2mo. 53. Be*. 

A correfjiondencr between two young la- 
dies is nude the vehicle for expofing to pub- 
lick view and general deteftation> a noble- 
nun whofe town and country refidence, of- 
fice a: couit, and near affinity to the gover- 
ns of the royal children are fo plainly de- 
fcribed, that it is impoflible to miftake the 
original from which this picture is copied. 
The ci'cumitmce of his wearing fpeclaclet 
when he travilj, explains the feigned title of 
Des Lunettes j the anguifti of refentment for 
deep injuries has evidently induced Mrs. C— > 
to dip her pen in gall, and if her account of 
the ill ufage flic and her hufband received 
from the Earl is not exaggerated, we muft 
join 'i flue with her, in exprelTing the greatest 
aflomlhment that our mod religious and gra- 
cious king fhould fufter luch a monfter to ap- 
proach his royal perfon, in the familiar de- 
partment of a lord of the bed-chamber. A 
crasy head can be no apology for his lord (hip* ■ 
vices, lunatics are not proper perfon s to at- 
tend on Icnfible monarch 1; the court fliould 
fet an example to the lubjeel, tnd not pro- 
mote lewd and cruel men, luch as Char et II* 
a profeffed libertine, would, h've dif^arded 
for nppteJlive, unn.jnly behaviour to the fair 
fex. A pathrtick rile is introduced in the 
courfe of this tittle work jnuch more inte- 
nding, and ol more utility to the reader 
than the memoirs of an abandoned lord, yet 
no mention is made of it in the title page, 
which /hows that Mrs. C 's principal ob- 
ject was. to tell her own ftory to the world at 
the expciice of his lord/hip. 



POETICAL ESSAYS. 



I for tbt NEW YEAR, 
Jan v ait 1, 1780. 

LLUM WHITEHEAD, Efy. 
Poxt Lauiiat. 

ND dares jnfulting France pretend 
To grafp the trident of the main, 
lopeth'aftoniftfd world fhould bend 
mock pageantry, aflurrTd in vain ? 
: tho* her fleets the billows load, 
lit tho* her mimick thunders roar, 
ears the enfigns of the god, 
t not Bis delegated power : 
< the birth of time 'twas heaven*! 
Iccrec, ' 

1 of illc* mould reign fole cmyrefs 
»f thc&a. 



United Bourbon*s giant pride 

Strains every nerve, each effort tries* 
With all but jufticc on its fide 
That rtrength can give, or perfidy devife. 
Dread they not him who rules the Jlcy» 
Whofe nod diiecls the whirlwind's 
fpeed, 
Who bears his red right arm on high 
For vengeance on the perjur'd head, 
Th* Almighty power, by whofe -u e uft de- 
cree, 
The queen of ifles alone is fovereign of the 
fea? 

Vain-glorious France, deluded Spain 1 
Whom even experience warns in vain 5 
Is there a fea, that dafhing pours 
It's big waves round your trembling ihoresj 
Js there a promouioiy*s brow 



j* POETIC A 

That doet not Britain** vaft achievement! 
know ? 
AfkBifcay's rolling flood, 

Aflc the proud Celtic steep, 
How oft her navies rode 
Triumphant o'er the deep. 

Afk Lago's fummitt, that beheld your fate, 
A/h Calpe's jutting front, fair caui'e of end- 
lefs hate ! 
Yet midft the loud blafts of fame, 

When moftth' admiring nations gaze, 
What to herfclf does Britain claim ? 

— Ttfojt toherfelf (he gives the praife; 
JJut low in durt her head (he bows, 
And proftrate pays her grateful vows 
To him, th* Almighty power, by whofe 
decree 
She reigns, and Aill mall reign, fule emprefs 
of the fea. 



PROLOGUE 

7« tbt new Tragedy §/ ZORAIDA. 
Sptkett by Mr. Pa i. MIR* 

IN days long pair, when every mufe waa 
young, 
Per fu a 6 on dwelt on every poet's tongue ; 
By meant moil obvious were the pafTions rais'd 
And, pleat 'd with novelty, the public prais'd. 
Vow when Melpomene, from year to year, 
Calls terror forth, or draws compiflion's teat. 
By plenty eloy'd, and difficult of choice, 
Fame gives, reliant, her aflenting voice. 

• Hard as thet.tk appears, ntw dingers Hie 
To guard ti»e conqutft of the tragic prize $ 
When here <b late Thalia*! fav*rite fon 
Crowned with yo>:r faireft wreaths his courfe 

hath run ; 
And white with juftelT aim his glitt'ringfpear 
Stops each pretender in his vain career ; 
So bright hit fat ire fir ikes the dazzled view, 
That with falfe arts it almoft damns the true.* 

The tragic mufc demands no common drefs, 
And excellence ftill borders on rxcefs. 
If unaffectedly the language flows. 
How cafy to exclaim, •« mere vulgar profe j* * 
Or fwear the doll, uninterefling theme, 
Lojlt Jijce the murmurs of a purling ft ream. 
If the bold numbers, like a torrent's cdurfe, 
BLoII with impetuous, overwhelming force ; 
If paffion make the broken mea Cures pant, 
Who but condemns it, as unmeaning rant : 
Or if the quick, the fpiritcd reply, [Ggb, 
The paofe, the start, the forrow- breathing 
And every varied gesture, which, imprefs'd 
By nature, rifes from the feeling breast, 
The fcene embcllifls, thefe we may reject 
As the mere pantomime of ftage e freer. 
If brooding o'er its wrongs, in thought rehVd 
The poet trace the workings of the mind j 
If fonk in paflWe grief the wretched ° roan, 
Or make in fond complaint their lor rows 

known, 
Here pride difdaina the forrows plaintive flow, 
And there derides the foohixtry of woe. 

• Jbifi Rtm mtri 



L ESSAYS. Jan. 

Not more the fliaper, by changeful Proteus 

worn, 
Than wit fastidious tajces to mark its fcorff ; 
With nobler purpofe has our bard employ 'd 
His utmost strength, your cenfureto avoid s 
Conlctous of failings, studious of applaufe, 
To your tribunal, he submits his caufe. 
Here wjfdom judges each attempt to plea fe { 
Here mercy tempers all your just decreet. 
This night prefents an oriential tale, 
Where customs different as theclimc^rerail : 
Where paffion f, fir'd by nearer fans, imparl 
A glow more ardent to th* expanding heart ; 
And language, brilliant at their beams, dif- 

plays ' 

Its carir.g flight in more afpirtag phrafe. 
Thefe to pourtray in colours bold, yet true, 
As nature gives them in thofe climes to view. 
Our author aims j but while tjk* approaching 

hour fpo^'r. 

Decides his fate, from your acknowledge » 
Your candour trufting.ashe knows your /kill, 
Tho* hope, and fear, nil breast alternate fill x 
Yet hope, fuperior, whifpers in his ear— 
The most judicious— are the least feyere. 



<» 



E P I L q G" U E 
Spoken by Mrs. Yatii* 
By tbt AUTHOR ef tbt PIECE. 

WELL, thank my stars! no more as*/; 
Eastern bride, 
With joy I lay my pageantry afide, 
And come, my fen's advocate, to claim 
The fign of pity for each A fun dame. 
Secure, and bleft, in this aufpicious ifle. 
Ye little think, in Ana's fultry foil, 
Ye favour*d fair 1 to what a wretched ft ate 
Woman is doooVd by unrelenting fate. 
Give meyourear then, while J lay before ye, 
Our different lor, in plain and art lefs ftory j 
For custom here, whofe magick fetters bind. 
In ev*ry clime, the fubjugaicd mind,. 
The wrongs of beauty amply has redrefs'd, 
And fix'd her empire in each wiping breast. 

Tho' thro* the East proud man, with lawlefa 

fway, 
Dcfpotick rules, while woman mult obey, 
Rcverfe the medal, and we here can ihow 
More abject vaflals in each captive beau. 
*Tit true, in Turkey, each t^ree-t4T4 

Bafliaw 
Can keep a dozen mittretTei in awe j 
But in o^r ifle a dozen lords will find 
'Tin past their tow'r to keep one true, or kind, 
Wit}* them 'tis held, our fex no fool inherit, 
But Brititth women are all lout and fpilU, 
Ufurp the boldnefs of the manly air. 
Lock fierce, laugh loud, uTutne the strut, the 

stare ; f face 

While efTenc'd coxcombs with unblushing 
Affect the foftnefs of the female grace s 
We cannot fight indeed I own, but then 
$t more can thefe half fembjancet of men, 
Wbat tho* in Afia each unhappy fair, 
Deny'd the birthright of her us to frtre. 

Wedded, 

emitted *f<M the f age. 



m'd, _ 
nour*d i 

rind- J 



f U £ T 1 U A 

or fingie, 11 a flare for life* 
i h otm, while ev'ry modifh wife 
i in England at all ties defign'd, 
cfnint, to hold ih* enamour* 

at will, unfettered as the wind, 
rj'd jealonfy there ceafalcfs wake 
actor, if one falfeftep (he make; 
thank heav'n ! iti tyranny is o'er, 
provide ut lovers by the fcore ; 
haace we fiil to gain onr ends, 
nda will fupply m from their friends 
14 our fpoufe prove cruel, or the 
on 

h" indulgence of a fecond paflion, 
aoni loon can rid ui of our pain, 
livorce, and make ui maids again. 

ft apart, tho' cuftom, here hat giv'n 
ich pow'r as keeps the balance cv'n, 
$} trath. I boldly will maintain, 
tho glory ever yours remain, 
e in Britain can be faid, 
roos homage to our fex is paid, 
dignity with pride may give, 
kb dames with honour can receive, 
elf, reluctantly, muft own, 
our foibles, no were can be ftiown 
sty, virtue, modefty, or fenfe, 
and adorn pre-eminence, 
that pow'r, which, arm'd in mer* 
Wife, ' 
res cbedienee to its laws, 

DOW exerted to befriend 
i labours, and his fame defend 1 

I know, will deem your fav'ring 



! retribution for his toil ; 

j orphan find a guardian here, 

*aa alien, ihe has nought to fear I 

once adopted for your own, 

. the fplendaur of an eaftern- throne. 



iOGUE to tt$ TIMES. 

Spkcit by Air* Kin e. 

rw with ardour, and attempt with 

nation of the pablick weal, 
b doty of the comic mule j 
keen attick fait allowed tou r e, 
precept, and with art to tickle 
the means to walh with (harpeft 

te rofj, pulpitted divine, 

hair'd me t hod j ft with rueful whine, 

itcnt to root out vice and folly, 

B ye all lead lives difcrcet «*nd holy. 

y to clear the field were all their 

'cifprcad not the luxuriant foil ? 
or Wcficy, Wh/tcficldor Molierr, 
ght prompt the Jaugb, or bribe the 

i felt,' or in himfelf or Belabour, 
ig to call forth the icaUt's Jaucur j 



1* £ S S A Y S. 3g 

If no fair name defcr^'d, 'midft her ac- 
quaintance, [ancc. 
Seme few who might be mended by repent- 
Loofe as the buxom air, the youth from 
college [Ail knowledge a 
Comes fraught with all Newmarket' j hope- 
lu baflc to fpend the cftaie, not yet his owa, 
Combines his ruin ere his beard is grown j 
And when to f< reign crimes he fpreads his lail 
% Ti« not t* enlarge the mind, but 'feape a jail. 

Then bleft the poet, happy the divine, 
When folly gives the ton from f- Avon's 

fhrine ! 
But wbiift the prieft and fa'yrifl reprove 
Thofe vices which provi ke the wrath ofjove, 
Our author, like the p.tUnt angel, fitting, 
To catch Imall fry, ior humbler palatci fit- 
t>»?» [crim«-«, 

Has J'eiv'd a meal, not feafonM h"«gh with 
Tafle it, and if approv'd, applaud— Tan 
Times. 



EPILOGUE. 
Spktn by Mlft FakiiKi 

WHILE grave-pae'd tragedy, with ohs 
and ftarts 1 [hearts, 

Flies at high game, to move and mend your 
We merrier folks, with fpirits bliihQ and 

jolly, 
Juft perch upon fome little fprig of folly ; 
lor in this age, fo pious, chailc, and grave. 
To rail at vice muft furely be to rave. 

Yet thanks to here and there a modiuS fool. 
The comic mufc may gleam fome ridicule. 
Jews will be Jews, if dupes can yet be found*, 
And if one frail one's left on English ground. 
She'll find a phaeton and pair of ponies 
T* elope, for all men are not macaronies— 
Thofe precious dears, at leaft, would make 

her wait— 
'T would be fo vulgar, net to be too late. 
Our fex— but shall I charge the weaker 
kind? [blind? 

Or can thofe fail to ftray, whofe guides are 
Let men reform themfeltes, they're our ex- 
amples} [Camples. 
And goods prove fcldom better tlun ih:ir 
In former times the gallant BrirsOi youth 
Were form'd for Cuivalry, and love, and 

truth — 
In fuch an age, in fuch a viiiuou* nation, 
Love was in woman almoft inspiration— 
But now, alas ! I fpeak without a jeft, 
Women are nut infpiYd— they're but poticrft. 
Men are our pilots ! they should mark tho 
shelves, [iVIvts. 

For when they bLroe us, they reproach iiiem- 



71* PARLIAMENT MAN. 



D' 



k BMUR£ and profound, 
Wi:h a bow to the ground, 
With wifdom that no one can fcao j 



With 



40 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



With his countiy at heart, 
.And a cant preuy fmart, 
Commences a Parliament Man* 

The Borough obtain'd, 

(N-'t hi* trcafure regain'd) 
His wife om find out, if you can, 

Tbo* he vows in good part 

He's yout c lp bo^y and Hot* 
And fwears like a Parliament Man. 

Then archly at a moufe 

He flees to the Houfe, 
For Government I've a new pirn ; 

Adopt ail my rules, 

Or you're doating fools, 
For 1*11 prove a true Parliament Man. 

Thus the Houfe i* perplex'd, 
And moft ^.riev-jufiy vex 'a, 
With the mea Cures on which bis tongue ran} 
Times went grievoully fore, 
In a paflion he Iwore, 



Jan. 



And he fwore like a Parliament Man. 

This at fir ft was hit tone, 

But he ('ion changed hit moan v 
And ihow'd 'em 'twas nought but a flam j 

For the very next day. 

He mov'd t'other way. 
Faith j uft like a Parliament Man. 

On a deliberation, 

Mature of the nation, 
(Quoth he in his fleeve them I'll cram) 

I find the times light, 

And the minifter light. 
And m>fclf a true Parliament Man* 

The Houfe in a flight, 

Swore the Devil outright, 
Had given b:th parties the flamf 

But the cam in his hold. 

From the treafury told, 
Approved him a Parliament Man* K 



THE MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



LONDON. 
Sttvniay, Jmnuary j, 1780. 

Jf]&4E"*l H B following interefting af- 
Cf |3 fair haying been the topic of 

^5 T \i cbnver/ation In aixnoft every 
9f[ jH( part of Europe, we are happy 

fci 2*«3T «af in baring the opportunity of 
* •**** presenting our readers with an 
authentic account of it. 

One John Michael Arnold, a Miller, had 
bought the -leafe of a mill belonging tn the 
cftate of Count Schmettau, of Pommersig, 
situated in the new Mircheof Brandenburgh, 
Bear the city of Cuftrin, and known in (hat 
province under the name of the Pommertxi- 
ger Kerb's Mill. This mill, at the time 
when Mr. Arnold bought the leafe of it, wat 
plentifully fupplied with water by a rivulet 
which empties itfdf into the river Warta. 
. During fix years Mr. Arnold had made va- 
i ious improvements in the faid mill, and by 
aieant of bit labour and industry had been 
enabled to pay his rent regularly, and to ac- 
quire a Sufficiency for the maintenance of Ms 
family. At the end of that period, *b ut 
four years ago, the proprietor of the faid m 11 
refolved to enlarge a (impend contiguous to 
hit feat, and caurcd a canal to be cut from 
the faid rivulet, at a fmall diftar.ee above the 
mill, to fupply hi> fi to pond with wiier. By 
thefe means the current of the (beam wat 
IciTened, and the quantity of Water fo much 
diminifheo, that the mill could no longer ao 
the ufual work. 

The miller had forefeen the event, and 
from the beginning had remottftrated againft 
the cutting of the canal. But hi* rcmon- 
fl ranees, as well as his follicitation* f »r can- 
celling the leafe, proving in vain, he was at 
laA forced to feck rcdrcft in a couit of judi- 



cature at Cuftrin, to whofe cognisance the 
affair belonged $ but his lord, being a man of 
fortune and con Sequence in that province, 
(00a found means 10 frufttate hit endeavours. 
He continued to enlarge hit finpond, fo that 
the milicr, inftead of obtaining red re ft, 
found his water daily decreafiftg to fneb a do 
grec, th*t at laft he could only work during 
two or thret weeks in Spring, and about as 
many in the latter part of the year. 

Under thefe circumstances, ihe miliar 
could no longer procure hit livelihood, and 
pay his rent, and consequently became in- 
debted to Jus lord for a considerable fum. 
The Utter, in order to obtain his reut, evu 
lered a fuit ugainft him in the fame court of 
law at Cuftrin, which had before refufed re- 
lief to the milicr, and foon obtained a fen- 
tence againft the miller's effceV j which 
fentence bewig approved of and ratified in the 
high court 01 appeals at Berlin* wat put iatn 
execution. The miller's leafe, utenlls, 
goods, and chattels, were feifed and fold, in 
order to pay the arrears uf rent, and the of- 
fences of a moft iniquitous law* fuit; and 
thus poor Arnold and hit family were re- 
duced to W4«t and wretchedncfa. 

A g-aring injuftice of that kind could not 
pafs unnoticed by fume friends to humanity, 
who we 1 knew the benevolent and equitable 
intentions of their fovereiga. They advifed 
and afiiftcd the miller to lay hit cafe before 
the kin^. His majefty, ArucJc with the 
Simplicity cf the narrative, and the injuftice 
that had apparently been committed, refolved 
to enquire minutely into thit affair, and if 
the miller's afl'ertiont . were founded it troth, 
to punifh, in an exemplary tmnDtr 9 the 
authors and promoters of fach an unjuft fen* 
tence. 

The king accordingly made enquiries, and 

the 






MONTHLY CHRONOL'OGER. It 

1 am. received corroborated the them, and afterwards commanded hit private 
ift a Hit maje$y afterwards fecretsry to icad the refolutior.s which his 
Ac rcfjfler of bis high court of ap- majefty had dictated to him, and figned be- 
■lib all the memorials and pleadings fore, and which are as follow : 
aid Uw-fnic to be kid before- him, " The fentence decreed aea : nft the miller 
e reviled himielf, affiftcd by an ctni- Arnold, of the Pomme*tzig-r Kerb's Mill, 
rycr| and that nothing might be in the new Marche of Brandt nburgh, being 
1 hit majefty Jcnt a pcrfon of con6- an act of the moil Angular injurtice, and en- 
► Cnftrin, with orders to furvey the tirely oppofite to the p.-tcrn.^l intention* of 
4 the rivulet, and the new canal, as his majcily, wbofc (irtirc it is that impartial 
inquire into the miller's character, juftice be fperdily adminifLrcd 10 all hi* full- 
er filnitioa in life, the true caufe of jects, whether rich or poor, w ; thr.ut any re- 
ret and all other circumftances at- pard to their rank or perfonr ; his majefty, 
thia aflair. Anil after being fully in order to prevent fimilar iniquities for the 
d v as well from the report of the faid future, is refolded to pun'.fh, in an exempla- 
oner, aa alio from the papers laid ry manner, the authors cf tha'. unjuft len- 
im, that the fentence again ft the faid tence, and to efbbifh an example for the 
mold was an act of the mnft lingo- future conduct uf judges and magirtraf:« in 
lice and oppreflion, his maj:fly im- his dominions. For they ali are to corfijer, 
y dictated and figned his tefoluiions that the mcaneft peafant, nay even the beg- 
n r gar, is a man, as well as the king, ani con- 
ic next day the lung-ordered his high .fcquently equally entitled to impartial juftice, 
or. Baron Fuiot, as aKoMtff. Chiift. eipecially, as in ihe piefrnce of juftice all 
FnedeM» Henry Lewis Craun, and are equal, whether it be a prince wrm biings 
WH&an Oaten, the three counsellors a complaint againft a peal'ant, or a peai-il 
1Q law, who, togtther win- the who prefers one againft a princ:; in irnilar 
or, had fgned and approved the faid cafe; juftice fhould act uniformly, without 
1 into his cabinet, and on their ar- any rctnTprct to rank or perion. ihjs ru ht 
sjMJefty pat the following queftions , to br an univerf.il rule lor the conduit o£ 
l juagei i and if the couitv vi law in his mi- 
on I. When a lord takes from a jefty's dominioiu fhould ever aeviaie from this 
who rents a piece of ground under principle of equity ihcy nuy depend upon 
lis waggon, hosfe, plough, and beii.g fivcreiy puniihed j for an unjult m»- 
saAIs, by which he earns hit living, giflr^it, or a court 01 law, guilty cf wrong, 
hereby prevented from paying hit and lubfervicnt to opprefllon, are more d.m- 
l a fentence of diftre/s be in juftice gerou» than a band of robber, againft whum 
xd upon that peaiaat ? any man may be on his guard j but bad men 
nil aafwered in the negative, entrufted with authority, who under the 
on II* Can a like ftntence be pro- cloak of juiiuc practice their iniquije?, are 
upon a miller for non payment of not fo eafiiy guarded againft ; thiy arc tha 
a mill, after the water, which nfed worft of villains, and defexve double punifh- 
is mill, it wilfully taken from him ment. 

roprietor of the mill ? " The king, at the fame time, hereby 

aUb anfwerad in the negative* fignifles to all nis courts of Jaw, that he has 

, did the king, you have yoorfelf appointed a new bigh chancellor, and that 

edged the iojoftice you have com- his m*jefly will be very ex^ct, for the fuiurc, 

-Here is the cafe t— A nobleman, in the examination of hie, and or their pro- 

to enlarge his ft A pond, ha* caufed cceding;, Thry are, moreover, hereby fti icily 

be cat to receive more water from commanded, 

: which nfed to turn a mill. By " 1. To bring all Iaw-fuiti to the fpeedt- 

ans the miller loft his water, and eft conclufion. 

t work hit mill above a fortnight in II. Carefully to avoid that the fnered name 
nd about as many days in autumn, of juftice may never be profaned by acts vi 
Sanding it is expected that he fhall oppreftion and injuflice, and 
eat as before, when his mill was " III. To act with the moft abfolute im- 
ry fuppJicd with w*ter j but as that partiality towards every one, whrirn.r j-ri'-.ce, 
af his power, from the impombihty or peafant, without the leaft regard to f; Lua- 
ng his trade, the court of joftice at lion in lite. 

decreed, that the miller's effects, " And in cafe his nrjefty would <ind th-ir 

id chattels, mould be fold to pay proceedings in any ways contrary to ihe abwe 

art of re&t, which fentence being orders, they may depend upon * rigorous 

le high court of appeals here, is con- pumlhment; the prtfuient, as well as the" 

id figncd fcy you, and hai fincc been seipectivc judges and councilor*, wSto fhall 

be found puihy ot' f or acceHuiy to, <*r.y J^::- 

he king ordered the fentence, with tence directly oppofue to the fundamental 

seftive ngnatnres, to be laid before principles of juftice. Whereof all the courts 

• Mao. Jsn,i78v« F ef 



42 MONTHLY CHR0N OLOGER. 

of law in all bis majefty't dominicns are to Satvidat, 15. 

take notice. A letter from t gentleman in 

(S'gned) FREDERIC. 1 * dated Nov. ro, has the following ] 

Berlin Dec. n, 1779. in addrion to what has been alt 

A tar the reading of the above, the king tioned ; 

told the high chancellor that he had no fur- " Our befiegers amoonted to 4c 

ther occafion for his fervrces, and ordered and acco Ameiicant. For the 

them all to withdraw, and the three coun- days of the fiege a conftant fire « 

frllors, F.iedelt, Graun, and Ranflebcn, to on both fides, at the diftancto 

bs taken tntocu A ody. He alfo fent imme- paces. A fecund fummons was t 

di.tc order* to Cuftrin, for the prefidenr, fur render, or take the confequenct 

jud^ei, *nd councilors, who hid decreed the in which cafe norefpe£r would be 

u aloft (Vmcnce in the fiift inftance, to be ar- or fcx. Moil of our women bciog 

reftrd ; and afterwards nominated a com- infon's Ifland, or on board Hups qm 

m.ilion, under the direction of Baron de the town, it was relolved to defra 

Z'dlitr, minuter of ftate, to proceed againft to the lift extremity. Soldiers, f 

them .ill according to law. citiaens, unanimously approving ! 

Hi? rn>jrfty, in confideration of the fa?d anfwer returned by our general, ««l 

; njulrice, has prefentcd the miller Arnold They took us at our word, attacke 

with the fum of 1500 rixdoilm. He alfo actually planted one French and a 

ndcted tM.it a fum, equal to that produced can ftandard on the parapet of ait 

by the (ale of the miletN effects, be flopped were, after an engagement of an ft 

and paid to him from th-* falarici due to the half, rtpulfed with great Aaoghtti 

rr(j cftrvc judges, &c. who had any (hare in " I will only add two circusnirji 

that Lniuft fentence ; and h a % moreover, really appear miraculoas. W« di 

condemned the ptoprictor of the mill to re- ten men in the action, nor moret 

imburfe to the miller all the rent he had ring the (lege ; though the enemy 

received, from the time when he fi; ft opened than 5000 eighteen pound mot, 

the canal. above 1000 eight and ten inch $ 

Monday* ic. many carcafc?, agai n ft oar works 1 

ThcProte£Uur,a Fiench man of war of 74 Nor did above 500 men, includ 

funs (on board of which were a gicat nom- and militia, fire a (hot during 

b.T ol English pri loners) is fafely anived at Our garrifon confiftcd of about ■ 

S*. Rochelle, after a tedious p^Tage, from of them only 1700 were Eurae 

Si. Domingo. A violent hurricane obliged battalions of Highlander!, or 71! 

the captain to throw overboard mod of hit Heffians 5 and about 30s) cf the 

S'in«, her forem ft went by the board, and 60th) the reft were Provincial!, fe 

jhr arrived oft' the Ifle of Rhe a mere wreck, militia; and none of the regulars 

The Engliih paficngcrs were two lieutenants occafion to change the pofts aJHgta 

of the royal artillery, and mod of the officers the lines, in order to fupport the Jo 

of the 48th regiment, who were taken at Faipav, at. 

Granada, from whence, atter Count D'Ef- The following is the fubftanceoi 

i.sign hid fuffcred his people to ftrip them feflion of a woman named Howard, 

even of their wearing apparel, they were fent vered herfelf intothe hands of jmtif 

to St. Domingo, and kept in clofe confine- mitting a morther, about 17 years ag 

m-rnt till they embarked in the above man of gcrford, in company with one Jonei 

war. On their arrival at St. Rochelle, the with whom me then cohabited. Shi 

inhabitants treated them with the utmoft po- Kingfton gaol, and Fielding's pre 

litrnds and hofpitality. Moft of the above fearch of Jones. She fays that M 

ttficers have received paflports from the court and his wife, who then lived at H 

f.t VerCiiik-s, and are daily expected home by and who were reputed licb, were n 

way of O.lend. their maid - fervant to a neighbo 

Wednesday, 12. every evening, in order to fave fli 

V; n-jre. y the new- circled members of the In their own kitchen. That Joni 

c >:n:)i c-ur.cil took the ul'ual oath? for t« Howard to enter the home, c 

t l -...-ir <:-.j' tif-.'.tion at the feflion s at Guild- maid's abfence, to murder Chenc 

h", .'.r. ! immediately afterwards a court of wife, and rob the houfe. That ft) 

c ...n.or.-c.unril was helc*, when the Com- unwilling to engage in it, and there 

ni'.L c .ijMM.intcd to enouirr into the rights of firft made her dmr.k, and then po 

tit . in- r.i!>T? ot that c-Mjrt to be governors of the window of the uou'e, and ffol 

\'r. ■ R' v ■• H .'V'l.ils re; ortcd a ftate of their himfell : that fhe got a p^ker, and 

I • .- '-.<: -■, ;ind of thy mrafLret taken by fi»ft blow at one of the dscea'ed, 

r\".r <■;■..-.- :.t*. ; :nd the committee were not repeat it ; but that J'-nes with 

c; r o- » ri- l*T'd th-_- right of the corpora- fjon difpatched them both. Thai 

t: •■.: ; . ..;■ h m inn-r a* i!iey fliuuld be a iviicd, plundered the houfe of money, | 

? ■=. tir^w no oil the chamber for the 11c- when they both went off, and tra< 
' ■■■ o.juncci. 



MONTHLY CH 

or 15 miles. That Jones gave her 
acas, feme silver, a pair of filver 
In, aad fbaa after left her, nor did 
B for fftne yean after. That (he 
vach troubled in mind ever fince* 
pC apoa the coping of K>ng(toa- 
ith an intention to jump in, but 
g that wai adding fin to fin, me 
t beat to deliver hcrfelf up to juAice. 

Satvbday, %%. 
ay at one o*c!ock the Lord- Mayor 
Ihcriff Pagh went to Ironmonger's* 
cburch-Jlrect, when a waidraote 
before hii lordfliip for tbe election 
dcrman for Aldgate-Ward, in the 
rVilliam Lze 9 Eiq. who by a polite 
Mr. Deputy Partridge, which was 
e the court of aidermen, refigned 
j when William Burnell, Eiq. one 
i ikeriffff was chofen without op- 
He ihea addrcfrd the common- 
ad gentlemen of the ward in a fliort 
starring them his tbtnks for the 
at they had that day conferred on 
triag them he weo!d on all occa- 
w nimfelf tot unworthy of their 
f (its constat attendance and faith- 
ifffjc of the dutits of the office, and 
vatckral to prefervc the rights and 
if his fallowcitixens from violation, 
talarVy thole of that ward. A mo- 
then Blade by Mr. Deputy Partridge 
thanks to their late Alderman Wii- 
1 Eli|. for hi* rcadinets to refign his 
c. when their appea-ed a majority 
I on whkh the hall was ordeted to 

I of all that were not houfekeepers, 
itnbcts went away, a ad o:hcrs were 
at 1 opoa which the motion was 
t, aad carried by a majority of about 

Monday, 24. 
lift hat been lately published in 
which forbids thrir artificers of any 
attver to embark for America with. 

I I and laying heavy penalties on the 
fan taking them without firft ob- 
1 licence tor that parpofc. Copies 
k ap ia all the ports, principal cities 9 
a ia that kingdom. 

Tuesday, 15. 

sfty-Qfictt J*** 1 if 17 So. Capt. 
of his nwjefly's floop the Refolution, 
sr to Mr. Stephens, dated the 8th of 
79, in the harbour of St. Peter and 
, Kamfchatka, which was received 
• gives the melancholy account of 
prated Capt, Cook, late commander 
loop, with fear of his private ma- 
laving been killed on the 14 of Fe- 
dt at the iflaad of O'why'he, one of 
new discovered islands, in the 2 id 
r North latitude, in an affray with a 
a aad tamoltuous body or natives. 
Clarke adds, that he had received 
eodly fapuly from the Ruffian go* 



RONOLOGER, 43 

verament ; and that as the companies of the 
Resolution and her confort the Discovery 
were in perfect health, and the two Hoops 
had twelve months Acres and piovilions on 
board, he wa* preparing to make another, 
attempt to explore a Northern p-Cagc to Eu- 
rope. 

Extra ff <tfa Letter f rem Capt. CUrken$ Kum- 
fikatka, to a Friend in England. 
■« After a fliort ft*y at the Cape of Good 
Hope, Capt. Cook fleered his courfe for the 
Southern coaft of New Holland, and, though 
he was driven very far Nurlhw^rd by a vio- 
lent temp^ft, be fucceided in discovering the 
land he was in fearch of, and coafted for the 
length of 400 leagues N. N. W. making 
frveral important difcoveries in his way \ 
among the others, hefuund a fmall ifland, 
covered with nuimcp, anJ could have loaded 
a boat with them ) be, however, tcok a very 
fmall quantity, but carefu!!y incLfcd la of 
the young trees, which he afterwards caufed 
to be planted ia Otahute. 

" from the coaft of New Holland he 
p.'flcd by part of New Guinea, till then un- 
knot n, and by that mcjns was able to af- 
c?rtain exactly the form of that great ifland 5 
he then j»u riurd hii w*y, to Ouheue, where 
he landed Orniab, who was received by his 
countrymen with fuch acclamations and ex* 
preffioni of joy and lurprit'e intermingled, aa 
pliiniy (hewed that thele iflandcrs had fcarce 
atiy expectation of feeing him again j but 
their aftonifhment was fo great on beholding 
a horle and mare, with a bull and cow, 
coma out of the ark of this modern Noah, . 
that it appeared almoft like adoration. Ornish 
explained to them the nature and ufc of thefe 
animals, and many other things which be 
had learned in England \ he feemed de- 
lighted to find himfelr ag.tn among his 
countrymen; and they, on their part;, did 
not dilcover the lead jcaloufy at htm, fa 
rich, fo murh inftrucled, and fuperior to 
them. Capt. Cook remaned at this ifland, 
which he had a partiality for, about two 
month •, at the end of which time he made a 
voyage to the North-weft, which lafled feven 
months, but was not abie to find the paAage 
he fought for. From thence directing hia 
CQunc towards Kamfchatka, he palled an in* 
finite number of ifland* of various fise«, a- 
mong the reft that of O'whyhee, wh~re;c 
met with his death.*' 

When Ca^t. Gierke fent his difyat.hc* fo 
government, he' was preparing to return to 
Otahcite, and intended to bring .Omiah back 
with h»na to England, if he expreflcd ar.y 
defuc cf returning, «fter he bad made ano- 
ther attempt for difcovering the North WJt 
paflagc. 

The ahove wa* re id, among article* con- 
cerning C.pt. Cork, before the Royal S>- 
cieiy. 

The fo 1 lowing arc reported to be the par- 
ticulars of the dc*ih *>i Capi. Cook ; that 



44 



MONTHLY. CHRONOLOGSR. 



having been a cor, f: dcr jble time at the ifland 

ift here re met witn his Utc,andaU ihc while 

▼cry tiie;;dly wiih the inhabitants; upon 

fa<)ir.£ ir:-m iKi-i.cp he met with an accident 

in '.Ik- n.art *t rm ihp, and returned thereto 

rcrni' it. The pciv-:t then {hewed a dif- 

fr.er.t ci'p.-.f.ti -m, .mij took away one of his 

I...U-, wrjic!-* ;ii y v culd not return » upon 

\vi cj the C p:a : n, with a lieutenant and 

nire :r.-:r:r. £•:•>, wi :u or. fnore to con pel them 

I 1 .- ».( .!vr' th- '.. it j tl» y fe-.med ve:y riotous 

jr..! rin'w j ' r .!»'.'"V-l :.y ■ :»c man, whom the 

C^ptiio oiilc.u: t. be tired tn with linali fhit, 

v. i.i. h :h.. :;■ t !.\j oi;m, hi oidned bullets 

u. be :;:»■.:, v. i::i :i ki.Ied the mcic dartng 

ir:.;i . sitl . ;5 I' •-.■: } cpi'ii which th'y lufhed 

j.. ii:«.,i. t.:' t:. \ii. a d his peoplt witn Urjie 

i ;i 'c i.im and ftur men j the 

:.:! »}..* icfi or the men cfcaped. 

.;; w v \'v- n iu the neighbourhood 



(!i b , a* v 
Jr. w ■. ii i. 1 * .. 

C • . » « <- •• ■ » 

Xir:«i r ../:■. il I 



tv 

j< 

<»t 



1 •.-.«: 



■■> 



\ 

!r< ■: 



l 
Oj 



|« - ■ . \- - *. - 

t vkg ;rs '. : 
r ■.;•-• i n\<i '. v 

tiiC J2lh 
vv j "> .. r ( < 
1 : der. 
' : ;it v. C. :v.rr,: 
t a ;i * i - - 2 rr 
<;; n.vc.y i.i t: 
i.?v* .■ ;.! "ij »:. 
Ii;;! ■ .! "I. :':j-' 



r 
i i 



,.o :k» n at lea from his ycu:h, 
.11 the flalinns belonging 
^ i -^'^rrririre boy into the 
w. • :".'i* appointed captain 
, r.ii li'ilrd fioni Diftlord 
an.) ax rived r.i O ta- 
llowing. Ke con- 
.!; S.-3i :iHMauh 1770, and 
v. v ' r' Cjtuvia to England 
; , 1771. I-'i this voyjgc he 
. 1, 1 y i\j.-. Bank* and Dr. So- 
?." v \«.n'.ijtr ??, 1771, he was ap- 
i.< r ' r il.c Rcfolulion j and 



• i » 



i'»' 



I :- f -c-^nd voyage lor the 
b;. ...!.;•: ji hemifplicrc, and 
as t '. \\ a Southern lati- 
. 1 v.. tli nahin/ but iflands 



<: ::v t vw -cr» )•■.••.:; u; : r.^ his pafiuge obliged 
h ;,, .i !i« .. iw."'!. .... i ...i :he 29th of July, 
17-75. hi* ;rrive-i .a IVyxouth. In July 1776 
C'j^- Ci.r'.c '-i -« : t:on-.I'!y!r.cuth a third time 
i'i ,!ir !--..• <.':',< •■y.'.y > of whum nothing 
J. if! :• .•- h-.!-d Mcr lr,r depasture from the 
C.< c !'■• <" : ci':i Hkc iill the unfoitun^te ac- 
(;:uut ifi:'" i!--tii a t . v A by way of Ruilia, 
It: »* ai-.vf.-fi .M.frco::.!.-, that in the fecond 
v?.\.i2* t ■ C-:-"alu '.r.-bliflicd fuch a fyllem 
c>i r '.:.-; .'-.' ilr-.-.iMiif f that (to ufc his own 
v,r^ ) uril.r .!:■■ :i-.in-* '.ivr-ur, Capt. Cook, 
v. .1 n a c 



Vt •. 1. 



out :•' 


i ti; 


* ci 


to 




&* 


c . ' 


*• . 


r 


T»i 


• • 


K 


V 


ii-. j 


.. . 


V 


■*.t 


(Ti 


be. 


h 


• ■ -* 


• 1 






if 


n". 


:.«1 


°i 


••1 


11 




of" 




. 1 

• — 


• 



c - ;> •■; : i.S men, performed a 

•f ;h: ■■ * -,r nd 18 days, thrt.ugh- 

i: tt. 52 ce^rrcf Koflh, 

, wi. h tht Jufs ci* "only 

.-, a:.d he ii fu^pofed to 

1 >k j< :.U lui.fj v. hen he 

or, bc.;rd. vkhi^n probably occafioncd 



.1 »■ 



vv'-> i- I always the higheft 
. r- i:, h.Tf cdercd' a pcnfiun 
! r .,:: 'A'.cow. 
«v. '.*•'•. r r .* ' ..!:: o:" drawing!, and 
C- :.C /. .-■;..!: l. 1 . : lim^ ol hi:, death. 
\V / fiv j '. :^ i v, 26. 

<{ Th** j ...'» »•, who i> arrived at P!y- 

jr.r.-. 'i w-... • c. 1 '■.- Spanifh transports 
:rc :\ Cape l.-.i .■jr.», ».nc of the fleet taken 




by Sir George Rodney's fqtiadtoii, &jf» *~- 
there were upwards of 3000 Spanish iV 
on board tkeir rlcet, out no feldiers. Sc 
of the irant'pjtls mounted guns, and fa 
them were Sco toci bunhcn. Heheaidl 
more than h-ut of thrm were built for fii|tC^? 
and wrc to be emoloyea as fuch when l **"^^ 
got to the Hav.unh, whither they m& ^9 
bound. No tur.s were fired, but tbofe isW^* 1 ? 
brcj b ht them to. 

TlILSSDAY, 27. 

The Ca?t-:n ot* the Carteret Paclccflb 
which is aiiivcd at Penzance with the MaJsf 
wiUcs word, th*L Fcr.ficoU is ulcen by tft* 
Ame:icjn», in coi.jui.c\ui» with the French : 
a.-^d S^ani :c«. The captain uys, thai on — 
the 22d of D „-snib-.r he was ordered o« ■ = 
cruii'e, that on tne a8:b he was cha.ed by — 
fjme French men of war 1*0 near the iflaM 
that he law the Amcsican colours flyiBfc isw- 
ard feveral French, S^mlh, and Americafl .. 
men of war lie in the iiaibcur, and thereupon ,.■£ 
made th^ b.-A of his way lor England, an^ s . 
got fafc imo I^er.zancc, from whence be fenl ^ 
up the letters, &c. 10 the Gccaal Pof ^ 
OfHc 



e. 



From the London Gazetti* 

Mnlrulty-Cpce, Jan. 3, 1780. Capq '" 
Maitial, ui lob m-j lily's ihip Emerald, if- # 
rived late lall m t hi from Capt. Fieldingf ( - 
wah an account or his having fallen in with ■- 
a fleet of Dutch merchant Ihipr, under eottf J 
voy of the Acmiral Count Byland, with I u 
Ajuadron < f fiv_- ihips aad frigates of war* - 

Capt. Fielding d.fircd permiflion to vifil 
the /hip?, whicn was iciuicd* Vpon feneV L 
in^ his boats to vifit in cm, tbey were firad 
at ; upon which he fired a /hot -a- bead of the 
Dutch Admiial, who returned a broadside | , 
Capt. Fitfldiug did the l:ke j and then th| 
Dutch immediately HrucK their colunrr, 
Such of the merchant mips at have naval 
(lores on board were (lopped; and the Dutc"i 
A; : mirsl told, that he was at liberty to hoif 
hib colours, and profecute his voyage* ' He 
accepted the Knncr, and faluted, bnt 4e» 
clincd the later, and is coining* with the 
fhij s that Wi-rc n.idvr his con voy, to Spitbradt 

SidmhaUy CjjUt, Jju. a», 1780. Rcftf 
Aorr.i;al Garn.-)i<.r f in bis letter to Mr, 
S cphciu, dated at Plymouth, the 19th in* 
11. n:, gives an account of the arrival of Mr) 
Wi.liam Jones, mait tr's mate of the Pewit 
in the Amifla Spaniftv prise, by whom he 
karr.s, that on the 71b inftant Admiral' Sit 
George Rodney, with the fleet under hie 
command, in Lat. 44,. 9. Long. i», 2&. fell 
in with a Spanifh fleet of 19 tranfporte front 
fiilboa, bound toCadie, laden with provifsou 
and nuv-1 floret, under convoy of ft 64 gun 
fiiip and five frigates ; the whole of which* 
excepting one traufport, he took ; that they 
are now on their way to England, under pro* 
per co:m*y } that t^c veilel which he hat 
biougla in has cables of a y inches^ and all 

foiU 



MONTHLY CUB-ONOLOGER. 



«• 



tee on board } and that the fri- deration and property in this county, held* 
icfcieay laden with cordate. here this day, the following petition and re- 

r Laurfrtm Cspt* G**UU> •fbh fetation were unanimously agreed to I 
5*a> Fs&ut/io Mir. Sttfbmh M *• '*» &'*■ '** Cm* 9 *' <f Bn*t Grits'm 
rOMt, J». 19, 1780. _, _ hPoirBtmrnsfmUod. 

Mfoti arrived here laft night, and •« Wf Prtir/wi oftbt GemtUmen, CJ*rgj, snd 

Fretbtldert of the County of York, 
« Shcwtlh, 
" That this nation hath been engaged, for 
fcreral yean, in a mod expensive and unfor- 
tunate war ; that many of our valuable colo- 
nies, having actually declared themfclvci in- 
dependent, have formed a strict confederacy 
with France and Spain, the dangerous and 

r invctctate enemies of Great Briuin t That 

fney are both lent the confequence of thofe combined misfor- 
tunes hith been, a large addition to the na* 
mmmmmmm ^^^. tional debt, a heavy accumulation of taxes* 

a rapid decline or the trade, manufactures, 
and land rents of the kingdom. 

M Alarmed at the diminished rcfources and 
growing burtbem of this country, and con- 
vinced tbat rigid frugality is now indifpenfably 



rith her the two following Dutch 
then about 180 tone each, &ift 
irgh, and laft from the Texel, 

row Anna, Garben Aget, matter, 
hips knees, ftandardt, Ire. and 
f copper in Sheet*, for Iheathing. 
aw Catherine, Peter Han fen, 
1 the lame place to Breft, and 
lar cargo, 
d." 

PaOMOTIOM. 



ev. James fitonhontr, M. D. rec- 
r little Gheverel, Wilts, to tbe 
ircac Chevercl, in the fame coun- 
rofcmtaUon of the Right, Hon. the ^P^yfVn^'ever J*de' -irtmeTt 7X"n7tc' 

your petitioners obServe with grief, that, 

notwithstanding the 



Mairiacii. 

IS Susannah Patton, Efq. major 

the 19th regiment of foot, to 

fey, only daughter of Thomas 

f Litchfield, Efq. and niece to 

avid Gamete, Efq.— n. Sparry 

q. Brother of Sir John PeShall, 

lifs Anna Maria Homrr.— A few 

John Macmanara, Xfq^ of Lin- 

10 M<(i Jones, of ftenfington, a 

of immenfe fortune. — Col. Gor- 

e 50th regiment, to Mifs Bam* 

hfer of law late Sir Richard Bam- 

y c4rimore.--44< John Cow per, of 

in Willi, Efq. to Mil's Cope, 

Charles Cope, Bart. 

——11 

Da a mi. 



calamitous and im- 
poverished conduct of the nation, much pub- 
lick money has been improvidently Squander- 
ed, and that many individuals enjuy finecure 
places, efficient places with exoioitaat emo- 
luments, and penfmns unmerited by public 
fc trice, to a large and Still increasing amount; 
whence the Crown hai acquired a great and 
unconstitutional influence, ffhich, if not 
checked, may foon prove fatal to the liberties 
of this country. 

41 Ycur petitioners conc:ivingthst the true 
end of every legitimate government is not tbe 
emolument of any individual, but the wel- 
fare of the community, and confiderinp that 
by the constitution ot this realm the national 
purfe is intruded, in a peculiar manner, to 
the cuStody, of this honourable Houfe, beg 
leave farther to rcprcfent, that, until effectual 



ORGE Booth Tyndale, E.q. of me afures be taken to redrcis the opprcifive 

Bradford in Somerfetihire, fon of gr j c „ nccs herein ftated, the grant of any 

«orge Tyndafe, Eiq. of the fame additional furn of publick money, beyond the 

tephewofche late Right Hon. the produce of the prefent raxes, will be inju- 

ner.— ll. Lady Cuft, relict of the noai t0 tnc f ig DtJ ind pr0 perty of the people, 

ichard Coft, Bart, mother of the an d derogatory from the honour and dignity 

an Cost, Speaker; of the Houfe of f Parliament. 

, and only lifter of the late Sir u y ouf pel irionert, therefore, appealing 

wnlow, Vi/connt Tyrconnel — t0 lnc j uftXcc f thi , honourable Honfe, do 

eborah Lady Holfon, n-licl of Sir mo ft ear neftly request, that before any new 

rodfoo, Bart. — to. Christopher burthens are laid upon this country, effectual 

|. one of the brothers of Sir Pi- me afures may be taken by this Houfe to 

*.— !», Sir Nathaniel WombwclJ, enqu j re i nt0> An & correct tne grofs abufes in 

Sir John Henry More, Bart. by. the expenditure of public money j to reduce 



lh the title ia become extinct.— 
dances hlackwortb, eldest daughter 
rbert MscJtwortb, Bart. 



UNTRY KEWS, 
7M, Dot. go. 
n vwry, nomtvons and resectable 
retfng of ihr aW per fens «/ conft- 



all exorbitant emoluments 5 to refund and 
abolllh all n nee a re places, and unmerited 
pennons ; and to appropriate the produce to 
the neceflitics of the State, in fuch manner 
as to tbe wifdom of Parliament (hall feem 
meet. And your petitioners Shall ever pray, 
&c." 

After which the following refutations worn 
pTOfofedy and alfo unanimously agreed to, vis* 

« A* 



4* 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



sit. Refolved, That the petition now read 
Xf> thi* meeting, addreiTed to the Houfe of 
Common;, and tequefting, that, before any 
r.rw burthens be laid upon the country, ef- 
fectual rr.eai'ores may be taken by that Houfe 
to enquire into and correct the grofs abufes 
in the expenditure of public money ; to re- 
duce a'.l exorbitant emolument* ; to refcind 
and abnlim all fine cure places and unmerited 
pennon* j and to appropriate the produce to 
the nrcm.ics of the ftatc, is approved by 
this meem-.g. 

" :■'. ReioWed, That a committee of 6l 
genthmm be appointed to carry on the necef- 
ia»y correspondence for erTc&ualiy promoting 
the oSj- ft of the petition, and to prepare a 
)\.\n for an ~u"uciation, on legal and confti- 
tuiionu! pr unds, to fop port thit laudable re- 
lk>rm, and tuch other m.afi<rcs as may con- 
duce i> rcftjre the freedom or Parliament, to 
be prelen?cd by the chairman of the com- 
mitcci »'» this mcctinp, hel-H by adjourn- 
ir.v*n;, c;i Tiiuifday in Eaftcr Week next en- 
iwjrit • 

fi.x.y-one very refpeclable gentlemen were 
tl'ci *..j-i!M-f* of the committee. 

Sr vi rj'i other counties h.>ve followed the 
ciample of Yorkshire, and drawn up the 
• •iwc pi.tM:cr.9. 



IRELAND. 
V:Min, December 28. 
•Hi: zd\Q repral certain acV made in 



been taken by the fquadron under h 
mand, of which the following is a 
and Captain Keeler, of the AAaeon 
the Rear- Admiral's fquadron) in a 
Mr. Stephens, dated at St. Lucia, it 
of October, relates, that being a t 
before, with the Cornwall, on a cr 
the ill and of Martinique, they faw t 
the one in chace of the other, the 
which, by fignal from the form 
known to be an enemy; that tb< 
athwart her in order to cut her off I 
iflandj and that foon afterwards 4h< 
to the Hrofcpin? of 28 gons, th< 
that was in purfuitof her, and provi 
the Afcmenr, one of the Count D'l 
fquadron, of 3-) puns and 220 mex 
out a gun beinp fired on either fide. 
An skrouKt of tke Prizes taken by ti 
and Vijjth employed *t Barb*d*t 
Leeward ljUnJiy under the Gun 
Hyde Parker, Fff. Admiral of the 
Auguft 30, 1779* French f 
C< mpa i , bound from Martiniqu- 
with fug;r, 20 guns, and 140 men. 

Sept. 22 and 23. French AipLe F 
Le Bert nun, from Bordeaux to Ca 
cos, wi:h provisions, ice. 55010ns, 
160 men. Ditto. French snip Li 
gere, from Bourdraux to Cape Franc 
provi lions, Sec 600 ions, 30 guns, 1 
Ditto. French /hip Le Hercule, fro 
deaux to Cape Francois, with provifi 
5<o tons, 30 guns, 160 Men. Dittc 
ihip Le Marecbal de BrirTac, froi 
deaux to Cape Francois, with proviC 
400 tons, 22 guns, 150 men. Ditto 
ihip Le Juilc, from Bourdeaux to Ca 
cots, with provifions, fee. 200 tons, 
35 men. Ditto. French ihip La 
from Bourdeaux to Cape Francois, 1 
vifions, Sec. 180 tons, 8 guns, • 
Ditto. French snip La Jeanne I 



Tl 
Gic.tl Britain, which refrain the trade 
Tim : commerce of Ireland to foreign part?, bc- 
i' c ap.n"unc»d officially to the Lord M^yor 
*.: tl.:.- rity of Dublin, in a letter written 
r«jr*.,< u bin lions Lord Hillfboronjh j and 
:i:e .rl b?inp published on the 2S1I1 of De- 
rrr.io.r, *n iilumiiiition took piace, which 
wa* ^'ncia'. 

Tr.Ly wr re from Dublin, that the leaders 
of the f.-vrra! trading companies in that city from Bourdeaux to Cape Francois, v 
iud 7-r-pc i?d to b-vca meeting, to agree to chanoize, 160 tons, 2 guns, 30 met 
havcait-:uc of Lord North erected in feme ~ _ . _ . 

oven part 1 f that city, for his intereiling 
hi-n'r.i" in granting a tree trade to that king- 
dom. 

L.ttrrs from different parts of Ireland fay, 
tint ' r.ic of the mull capital people concerned 
in d t'.crir.: manufactures were embarked for 
1 he Weft Jr. ilia ifiand*, to frttle a conefpon- 
dencc. 1 ,»c letters all acree thsit the people 
are in riiyh fpirit*. and th.tt fin>e thrufands 
of n«ir f.-.T* »iie« wh" weir in a Aarving con- 
oaion arc now ccmr jrtib'y employed. 



AMERICAN AFFAIRS. 

Admiralty 0£i e, Junuary 22, 1780. 

T-) LAR-Admiral Parker, commander in 
V «l ,: .ef of his m.jefly's mips at the Lee- 
ward :!» t.''-, in hi& tetter to Mr. Stcph'enr, 
datrd .1. Dirbadoe? the j6th of October l*ft, 
has tiinlr.ulttd a lid of the prizes thai had 



Sept. 14. French PoJacca Cathar 
Marlcillc* to Martinique, with 1 
cardie*, &c. 100 tons, 4 gnat, 27 

Sept. 22 and 23. French fell 
L'zarde, from Martinique to B 
with fugar, cocoa, and coffee, 50 
men. Ditto. American fchoon 
DXftaign, from New London to 
que, with lumber, Ice. 90 tons, 2a 

Sept. 25. French ihip Chauvij 
Cayenne to Cape Francois, with I 
brick, &c. 550 tons, if guns, 52 m 
French Inow St. Jacque, from C 
Cape Francois, with fire- wood, hi 
250 tons, 18 guns, 40 men. 

Sept. 8. American fchooncr Sa 
Maiblche.'d to Guadaloupe, will 
60 tonr, 6 men. 

Sept. 16. American fchoone 
from Salem to Guadaloupe, wit! 
lumber, 4P tons, 5 men* 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 47 

•9* American brig tair, from Benjamin Webfler. 

-Town to St. Martial, with lice and Samuel William!, fifembrr of the Council. 

iiotoni, 15 men. Richard W. Co-muk, Mcmb. of the Allem. 

— — — — — Richard Willis 



brcfiwrf tbt R'gbt Honourable George Alexander Houftoun,Memb. of theA/Terribiy. 

ttnej, Baton of tbt Lijkmouri, Knt. ^l«»nder Symfon^Member of the Affembly. 

Bsxb f &c. Charles Hamilton. 

Irtfs f/ficb «/ tbt principal Inbabi- Frances Korfley, Member of the Aflembly, 
ytb* JjUnd of Grtnndm, at art novo 



tfSsmt ^i ,fa>« FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

icxtimonies which Jl orders of men T ETTERS f.om Petcrfburgh, f*y, There 

pour Excellency's late government, -*— ' lt no longer any doubt but our e urt 

n of ihclr fenfe of the wifdom and hat refolved to affirt G cat Britain againA Jur 

>f your conduce while you pre fid ed '«*°lted colonics in America, with a certain 

■1 at well as of your conftant xea- nu mber of (hips and troops, which wiil be 

well directed attention to their fe- r . CJ<,v * n * fhort time. As the abovemin- 

ld welfare, arc too well founded to tio " C( * war is very prejudicial to our trade in 

a proof of their fincerity by a repe- ««ny refpefls j the merchants of this em. 

them, after your adminiflration has P irc are extremely well fathfied that our go- 
t the fate of war. We (hail there- »«rament have determined to aiTift Great- 
Ma preffing moment of your Excel- Britain in putting an end to it, particular!/ 
Icparture, confine ourfclvcs to ex- *' wc trc *° *«y ftrongly connected in cosn- 
* gratitude which we juftly feel to- «n«ce with that power. This affair ho w- 
wr Excellency to join our voices to eve *-has met with great opposition, and it 
Mwledgcmcnt of the conquerors of wat not till after the moft mature delibera- 
id, of the well planned and fpirited tion * that the e^prefs determined to conclude 
which you have made with fuch in- an y fochrefolu:i -n : however, the very high 
ecei and to add, what we had an efleim the Englim min tier, redding here, 
■iry of observing, that the example n " tou n<J means to acquire, did not a little 
yon gave of intrepidity and coolnefs contribute towards determining our auguft 
he fevcral attacks imift have in flu- Sovereign in the party ihe h »s taken. It is 
II pcrfons ■oder your commind, u **'**» tnaC the fquadron defiined for the 
exertion of thrir duty to their fove- »^°*« purpofe will c..i:fiftof 21 f.-.il of the 
d coon try ; and that your Excellency ,lnc »'-|d nine frigates, and wiil fail in the 
the l*ft moment of your command fp" n g**' 

iciattcms with the conquerors proved A iettrr from Stockholm thus concludes : 
y toyoor fovereign, and a true regard " This Cuurt was applied to l"o*nc montl.a 
eopie who had been committed to a S° l0 permit the merchants of Sweden to 
c. ,J PP7 the French navy with naval flures 01* 
ri(h your Excellency a fafe paffige to fcv «™l kinds, the major puit 01" them to be 
and all bappinefs in future, the growth ot thii counrry, particularly oaic 
k Corfar, Prcfident ol the Council, in g'cjt quan hies, that wood here ucing 
1 Lucas, Chief luftfee. f " u nd excellent for tnjphuiidingj *>"* thcugli 
Hiard StaDton 9 Mcmber of the Council, the merchants were willing to contract, tee 
Ernies, Member of the Council. ^ in b would not permit th?m, faying, bow- 
er Winriett, Member of the A llcmbly. ever Jandeftincly it mi^ht be done, it was 
Maxwell, Speaker of the AiT.mo.'y. contrary to the treaty fuo lifting between him 
Young. Member of the Aficiiibly. ar;J the king of Great B itain, which for- 
1 Proudbook. bids the fending of n-val ftorcs to hisene- 
cJlon. »»iei, by Swcai/h (hips. The French, he 
logic. Member of the Aflsmbly. . . added, mi^ht load whatever they pleafrd, but 
er Stewart. hi r lubjelle mould not be the earner?." 

Campbell, Member of the Aflimbly. They write «rom Hjnov:r, that the troops 

ack, Member ot the Council. of that clccloritc, purfu^nt to orders from 

lev Campbell. EngLr.d, have been augmented to 3. coo 

r ohn(ron, Member cf the Council. men, an J th.t ii)*y are in two duirions on 

•aillte. the frontiers *r -.ha: cleduratc rcsdy to marth 

Gran?. on the fit P nof'cr. 

isuiei, Collecler of St. Georgc*s. 'Ii»c nu.:rt*.r of mips which have entered 

ordon. irtoih: p.n cf D^ntaick (lay* a letter tr<on 

Baillie* thit place) c.U'ir.g the VI y.*r amounts to 

Fofberingham. 537, »m(.:gwhi.h at: 119 Dutchmen, and 

florae. trie nurn'jcr or" \- ifcls gone out or cur port i* 

tewart. 521. O'tr 2"?T ,! "rt ">ti -'•■.r;: - .': rhcJam^year 

?ampbeJ]. %*<>. i>Cw.-j m ::.n.'.r tur fh : r -lu:>d:ns for the 

£ Eiicjuh 



4* 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



Jan. 



Englifii and SpaniJh* It it remarked, that 
what has been bought for the EngliJh was 
tranfported in our own vefleli, bat that 
bought for the Spaniards wat carried to Fer- 

' rol and Cadis in Dutch veflels • We had but 
few orders for corn laft year, and we hare 
bow by us 9000 lafts of wheat and 16000 
lafls ot rye. This (lock will probably be 
much augmented in the fpring by importa- 
tions from Poland, where the harveft has 
been very plentiful. Our trade in general 
diminifhes vifibly, .particularly the importa- 
tion part, and as Ruflia cess all it can to 
promote the trade of the Mediteranean it is 
mod likely the trade of the Baltick will di- 
minish greatly. 

A letter from Amfterdam fays, '< an affair 
has lately happened here which caufet much 
IKr, on account of the violence of the aA. 

The captain of the Kingfton Englifh priva- 
teer, lying in the Texel, having miffed fe- 
deral of his men, could by no means learn 
any account of them, till at length a Jew 
girl informed him (he had been employed to 
inveigle failors to a mufick houfe, where 
they were lei zed by a fet of fellows, well 
known by the name of Silver Copers, who 
gagged and bound, and then fent them on 
board a (hip outward bound for Batavia. The 
captain, on this information, ran his priva- 
teer along fide the Dutchman, and demanded 
his people, whom they rtiffly denied know- 
ing any thing of j he infilled, however, on 
fc arching the (hip, which he did, after fome 
refinance, where he found them in the hold, 



with ao others, chained down to the timber* 
A proper reprefemation of the affair has 
been made to Sir JoiephYorke. One E~*- 
li (hm an and two Dutchmen ware defparau 
wounded in the fcuffie." 
The fotlvwiitr are extra fli •f feme frhrite Let- 
ters juji received from BuLzd* 

« The Vifcount D'Herciia, the SpaniJh 
Minifler at the Ha|ue, has received an an- 
fwer from the States-General to his two me- 
moriols, relative to Gibralter. This anfwer 
is very favourable, and conformable to the 
placard, published on that fubjeel by their 
High Mightine flsa. At the end of the an- 
fwer, the States General re queft the A tuba f- 
fador to ufe his good offices with die king hit 
matter, that it may pleafe hit majeftv to 
order that the procedures againft Dutch veiTelt 
may be as (hurt as polfible, that tbey might 
"obtain exact juftice, and that in future they 
would not alt in fo peremptory a manner 
againft them, but examine the cafe well. 

«« We hear that a deputation of merchants 
from Rotterdam came to the H<gue laft week, 
and presented a requeff to the States General, 
ilgned by 1 6 merchants of that city j in 
which it is faid they complain grievoufly of 
the ftrange and even inimical conduct, of the 
court of Midrid towards the Dutch velTels, 
Sec. and reoucft redrefs on that head. It is 
faid that they at the fame time hint their 
difapprobation of the placard publiJhed by 
the States Genera) on the 31ft of December, 
as being in their opinion too favourable to the 
court of Spain, Sec. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

T O 

CORRESPONDENTS. 

<TH£ Utter from Durham, containing a flngular narrative, is received and 
* under confederation. 

Alfo, reflexions on folitude and retirement, 

1 he poetical pieces by our conflant friendly correfpondent H. L. will be inferted 9 
as occafion offers, except thai on twelfth day, which came too late to be infer ted in 
time. 

Evening, an ode \ a favour from a lady, will appear in our next* 

The Qhmefe anecdote we accept, and jh^dl infert with pleafure. 

The Indian anecdote has been in a late Jim ilar publication. 

The effay on the benefits of r\/ing early in the morning, is only deferred till the days 
grow longer. 

Stri&ures on vanity and its tffe3 on the prefent ages, are received aud ap- 
proved. 

The complaints of T. Z. againft a great minifler for miferable meannefs and nee- 
lecl of merit, is befl calculated for a news paper, or a private letter to the noble 
Lord; it does not come within our plan. 

Extrafts ivill certainly be given from the entertaining obfervations in a tout 
through parts of England^ Wales, and Scotland, in our next. 



THE LONDON MAGAZINE 




Or, GENTLEMAN'; 


Monthly Intelligencer. 


For FEBRUARY, i 7 8o. 


SttDc Accooat of Lord Stonnont c I 


Deblleion the Eirl ofShelburne'. Moli 


nfor 


The Hyprxbondriick, No. XXIX. Ji 


checking ind centrouling the Eipen 


nof 




the Eatriordinwiei oftheWir 




Accoont of the Widow of Delphi 54 


Debits in the Houfe of Comment 




-Of the Belle'i Stratagem s 5 


*J« Ihe Ordnance Eftimite 


bid. 


Account of in idvcaiuroui Defeent iota the 


Sketch of the AccontpliEiaienti rtquifi 


efor 


Ttir(*-mile Curia in the Peak In Dcr- 


1 BritiOi Sen nor, from Mortimer*! 




M* 1 " 57 


menu of Commerce, Politic!, mi 


Fi- 


C mow Defection of 1 Rock-Salt Pit 5S 






SniflurcJ on Vanity eg 


A scene of delicate Affeflion, from the 


Tu- 


In EiTiih on the Manned of (he 


tor of Truth 


7* 


Timet ' 60 


Deftription of Windier ind iti Environ 


So 


Reflexion! on the Ufa lad Advantage* of 


— Anetdoie of the Origin of Fiet-M 




Night, by ihe lateS^ John Hill 6; 


in England 




Pa*liamintait HiiToiy. 


Riyiiw or Mew Puslil-atio-. 




Debate* in the rloufe of Lord. £f 


Of Medio! CoBimentiriei 


81 


— -On the Duke of Richmond's Motion 


Of Fifl., iddreffid to the Lindb 




fee in Addreb 10 hit Majcfty to cite up 


en, He. 


bid. 


Put of Ihe Civil Lilt ReRnut, n in 


Of in Addtefi to the Freeholder 


of 


Example of pobltck OcconOrnt . ibid. 


Widokuut 


S3 


Bttounin ihcHWc of Common* 66 


Of Cenenl Burgoyne'. Slate „f 




Oa ihe Army Eftimite ibid. 


Expedition from Canadi 




Lord North'* Propiiliiiam for the Re- 


Dr. Hard,'. Anlwer tuDr. Rioilay 


n 


kef of Irelind 67 


Lift of New Boniti for Jin. and Feb. 




On ptefentini the Middlifei Petition 6S 




—On Lord Noilh"! PropoGtioni £9 


Evening, in Ode, by a young; Lady 


SS 


Dekitei in theHonfe of Lord! 71 


1 Ode on the Author's Eir'.i-Dil 


87 


—On the Duke of Richmond') Motion, 


. Fiworiie anB(i in Hi leq>o FtrWaltU 




for Copiet of the Spinifh ind French Ml' 


1 ASonf by ihe late Ur, Hudley 


S3 


■iftftoei ibid. 


Monthly Chronoltgcr 


bid. 



With the following EmWIilhuentr, He, 
A Striking Likenef. of the Rijht H™ nu ,ablc LORD STOItMO 

eu.-WeftVTcwoffceQjtiVaPAi.Ac.:, with Part of theCA(ii.m« V 



LONDON', printed for R. BalPwih, it No. 

rhonainj be h=d com/rlste Seir, from lie l'.-jr 1731 ( 

mb4 Bitthtd, ortarSafie Volume to ei 



the prefent Time, teid^ \mut\e. 



" It: 

=11 


Willi 


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1 







[LONDON MAGAZINE, 

FOR FEBRUARY, 1780. 



1 ACCOUNT OF LORD VISCOUNT St'ORMONT, &c. &c. 
(With « ngra-ved Portrait from an original Piflitri.) 
**„*v*v*** A V 1 tf MURUAV, i 



i 3e?£ > pwfcmViftoiunStormrini, 

J3 D 5jJ»Hi'=«»bi e k« P «of 

\»^ r*/ 1 the paliee of Seoon in 

C jRC * Scotland, fue.eedcd his fi- 
♦WW* - 3-. ■ >i one, of the lixteen 
*fttn of Scatlind, being eleftcd in 174S. 

Hit lonlfliip, after rec:irinj 1 finifhed edn- 



Wlhip 


li* 


d up.n term 




oiili the 


il> 


Lord Cilhcirt 


Hie Bri- 


nbaffador 




is Court e-fPc 


e.fbu.gh. 


us lordfb 








nf 














ti-»of »ffi n 








Lady Louife 


:»th«rt. 


dfhip'i 1 




daughter. Hu Lord- 


lilt cm! 


.v.- 










r;rall of Lo 


d Roeh- 




PP" 


,ucd Scarry 


of Slate, 



capacity he wai fa highly efleemed by the 


andio thii ftation he continued till the rup- 


EleOotof Saiony 1 ad the nobility, ihit a rar> 


ture wiih France obliged him to quit that 


DtfB lit at com p lifted between his lore (Lip 
and idaafhter of Count Bun™. This Udy 


perfldioui court, 


So many yean rcfidencc abroad, hai mide 


.'-■- at Vienna in 17661 leaving him one 


Lord Stormoni almoil a (hanger at home. 


cufbttr, Lady Elisabeth M,tr>. In 1755, 


and though he may have petfurmed very ef- 


til lordfhip w.i appointed Amhaflader to the 


feniiil fcrvicei for hii country, yet they 


Kiigof Poland, in which Utoirion, we tw- 


have been in futh a line ai from their very 


ine, he remained till (he peace, and im-ne- 


nature cannot be known to the publiclt at 


tutrl; after, via:, in May 1763, hit lordfliip 


large. Great eapritat ion 1 however maybe 


mi appointed AcnbatTadoi Extraordinary and 


formed in bit pierent nation of Secretary of 
State for the Northern department, if the 


lluuler Plenipotentiary to the Emperor, and 


the Empreft Dowager ol Germany, Jt was 




tflhe otntoS importance, in order to prefer ve 


-a North Briton, do not occalion his removal. 


the tran^oillity of Europe, to have an able 


In the humble opinion ol the writer of thefa 


Jaiiiftsr at the Caut of Vienna at thii pe- 


imperfeil memoir!, it ibould be an inva- 


riod, and it, s laid to be owing to the c«r- 


riable rule to appoint thole peilbni who 



lordfliip'i minifterial talenti and hive been long rmptaytd in embafliei abroad 
tiiitlt, that li* Emperor tin been kept to the iiii>c u< ^cicr.ry ui Stale. The very 
Icady in hii alliance and friendship lor liileand the principal funfliontof thii officer 
Great Britain, in oppofcion to the under, pointing out the propriety of thii choice. 
■OBBt influence of France. Hit lordfliip Lord Stormont'i firft fpeech in the Houfe 
alb had ■ considerable fhara in promoting of Lords, on the 7th of December 177I (lee 
tW peace between the ft affiant ind the our Magaiine, Vol. XLVII. p. 589) when 
Ttrki, and in cementing thii dole, lomira- adminsflrarion wai aecufed of deficiency in 
tut, and politicil alliance between theCouni not procuring early intelligence, wai heard 
rf Peter Inn rgh and London, which may with idea i ration by the crowd of flrangeri 
(em highly beneficial to Great Britain, below the bar, and mo ft ilTurcdly hii lord- 
ly the ajTiIt.nte lo be obtained from the ihip upon that ncciiLan, and upon ffertral 
formidable power of the Emprefa of Ruffia. othtrt fince, bat fel an example of polite- 
liii not meant to aflat that Lwd Stormont nefi, cool remjer, and moderation towatdi 
•art ■ principtl in the negotiation i between hii idverfatici, highly becoming the dignity 
fltaCoortiof PeteilbtirghindC.nftantin^plr, of the Houfe of Peers. 

■r between Ibc former and our court j (he To a graceful perfon and genteel addrcfi, 

•ailiiift of the tniniflen of the relpiclive hii lordAip addt an si era nee of diction, 

■ewert immediaiely concerned were equal rarely to be met with, and nature hat fnp- 

to their important fgnAioni) but the Drift plied him with an hirmonioul voice. It it 

intimacy in which hii lordlhip lived with ntcelTary to add, thai thii account ii penned 

the miniften from every power in Europe by an EngliLhoian, ■ native of London, and 

la the court! where he raided, enabled him one who hai no conatxion whatever with, 

(c ket*DM * pewtiful, fiicndlj mediator, adminiAntionl U, 



THE HT POCHONDRI ACK. No. XXIX 

Qui mult urn in fuorim mfermrJia pcnunt ignorant quern crlrrrimi lAcbrj 
inanfcant. Nerne fideliltr Ai qvem faftidtt- Nam el calamitas quirula rft, , 
Juftrba fdhilas. Ita foam qui/que Jirnmaa in t&nfilia bahet cum at ait, ' 
term ; ti niji mittxo tjftzuu mifert elim alius alii potutjfeiaui effejaflidia. 

QutNTUS CURTIU: 

" Per they who rely much on the companion of their friends 
'< that tears are Toon dried up. Nobody ran love sincerely thofe they 1m 
" For, as calamity it full of complaints, prolperity is difdaioful. Every i 
*' confiders his own circum (lances when he deliberates concerning thofe < 
" others. And were we net equally miferable, we bad long ago loathed e 
*' other." Dicr 

IOnce happened to overhear a con- In his jollification of himfelf b 
vcrfation between two grenadiers of the Senate of Venice for having 
the 56th regiment of foot, one of whom ed the attentions of his fair lad, 
enprefled his airerfion to the fatigues, demona, he tells how be recounted I 
ftveritii'5, anil dangers of a .campaign, hEr ihe ftoiy of his life with all i 
while the oilier talked with heroick diiaitroiis chances, and adds, 
ardour of encountering them, con- 
cluding his fpeech in thefe words. 



ebe ti 






id pit, tl 



not he who is pitied." I regret that But we mull obferve that h 

I did not take down the name of this prefent himfelf to the Senate >tu«J 

gallant tblctier who uttered a truely jeft of Pity. It wag only to hi* 

noble fentiincut with a native dignity trefs ; and as I have remarked 1 

of manner. If he has not obtained treating of love in thefe papa 

promotion, I am lure he defei ved it. is not debated by the molt 

I have fince that time frequently condefcenlion when that is hit root 11 
thought of the fentiment which plea fed I did indeed at tuft lujipofe that Stakt- 
ine highly ; and I hope I iriall be able fptan with all hit wonderful know- 
from thinking of it at prtlent to fug- ledge of human nature had in this im- 
ped to my readers Tome ufeful re- fiance been wiong. But 1 believe it 
flexions. will be found upon every trial as I 

To be the object of pity is a littia- have found here, that the more hia 

tien I'crv liuniilrtirinjr. For although ftrokes of character are confidered they 

Pify is (aid •- u - f-B— — 1 T- ™:it - .t. :..« 



faid to be filter to It 
1 degree of tender riSiLitic- 
always mixed with it, there i: 
doubt at the fame time fuch an 
riority in being pitied ti is not 
iifttnt with dignity of character. 
man — I am fairy for him — i fit? &">>■ 
• re IcITming exju cfljons, 



mptc* 



-Itilj 

ind fit 



nlahle epilhi 
All men therefore of high fjiirit 



appear the jufter. 
They who have enjoyed uninter- 
rupted happinefs are little difboled to 
pity others who are diArcflcd. Very 
few indeed have had fuch a continued 
fun-lhine of rxittenee. But the reci- 
procation between having felt rmlery 
iiiful is ourielres and feeling for that of other*, 
rill hold proportionally downwards 
II we come to thofe who are fo 
etched that their temper is broken 



dtjvonr to corneal the appearances of and peevii 
griet or diftrefs. Not that they would It may beargued that Pity is natu- 

wifh (o be thought infenfible, or not rsl to human nature; and this opinion 

to feel very keenly. But btcaule they I know is cheriftied by many tine thto- 

wuuld not be objefta of Pily, which rifts, the heat of whofe imagination 

implies weaknefi, but objects of Ad- puts a glofs upon the eomrfenefs of 

miration as flittering with firmnefs. life. If it Ihould be faid that rfuJ- 

Ii it not then nut of character in the dren are prone to pity, let it be rt- 

braveMoor, the veteran general, Othel- membered that we are all in fome dif- 

t>, to fubmit to be an ohjeft of Pity l trefs from our firft enterance upon this 



Sa 



THE HYPOCHONDRIACK. $Z 

fa that fouiraVand figM ..«• Forthofe that fly may Afbt -again, 

mSk touch our hearts with u ^hich he can never oo that's ilain," 

ffcfc feelings; but I tin ra- is fo very contrary to the univerfal 

pinion that children are na- principles of refpect due to bravery* 

ithout Pity 5 and the man of and of contempt to pufillantmity, that 

he favage is undoubtedly void a man muft be a very dull and cold 

U we advance in life we muft philofopher indeed who can ferioufty 

gbt to feel another's woe," adopt it as good fenfe, though perhaps 

»ts will not do without the it is fo in reality. But let us fuppofe 

ctual difcipline of diftrefs. two officers in the army, one of whom 

hit it moft certainly true none by the moft diftinguifhed bravery' and 

II doubt, who keep in mind mafterly conduct has gained a complete 
ttffal refe r ence the myftcrious victory of great cohfequence to his 
ifion of the facred author of country, but has loft both his arms, or 
loh, who was himfelf tempted been otherwife maimed in a wretched 
#e are that he might have a manner j and the other without any 
w oar infirmities. difgrace, but by accidental arrange* 
gft tnen, who ai dependent menu has never had any opportunity 
soger for happinefs in a world of acquiring glory, or doing any fer* 
ippineft is rarely to he found, vice whatever, but has perfect health, 
ir be influenced by views of and the pofleflion of all his limbs in 
eft immediate or more remote, full vigour and grace, would not the 
9 affirmed that Pity would not latter be looked upon as having the ad- 
e it hoi from the confideration vantage of the former ? 

f may ftand in need of it in But not only does Pity fubject him 

n. Fdr what thinking man is who is the object of it to inferiority 

inced that he is liable tova- of eftimation, but it alfo makes hint 

nil j and that the kind com- more or lefs an object of difguft. We 

in of others if delicately mown are affected with difgult by whatever 

he and alleviate his wretched- gives us pain, and fome pnilofonhers 

have afcribed our relieving the diftref- 
t lame time we mould never fes of others folety to our wifli to gpt 
at a very nice delicacy indeed fret of the uneafinefs which their da- 
te in wowing pity, if a man trefTes make otirfelves feel by prefent- 
illure hit feelings, or at lea ft ing difagreeable images. Unlefs, there- 
arance and behaviour, to the fore, our affection for the object of our 
Bind- in which he fees an tin- Pity be fuch as to counterbalance the 
riend, he had better keep at a difguft, we {hall not be able to pre- 
from him* For to oppoie joy vent otirfelves from looking upon that 
cren i t y to fadnefs and vexa- perfon with avcrfion. 
i the effect of an infu It though Thefe confiderations which expe- 
ional. In pitying an unhappy riencc proves to be juft, fhould make 
e muft make him feel that we us very cautious of complaining to 
Jcfoife him hut that we our- people indilcriminately. An Hypocnon- 
obid be equally afflicted were driack is very apt to do this. A fickly 
i fituatiott. The catife of his man goes about to every one who pre- 
I be reflected from us to him, tends to fkill in phyfick, or who he 
rfth eiraa] magnitude to the thinks has been ill like himfelf, hoping 

III his imagination, yet with to obtain a cure or a palliative, bo a 
ing difference, and by tacitly Hypochondriack whole mind is fickly, 
g a dread of what he Aiffeis and who fuinects that others are not 
guard againft feeroing to have well, his diftemper having in common 
jrity over him. Talk as we with the jaundice an imaginary trans- 
he dignity of diftrefs, it is but ference or communication of itfelf, is 
rrial dignity | and a found, perpetually trying to obtain hints for 
ided, profperons man cannot relief, ana while his fpirits are funk 
fing himfelf to be above the in defpondency, lays open all his weak - 
ritorrons unfortunate fufferer. nefs. Inftead of giving my reader a 
ft ludicrous apology for cow- long admonition which he may forget, 

I would have him keep in his memory 

as 



54 



THE BRITISH THEATRE. 



**' 



as I do, an obferration by Dr. Jobn- 
ibn in his preface to Cowley. " tie 
publifhed his pretentions and his dis- 
content in an Ode called " The Com- 
plaint," in which he Iriles himfclf the 



Melancholy Cowley. This met 
the ufual fortune of complaints, 
feems to have excited more Cool 
than Pity. ,i 



THE BRITISH THEATRE. 



COVENT-GARDEN. 

Tuefday, Feb. i. 

THIS evening was performed the 
firft time a new dramatick piece, 
written by Mr. Cumberland, intitled 
Tbe Widow qf Delphi \ or, Tbe Defcent 
9j' the Deities* The characters were 
wprclented as follow ; 

Phormio Mr. Lewis. 

Magadorus Mr. Shtiek. 

Pertinax Mr. Wtljon. 

Apollo Mr, Malteeks. 

Mercury Mr. Edwin. 

Tranio ■ Mr.Lee-Lrwet. 

Tenus Mifs Broivn. 

Lncretia Mrs. Wdfon. 

Philxnis Mrs. Kennedy. 

Agapea Mrs Hartley. 

The Fable, by which the immor- 
tals are introduced, is fliort. The 
chief prieftcis of the oracle at Delphi, 
called the Pvthia, rs on the point of 
death, and Apollo, attended by Mer- 
cury, defcends in order to provide a 
fucceflbr. Venus alfo leaves Olympus 
to enquire the fate of a fon me had by 
a noble Theban, and whom me had 
expoieil in the Paphian grove. Venus 
finds her fon, who is called Phormio, 
he is a (lave in the fervice of Agapea, 
a beautiful widow of high rank, and 
fondly attached to the memory of her 
hufband ; but the uncommon attention 
of her flave, aided by his beauty and 
graces, had touched her heart, fpight 
of her natural haughtinefs and referve. 
Mercury, with a view of ingratiating 
himfelf with Venus, appears in the 
difguife of a pedlar, and prevails on 
the widow to take a picture, which he 
informs her is of fuch magick power, 
that the. perfon to whom me gives it 
will poftels her heart. He alfo mows 
her the face of Phormio in a magick 
roirrouri the widow, alarmed at her 
danger, which is inert a fed by the. cap- 
tivating behaviour of Phormio, deter- 
mines to prelent the picture to the 
Pythia, to prevent its falling into other 
a 



hands. But Venus aflumes the diflrg 
guife of a pricftefs, or veftal of dMfc 
temple, and by her aid Phormio n> — - 
ceives the picture inftcad of thaPythia^^ 
who is now dead— and the paflion o^3 
the beautiful widow for her (lave (S£ ' 
confirmed. After fome attempts ta 
increafc the dramatic k perplexity by i 
myfterious oracle, Phormio's real cha«? 
racier is announced by Venus, he is- 
declared King of Thebes, and mada 
happy in the pofleflion of the lovely 
widow. 

The other characters are principally 
thofe of Magadorus and Pertinax, bro- 
thers, but of totally different charac- 
ters. Magadorus, who is called the 
Magnifico, is fent with certain depu*. 
ties from Thebes, defiring a king to 
be named by Apollo, and Magadorus 
conceives himfclf the man intended: 
he is a vain luxurious glutton, his 
brother a ftoick philofopher, who pre- 
tends to defpiit pain and fear. Ma- 
gadorus is a pleaiing character, but 
the author, in attempting to make Per- 
tinax ridiculous and difguftmg, has 
fucceeded too well. 

Lucretia, who is called an hoftefs, or 
keeper of a tavern in Delphi, and it 
fuppolcd to have had an amour with 
Mercury in difguife fome years before, 
was reprefented as an elegant girl, and 
lings and fays a great number of very 
pretty things, though it is not eafy to 
point out any material bufinefs or con- 
ncxion me has with the piece. 

Tranio, a fervant of Magadorus, is 
drawn with fome very bold and iuc- 
cefsful ftrokes. 

Mr. Cumberland, in the whole of 
this piece, feems to have depended too 
much on that ftile of humour, which 
it was fo much the fafliion to admire 
in Lucian ; he would have done well 
to have recollected that Lucian was 
almoft the only humourift amongft all 
the writers of antiquity, and the mo- 
dcrns have excelled them in nothing 
fo much as this talent j and alfo, that 



TH E BRITISH THEAT RE. 



« 



aid observation of comedy it 
t, rather than a natural vein 
m and the light vagaries of 
lion— the ftorv and the greater 
he (ituation of the Widow, and 
ofed flave, are well conceived, 
t throughout a good effect i 
4ages are finely written, and 
ics of- wit "frequently occur j 
xmr, which is continually at- 
, alsnoft conftantly fails. 

Tmefday, Feb. is. 
f fame theatre was performed 
time, a new comedy, called 
ft Stratagem, written by Mrs. 

SONS of the DRAMA, 
rt Mr* Lewis, 

» Mr. Quick. , 
. Touchwood Mr. wrougbton. 

Mr. Aickin. 
I Mr. Rob/on. 

Mr. Whitfield. 

Mr. Lee- Lewes. 
'ongue Mr. Edwin. 

ill Mr. Jones. 

irdy Mifs Younge. 

Touchwood Mrs. Hartley. 
icket. Mrs. Mattocks. 

&Mrs. Morion. 
a Mifs Stewart. 

ifld Gentlemen at a Mafquerade 
LnStion, Pullers, Servants, &c. 

lory is as follows :— Mr. Do- 
a young man of family and 

having (pent the ufual num- 
fummers and winters in the 
m the continent, returns to 
i to marry a lady, to whom he 
a contracted in bis infancy. 
ended bride and bridegroom 
en kept almoft ftrangers to 
ler by the lady's father, who 
their mutual impreflion would 
more forcible on Doricourt* s 

It appears, however, that he 
taken, for the young gentle- 
ing contracted a tafte for fo- 
uiners, beholds the pretty, mo- 
diflk woman with perfect in- 
e. The lady (Mifs Hardy) 
ame time conceives a tendrejfe 
—Kir rather, as me informs her 
Mrs. Racket, the undernefs 
had grown up with her, is 
sued into a violent paiTion, 
e beholds her pretty boy im- 
into an elegant, accompli (lied 



man, of travelled manners, but with* 
out foppery or affectation. - 

One interview at their lawyer's is 
the only one that has pa/Ted when the 
play opens ; and we find. the lady re* 
folved to touch the heart of her intend- 
ed hufband, or to refule his hand. Her 
father is then introduced, felicitating 
himfelf on the fuccefs of his project, 
averring that Mr. Doricourt, exactly 
as he Jore/aiu, had fallen violently in 
love with Letty. This little gentle- 
man, has the faculty of fore feeing 
every thing, and penetrating into no- 
thing; the character is original, has 
fome humour, and much plcafantry. 
Letitia endeavours to perfuade her fa- 
ther (what flic faw but too clearly) 
that (he had made no impreflion on 
him, and retires hinting at fome ftra- 
tagem me had conceived, in order to 
conquer his indifference. 

The fecond act opens at Sir George 
Touchwood's ; a lively interview takes 
place between him and Doricourt, in 
which Sir George is laughed at for 
being found a married man, who had 
fo vehemently protefted a gain ft the 
flate. The baronet defends himfelf on 
the beauty of his lady, and the fim- 
plicity ot her character. The fcene 
ends with Doricourt's infixing on fee* 
ing her, which the other had endea- 
voured to evade, from a delicate jea- 
loufy, natural only to very fenuble 
minds. Mrs. Racket, a lively fafhion- 
able widow, then appears with two 
other ladies. They form a defign to 
convert the artlcfs Lady Touchwood. 
into *fi,ie lady, in order to plague her 
hufband. Her ladyfhip, who is an in- 
expeiienced girl, bred up by her fa- 
ther (though an Earl) in folitude, falls 
eafily into the fnare, and when the 
hufband appears, is on the point of 
decamping with her rantipolc compa- 
nions. A moil fpiritcd and character- 
iftick debate immediately takes place 
between the widow and Sir George, 
in which the manners of high life are 
fatirifed and defended with great force. 
The fcene ends, however, with the 
defeat of Sir George, who retires in 
difpleafure, and the triumph of the 
ladies. 

An auction -room is then difcovered, 
and Silver- Tongue the auctioneer en- 
ters, giving directions to his puffer* ; 
which gives an opportunity for a fa- 
tirical and ludicrous icurcib'iiiation of 

the 



THE BRITISH THEATRE. 



the an* of Hioft gentry. After the 
company is affanblcd, the wir, obfer- 
vation, and novelty of the auctioneer, 
make entertaining and intcrelling a 
fcene, which we conceive not to he ab- 
folutely nrceflary to the piece j though 
in it, Courtall firS fees Lady Touch- 
wood : which interview is the founda- 
tion of the unelrr-plot. 

The third zfl opens with Mifs Har- 
dy and Mr*. Racket, contriving to 
amufe Doricourt into the idea, that (he 
former is a mere balhful, ignorant giii, 
full of mawoaifi bentt and permefi. 
The lady's embarraffmeiit, during their 
morning interview, contributes 10 the 
deceit, and the accomplilhed Dortcuui t 
finds himfelf on the verge of marrying 
aMifs Mawkin. 

Having fucceeded in increafing her 
lover's indifference into abiblute dif- 
tike, we next behold Mifs Hardy at a 
mafquerade, where, in the molt capti- 
vating manner and alluring .Irefs, Ihe 
makes a cunqnelt of Doricourt'* lieart 
—with her maflc on. She dances, lings, 
and difplayi a thoufand graces, which 
it was not polTible to conceive belong- 
ed to the aukwaid creature he had 
left behind him at Mr. Hardy's. But 
this is not the only bulinefs carried on 
at the mafquerade — Courtall, having iieki 
conceived a pa/lion for Lady France* rico 
Touchwood, meets her here, and car- 
ries her off (as be imagines) in the 
drefs of her nutbznd; hut lo! a Mr. 
Savilley who had once been under the 
influence of this lady's charms, and tl 
who entertains the lngh.lt idea) af her H 
worth, circumvents the inamorato, by flr 
bringing a girl in the habit of Lady hi 



the houfe, and force their 
Hair*. The lady is conceal 

bed-chamber, and Com till en 
to get rid of his unwelcome 
but in vain j the wicked rogu< 
pofleffion of the plot, and tote 
the bed'chamber door, bring 
the lady, who, to Courtall'* u 
fulion, turns out to be a wel 
Kitty Willis. He is fufficientl 
ed at. and then receives an adi 
on his conduct from Savilk. 

The Hardy family own I 
icl, contriving to reduce Dorii 
to the marriage with LctitM, I 
difcovers that llit is the lady ^ 
tinted hiin. In the mean* 
ricourt, who thinks of her ' 
telhtion, reiolves to aflx-ft * 
that Hardy may be induced 1 
their mutual engagement* 
the friend of Doricourt, Ke 
meeting Mrs. R*cket tat TotlC 
an ecbTtciffcinent takes place, 
determine that Don court All 
at Hardy's in his aiTumc.l ruai 
laughed at, and married, bin 
deceived. All this it icca 
with great fpirit by meant o 
tended illoels of Mr. Hani) 
■A by the paraph* 
prevails on the rehtl 
o fulfil bit engirti 
his daughter. After iln a 

' ugbbi 
id ph 

i.'hnient and 

ft[ucrade lady prefent: 

much agitaledi ifiougl 

that Ihe is a kept w-n 

of himn< 



thiuugb iiii 
ho pity, condole, andplaj 

injd 



Touchwood, and who is carried off by information had been vivtn li 

L: - lodgings. This bulincfs, Pantheon, by Flutter, who th 

! - k the.pieCc is one of the mull dj 

bufy, tiiflin-;, <.. . 



and that of Dorrconrt's, together with 
the various; characters and incident* 
introduced into the fcene, makt thi* 
mafquerade full of amul'cment, inte- 
>eft, and buftlc. Hardy, in the drefs 
ol Little Ifaac, appears here, and adds 
much to the humour of the fcene. The 
acl ends at Courtall'*, who enters with 
thefuppoftd Lady Frances, and, throw- 
ing himfelf at her feet, avows his paf- 
fion, and makes hi; apologies. The 
girl, who bad received her cue from 
Stville, affefl* confufion, and when on 

the point of yielding, Saville, with from the convened Dorieuiu 
half a do* en mafquerade bucks, enter doc* Mi* CoHey fm titular 



be conceived, Tl» ids 
being a kept woman bad di 
Doricourt to obey the dying 
but now finding lio had bee 
he vent* his rage «» Flilt 
whilll he is in a ■ 
djftrtfs, hi* wife takes off tl 



which produt 
pointed litU3tio 
with a complini 



a moll cues 

siul the pi 




■ r 



sa 



St 

CCPUNT OF AN ADVENTUROUS DESCENT INTO THE 

THREE MILE CAVERN, 

" tW qf the Wopders of the Peak of Dertyjbire, never before defcribed. 

HmOtftrvctms, mmdt daring a Tour through Parts of England, Scotland, 
P and Wales.) 

NHE laft place I parted with you hundred and twenty feet perpendiculars 

E 4ro<n wa* Peake's Hole, and there Imagination can fcarely form a de- 

Krill naturally have concluded that fcent more perilous than tbis was.- 

t ndesgnmna workings had been The only fleps to tread on, or things 

$m and. feat, alas ! ray friend, fate to hold by, were bits of oak ftuck 

I •therwifc ordained it j the fpirit of into the (ides, inhabitants of that 

iafty had warped our rational fa- place fince it was firll difcovercd, and' 

Hct; danger had become familiar which, from want of ufe, it was na- 

htt» and we therefore determined tural to fuppofe might have either rot- 

|fe a plan that wifer men would have ted or loofened them fe Ives in the' 

■acted at the idea of. This was earth ; moreover, a falie ftcp hurled 

Kthan the exploring the three- one inevitably to deftru&ion : form-' 

ivern, which I have already nately all was firm, and we arrived at 

faaoaed. Summoning therefore a the oottom unhurt. From hencey 

■ ' itmitatus of all the miners of the ranging ourfelves in order, with a 

Pc, we in brief told them our inten- large bundle of candles and torches* 

tAftonithment at firft prevented independent of the candles we each o£ 
from anfwering us ; none but us carried, we proceeded on with to- 
ll or three had ever ventured upon a lerable facility, through two or three 
U| cmlbm even had not reconciled lofty and moft beautifully enamelled 
talkers to fo hazardous an enter- caverns of fpar. This we conceived 
fat; : A promife of reward, how- an earned: of future delight, and the 
U$ "prevailed upon the whole, and tablets were accordingly let to work y 

L accordingly agreed to attend us but, alas 1 how great was our miftake 1 

morning. In the mean time, a Here our difficulties were to commence*. 

sfatger being difpatched to Sheffield Following the guide, who befides ano~ 

ttoebes, we began (erioufly to pre- ther who was with us, were the only 

ft) for our defcent ; this was toon two of the party who had ever pene- 

ftsfftptiihed. A paper of memoran- trated before, we forced our way witlt 

jkft was left in ourefcrutores, and a infinite ft niggles, through a narrow 

a% m cafe of an accident, telling fpace, between two rocks, and thence 

aVwar friends were, and where they getting on our hands and knees, were* 

at to be found, was left upon our for the full diftance of a mile, obliged 

It in 4he inn. to crawl without ever daring to lift up 

That guarding igainft the worft that our heads, the pafiage being too low/ 

dd fecial us, at leaft fo far as it re- Filled with mud, dirt, and a multitude 

aned matters which we might leave of bits of rocks, oar progrefs was? 

sand, we early the next morning, painful indeed, we ftill however hoped? 

smpanied by a cholen fet of our for fomething better. On we accord - 

m guides, repaired to the top of ingly proceeded, till a dreadful noiie* 

i mountain, where the fciflure open- rumbling along the horrible crevices of 

iHalf about three feet in diameter, the cave, gave us to understand we 

grided by the miners with proper were near a river : to this then we ac~ 

•fta* we then dripped ourfelves of cordingly hurried. But description is 

r outward apparel, and putting on inadequate to any thing like a repre- 

& a pair ofcanvaft trowfers, a San- fentation of this fcene. Avaft ocean 

1 jiaatf. and over that a cantas feemed roaring in upon us $ in foroe 

Mat* -with * handkerchief round our places burfting with inconceivable xm- 

■dav and a miner's cap, we all pro- petuofity, and at others falling through 

■lad. one by one, down this dread dreadful cbafms, naturally formed to 

& for the difiance of about four give it vent ; through this our journey 

to. Mao. Feb, 17ft. H wat 1 



£T DESCRIPTION OF A SALT PIT. Ftb. 

mt to conlmuct A cry or faulty tiow* went x wit m* Often aid i wni ts> 

ever, alarmed us : the confinement of remain where I was ^ no fuccour <jr 

tbo air, and the narrownefs of our affiftanoe could be given nee ceoy 

track had extinguished alj our torches; nan was painfully bufied in the charge 



the candles too, all but one fmall end 
were totally expended. We knew not 
what to do. In vain the miners hal- 
loo" d for the fupply which was to have 
come behind; no anfwer was to be 
heard. Our fate feemed now inevita- 
ble ; but we who were the principals 
fortunately exprefled no fear. In this 
extremity a gallant fellow, who yet 
was ignorant of the place, but from 
experience knew the danger we were 
in, fuddenly difappeared, and after 
groping for a considerable time in the 
difmal iiorrors of the place, at length 
returned to us with a fupply of can- 
dles, having difcovered bis compa- 
nions, to whom they were given in 
charge, ajmoft petrified with fear, aud 
unable to continue after us from their 
apprehendon. Reprieved in this man- 
ner from a death which feemed to await 
US, in its mpft horrid form, we on- 



of his own fafety. At length, bating 
almoft worn out the other knee, and 
torn both my fide* and back by fohbif 
myfelf in thofe pofitions, I was com* 
pelled to caH out for help, as we hap- 
pily came to the firft opening where I 
could be raifed Languor and faint* 
nefs from what I had (uffered, had to* 
tally deprived me of my ftrensthi I 
was accordingly feated on a rock, but 
in a few minutes, having colte&cd 
myfelf as much as poflible, I. tottered 
through the reft of the cavern, helped 
where afliftance could be given me, 
and in that manner got to the blefled 
funfhine of the day. All the reft, 
however, were tolerably well, except- 
ing two of our guides, one of whom 
had received a violent contufion on hie 
head from a rock ; and another fevesal 
bruifes from a fall, in his climbing up 
the laft aperture. Altogether, the 



ward proceeded with a frefli recruit of depth we had defcended was about one 



Sirits, and plunging into the river 
iove our wajfts, fcarce tenable from 
the impctuodty of the torrent, we cau- 
tiously picked our fteps, and, at length, 
after a four-hours moil unfpeakablc 
fatigue, arrived at about three hun- 
dred yards beyond the fpot, where the 
fubterranean paflage we had the day 
before explored, was expected to find 
an entrance into this dreadful place. 
Here then we were obliged to (top, a 
tall into a yawning gulph, in which I 
was providentially laved by a corner 
of a rock catching me by the knee, 
bad hitherto given me an inconceiva- 
ble degree of pain; but I had not 
ipoke; it now became fcarce bearable ; 



hundred and forty fathom or nine hun- 
dred and eighty feet, and. the length 
about three miles, according to the 
miners calculation. Neither at this 
diftance were we at the end j a paAage 
ftill continued, hut fo filled with wa- 
ter, and Co full of peril, that the mi- 
ners themfclves were averfe to further 
trial. And here, my friend, I will 
take my leave of you for the prefent. 
The pains in my limbs are (till ex- 
cruciating, but a little time will fet all 
to rights again; all I have to fay is, 
that \ never wiih even the greateft cne-r 
my I have in the world, to be To un- 
pardonably fed by curiofity as to tempt 
deft ruction, where, independent of the 



out however I was to crawl, and that dangers of the place, the fallJing of a 

too upon this tortured limb. The re- fingTe ftone might bury him in eter- 

treat accordingly began j but no an- nity for ever, 
guifli could furpafs the excels of tor- 



CURIOUS DESCRIPTION OF A ROCK-SALT PIT.* 

(From the fame entertaining Work.) 

FROM Liverpool we next proceeded CheJhires In the neighbourhood of 
through Prefcot and Warrington, Northwich fait has been made from 
to Nqrthwich, a confiderable town in fprings for many years $ it baa not, 

however, 

* This is the firft aetount that has been given, that we rtcoUeB, tfthe infiie tf 
the Rock-Salt Pits\ hut the author is greatly miftaken in afferting^ that tbefe Pits 



, beet until lately, (hat pit* 

«k-S»lt have been discovered. 
they have been worked to an 
*. On going to one of thefe 
found The lime ceremony ob- 
it a!t th._- break- m.v It places 
vi.ii'.J. -M it! ,-l :■ jackets and 
5 immediately fuhflitutcd in 

11 own dreffe*, and thus ac- 
itito a bucket we were placed 



RIGTURES -^N- VrANITYp 

W» «b*i*ed. Cwff i» I 
»*»n4w*W««fWidrocWhwl«i 
r/ifc had been: worked br the nieert 
fcaa*l rf mefoory j tfa« roe? in the fan*: 
■WW fT rifing to a dome with, k cupola 



,0tJ-e. 






down about aoo feet, Ac- 
lo much greater depths, this 
be allured, was but a trifle 
be matter of defcending. It 
hat, by the diftrjbution of 
ire could eafily difcern our 
ilace below from our Jirll o fi- 
fe of an accident | but this 
ingi draw-well like, as one 
cm down another came up ; 
Tied with men, the other In I- 
briae i thit, however, had it* 
i feq oeoccs i for as full i( an 
dged prefervative of animal 
y, and at (he afcending buc- 
f fprinklcd a little of in eon- 
b the creatures who were low- 
[he aether one, this fame fluid 
a fpcri&ck againft the vapours 
ce. Armed (ben in this man- 
all got to the bottom i but 
tile is Itarcely to be con- 

w w^w wib bad fcnrce- 
ll lm ad to gj for other pur- 
Mnh> to crawl upon our 
>■ — < » ban another Irene 



hy.tJjerapft regular eofoaad**, five- 
a«l-fisrt]r feet in lieigbt, eighteen, feet 
to, thickpefc, and diftant from each 
MhtB, about fonr-aud-twenty feet* 
Ai* too ait of Rock-Salt, and glitter- 
ing with tnnfparency i credit nBB whan 
J tall you, that of all fubnsrraaeaa env 
riofitie* in thi* iuand, th» ia profaafab/ 
the bet worth feeing. Were I ia a 
rotnaatJek humour, truth would faa- 

Eme inalmoft any thing I could 
of itf but I am tired to death 
. defenption— it if a mot laborioua 



Arabian Night* Entertainment*, and 
nick out the dialling palace of fame 
genii, and there tranibort yourfelf in 
imagination i this will give yon fame 
idem .of itf inadequate perhaps, hut 
JufEcient in forae degree, to aniwer 
the imprcuion I am dearout you mould 

. Hie quantity of this rock beneath. 
die miner* are not able to afcertaia t 
danger* irremediable would attend the 
trial. It ha* been made) but with a 
melancholy coafcqocnce i the water 
gufbed in, and with fuch i 
.impetuoutr, that it lilted the i 
and deftroyed every creature «" 
in it at the 



InK'THI LONDON MAGAZINE. 
TtntBS^ON VANITY, AND ITS EFFECTS UPON THE 
PRESENT AGE. 
- ftaanu JWer tfl turf riorum. 



r iadhr idnal ia di&inguiuied or period, differing from all other, aa 
another by Ibrae particular one rain differs from another in temper 
■JO iiitininjlhillll cat of or feature*. Thai we have remarked 



_ :, virtue, or die iron age, the golden age, the an- 
turyjMaad) in hiftory, and guften age, and the barbaroue ages ; 
k> i* ddrargnianad from the .hiftorian* diftingui thing almoft every 

ei.bf tihaia general difpofi- century with feme epithet, denoting 
«n«fi*> tome peculiar vice* the general difpofitiona of the people 
lenoea,: fane, oniverfal bent, that Tired in tbcfe period*. 
Ill iWllflu ill II II that age When we look back, to the hiftory of 
■ ■Ha tbi* 

mJimalagt tiB tatty. Irvtrfml Rtci-Sah its in* 
, fir tit aft if lit Stilt rtfnrriti at lit &t$n*n N*t 



6(3 



STRICTURES ON VANITY. 



Feb. 



this kingdom, it is eafy to trace thefe 
periodical characters of our fore-fa- 
thers, and to diftinguifh every reign 
by Something peculiar to itfelf J for it 
i$ obfervable, from the great variety 
and perpetual viciflitude in the tem- 
pers of individuals, that there is a 
greater diverfity of thefe general cha- 
racters in our hiftory, than in that of 
any other nation under the fun. A 
general character, drawn by a judi- 
cious hand, of the Dutch or Spaniards, 
may continue, with very little varia- 
tion, for two or three centuries ; but 
a defcription of the manners, cuftoms, 
and prevailing difpofition of the Eng- 
lish, however true for the prefent time, 
in perhaps lefs than twenty years, lofes 
all likenefs of the nation, and can give 
no more idea of the children of thefe 
people, than if it had been drawn a 
thoufand years ago, or for a different 
nation or kingdom. 

Thus the reign of King Charles I. 
and the fucceeding ufurpation, was 
remarkable for religion, enthufiafm, 
and a noble fpirit of liberty j and 
though it was far from being eminent 
for wit or learning, yet it produced 
ibme of the greateft geniufes for both 
camp or cabinet, that this or any other 
nation ever law. But how quick the 
tranfition in the next reign to atheifm, 
infidelity, and the moft uavifti and ve- 
nal fubjeetion to the moft profligate, 
though the wittieft court, that ever 
difgraced the Englifh annals I 

The fucceeding reigns had their dif- 
tinguiihing peculiarities ; but I have 
often puzzled myfelf to find out by 
what epithet, by what characteriftick, 
the laft twenty years of our hiftory can 
be diftinguifhed to pofterity. I was 
long tempted to think, that the genius 
of this generation might be compared 
to fome of thofe individuals we often 
meet with in company, who have no- 
thing to recommend them to our ef- 
teem, nor nothing fo glaringly offcn- 
five as to incur our difpleafure $ but 
are a kind of neutral beings, tolerated 
for their infignificancy, and admitted 
into company merely to make up the 
parade of an afTembly. Good-nature 
would have prompted me to diftinguifh 
this period of our hiftory by the epi- 
thet of neutral j but regard to truth 
joints out one yet more cxpreflive of 
the difpofition of the people, that is, 
«he age of Vanity \ 



Vanity and trifling folly feems the 
diftinguifhing characterifhes of the 
prefent generation $ Vanity is the pre- 
vailing foible, and the universal mo- 
tive of all our actions, and the mam 
fpring of all our vices and virtues. I 
diftinguifh Vanity from pride, as die 
object of pride is generally forhething 
fubftantial, flows from a notion, no 
matter whether true or falfe, that we 
are nofTefTed of forae real merit, on 
which we value ourfelves, and on that 
fcorc claim, deference, refpeet, and ho* 
mage from all we converfe with. But 
the object of Vanity, which operates in 
the fame manner as pride, is ever for 
fome trifle, of no intrmfick worth, that 
whether we are poflefled of it or not, 
ftamps no value upon the man $ does 
not make him one jot better, wifer, or 
happier than his neighbour $ and con* 
fequently, can neither beget efteera or 
veneration, but from difpolitions equal- 
ly vain and trifling. It is the conftant 
companion of a Tittle, narrow, igno- 
rant mind $ for fuch men, when, by 
the utmoft effort of felf-love and flat- 
tery, they cannot raiie themfelves a re- 
putation for any thing intrinfically ex- 
cellent or praife- worthy, immediately 
turn their little wits, to make them- 
felves remarkable for fomething within 
the fphere of their narrow talents*. 
This is the origin of that despicable 
fpecies of beings, begot between the 
milliner, taylor, perriwig-maker, and 
embroiderer, called beaus, macaronies, 
fribbles, petit-maitres, with a long &e% 
of infignificant triflers, that aTmoft 
make up the grofs body of the prefent 
generation, and from whence I think 
it may, with great juftioe, be diftia- 
guifhed to pofterity, as the age of Va- 
nity or foppery. 

It is true, that beiides the charac- 
terising foible of Vanity, we poflefs all 
the vices of former times $ I wifh I 
could, with equal truth, fay the fame 
of their virtues. 

I think, with great fubmifCon to the 
reigning wits of our own times, I may 
venture to affirm, that we fall infinitely 
fhort of the fpirit, humour, and inte- 
grity of the reign of King Charles II. 
We have not a jot more religion, only 
we have changed the ablurdity of 
atheifm into fettled deifro ; and I am 
afraid we cannot boaft more of our 
love for liberty, than of our lave for 
religion $ for we da not feem to care 

whether 



STRICTURES Ofo VANlfV. 



it 



Sty or the' church of Bng- 
t. As to venality, ror 
it reign was ranarkable, I 

may pot in oar claim to it 
ch better foundation, fince 
graced corruption into a fyf- 
gokr fcience, in which every 
* Umfelf in •being an adept. 
afefs this, and all other vices, 
I different degree, and from 
ierent motives and principles, 
i that actuated the witty, pro- 
id penfipned courtiers of that 
m. 

that prince was reftored to 
ufurped throne of his anoaf- 
people were fo fcnfible of the 
eels of the licentious abufe of 
ad religion, that in flying 
la, they ran upon Charibdis ; 

fo overjoyed that they were 
1 the tyranny of anarchy and 
ft, that nothing bot a mira- 
red us the fmalleft veftage of 
igion or liberty. This ac- 

fome meafure for the fudden 

the difpofition of the people, 
ird to thole two important 
' religion and liberty. As 
y, they had this mitigating 
: die long troubles daring the 
I and urarjpation, had impo- 
and almoft ruined the aobi- 
entry who adhered to honefty, 

lawful' ibvereign ; fo that, 
reftoratfon, die court was ne- 
■ade up of a fet of men, who 
ter way to live, or repair their 
ftates, but by felling their 

ready money. But the pre- 
ss no fuch plea, and yet they 
Jie vices begun in that reign, 
aviih, irreligious, and venal, 
>ther motive but to fupport 
e vanity s therefore, as this 
triple of their actions, itmuft 
iftinguUhing characteriftick. 
caft our eyes upon a few in- 
of our acquaintance, and ex- 
ist makes fuch a man a mean 
: upon fome fubaltern tool of 
It is not becaufe he wants an 
import the dignity of his fta- 
family ; no, he lias enough 
md every reafonable enjoy- 
1 to appear in his county with 
or or lome foreign fovereign 
but that will not fatisfy him ; 
lave a place at court ; not 
w to ferve his country with 



his abilities, or to gratify a generous 
defire of power to do good, but to gra- 
tify his Vanity, that he may appear an 
inugnificant gaudy figure in the draw- 
ing-room, and be numbered with thofe 
that govern the helm of ftate ; though 
he is not advifed with fo much as in 
paffing a turnpike-bill. Is not this 
Vanity, mere folly, to exchange liber- 

3 j for pompous flavery, and depen- 
ance on fome upftart: to exhauft the 
patrimony of his family, and fell the 
honour and liberty of his pofterity, for 
a place at a birth-day folemnity, and 
to have his name blazoned amongft a 
number of ftate- cyphers. 

However this is fplendid Vanity, fop- 
pery, and folly in high life, where it might 
remain without much damage to the 
publick, or without determining the 
character of the age. But Vanity has 
poflefled itfelf of all ranks of people j 
their fchemes of life are not to he really 
happy, free from want, poverty, and 
oppreifion ; but how to mingle every 
man with the clafs that is fuperior to 
him, and how to fupport a gay and 
fplendid appearance, utterly inconfift- 
ent with their ftation and circum- 
ftances. 

If the men of fortune and family, 
only, would degrade thcmfclves from 
men to monkies, if none but fuch as 
could fupport the expence would be- 
come beaus and jockies, Vanity might 
be tolerated in fuch a ftate as this, 
wilhout much damage to the body of 
the people ; but the mifchief is, there 
is no place fo grave, fo facred, or fo 
obi'cure, but Vanity has obtruded it- 
felf; it is not impoflible, nor very un- 
common, to lee a beau in prunella, and 
a fribble in a canonical habit. We 
have beau butchers, macaroni mercers, 
and jockey taylors ; nay, on Sundays 
and holidays, a gartered fop may meet 
a chimney fweeper and his doxy, 39 
richly bedizened as himfeif, and af- 
fecting all the airs and grimace of 
high life. In fhort, Vanity has put all 
ranks of people into mafquerade; drefs 
and equipage no longer diftinguifh the 
ancient and noble families of this king- 
dom, but they are all huddled in a 
lump with the dregs and lcura of the 
people, who are not afhamed to af- 
fume the garb, my, though profenecl 
mechanicks, to imitate the luxury of 
ourflrft nob'lity. 
This t'pini of Vanity difcaCe* \tft\£ 



i 



At STRICTURES 

throush all the action* and -offices of 
tf&f outward Ibow and pomp is all 
We aim at ; we even eat and drink, 
•lid go to church out of Vanity, if we 

K at all; we feem hewitched with a 
re of lhow and trifles; our tables, 
inftead of whaleibme food, are but 
nercoutfide (hadows of expenhve tri- 
tt*j our frier* dlhip* and private con- 
nexions are founded on Vanity; we 
aretven vicious out of Vanity, and to 
fallow the failiion, rather than from 



pwvements in arts and fciencea, 
w» the effects of Vanity : our pub- 
tick aaiulcmeiiti arc lji.it found and 
Aow, with very little th:it can recreate 
the mind, or divert a rational creature. 
We are eager in the puifuit of them, 
not that they afford our hckly fancies 
any real delight, but that- our own 
gaudy appearance addt to the 1'plendur 
«f the pantomime, and gratifies our 
own and our neighbours Vanity. 

What add? to' the plcafure of thefe 
fenfelcls entertainments is, that here 
all diilinftious are loll, merit, Girth, 
rank, ar.d real worth is loll in a ft range 
nieilley, and nothing hut degrees of 
drefa create* any vilihle difference 
■mongft the member* of our motley 
nlftinblies. Lace, embroidery, filkt, 
and games put all upon a looting, 
and level every proud title with themean- 
«ft mechanick. It is this that flatters 
the Vanity of the city dame ; it is this 
.prompt i her to ruin her hulband and 
family, with the ex pence of fine 
clothes, lince they ulonc let her upon 
the fame feat with a ducbels, and du- 
ring the allembly, create her, in her 
own fancy, as much refpect. For this 
the mechanick (hakes hands with po- 
verty, and to procure thefc few mo- 
ments of theatrical refpect, the young 
ueirentice is no fooner out of his time, 
than he forges to turn beau, and at 
laft comes to the gallows, for the plea- 
fur*' of acling the gentleman for two 
or three nighti at the Pantheon, kc. 
contemning his inductions friends, 
whole labour cannot procure them the 
title of a gentleman but for one hour. 
In mart, as this u an excellence that 
money can at any time purchafe, in 
which the meereft dunce can have fome 
tafte, every man in this nation thinks 
he lus a right to purcbafe this kind of 
Jigmtkancy, and for that rtalba litcks 



* 



ON VANITY. 

at no villainy t< 

when he has got" it, I 

which it is convened, not lo rnocn J 

S ratify the palate, to anfwei pieflia 
ebts, oe other reafonahle neceffitia 
as to gratify this vain foible ofappett 
ing gay, fplendid, and fometluag 
above what they really are, or naiua 
ever defigned them for. 

Moft people who have lamented tk 
degeneracy of the prefent time, h 
afcribed all our vices, and misfoi 
ro the number of publick dive 
that now prevail. But a little c< 
delation, and a rational enquiry ioM 
the fpring* of action, moft conit™ 
us, that it is not the prefent reigi 
diverfions that debauch the moral) 
the people ; a vaft number of Ian 
and muiick have no ablolutt 
to make a man a villain, I 
be retorted to with great t 
neither is the tafte tor thefe k 
entertainments fo predominant, I 
induce any great number of pi 
retort to them for their own lal 
the vulgar, who make up by uo 
grcatclt part of thele routs, go tl 
not to partake of the enter' 
the place, which they und 
thing of, but to be in the falhion, 10 
(how their gay clothes, and feed their 
Vanity of mingling with, and being 
for a time as lignificant as their 1'upe- 
riors. Were every perfon, who «p- 
makes up the croud at our publick t 
verhont, obliged to appear out of mr 

Sierade, that is, in drtlttl fuilabl* 
cir ' circumftances, and with I 
badges of their fererai profeflion* ai 
occupations publickly expolcd to vir 
I could almoft afliire myfelf, that j 
dens, theatres, and other publick i 
fembties, would be as little relbriW 
as our churches. Their love for a 
lick, their tafte for plays, eVc. 
immediately ceafe, when they t 
ger adminifteied to Vanity and t 
tatious pride. 

The eftefls of extravagance in d 
and of the ridiculous Vanity of ■ 
pearing iiiperior to our ftationt ai 
circumftances, is but too vilihle in ill 
confequences upon the wealth and h*p- 
pinefs of the body of the people, yet 
it is in vain to argue them out of tbl 
folly, or to pretend to per f trade then 
to return to common feme, and their 
proper Itationt in life, before their Va- 
nity lui induced Uiem to wretched neft 



tfErLEfclONS ON NIGHT. 6f 

tfi However, one might wt- highwaymen, parfont trjr livwy-fer- 

rfnccsft with people of «i- vat**, hatr^dfetfers, and warpers, &c. 

fotttJut % regard for iVeit aii huddled together in one undiftin- 

tri^fct induce them to do all guifhed group, like the pidhire of tho 

aowor -to put a (top to the iaft judgement. Such a fight would 

ottyi but bendes this, their give a woman of real delicacy an utter 

hft to alarm them ftgainft the averfion to all fuch divcrftons : and yet 

icHtt made upon them by of fuch are all our moft celebrated af- 

ir, and they mould fcorn to femblies formed. No wife man would 

a pleafures and diverfions, cenfure the pleafures of the quality, if 

them upon a level with all they would prelerve them to their own 

of mankind. daft, and prevent thofe who have nei- 

l mock would it be to a deli- ther tafte nor title to fuch am u foments 

of quality's Vanity, were it from mingling with them ; if they 

yy ibme magick power, even would keep tip their diftin&ions, the 

>ft vdlaptuous and ex pen rive mob could not be tempted to imitate 

icertainments, to unmaflc the them, and a tradefman would be then 

impany, and difcover every content to make the beft figure at a 

they are in real life ? What lord-mayor's fcaft, and on other proper 

would appear, of a dutchefs oceafions, but would neither fcorn his 

f laundrenes, countefles by own profeflion, nor mimick quality in 

takers, ladies by chamber- their Vanities at the expence of his 

eou* by botchers, lords by peace and credit. M, 



UOONS ON THE USES AND ADVANTAGES OF THE 

NIGHT. 

(By the late SIR JOHN HILL.) 

IT and deep are Co connected, after it has decently told us of the ne- 

I the former fo properly made ceffity of taking our reft, that it finally 

on the latter, that, whenever makes an end of darkening the whole 

in need of repofe, we begin face of nature, 

rocuring a fort of artificial During all the time of man's repofe, 

i ourfelvcs. We feek fome Night, for his fake, hufhes every noife, 

ncJbnK place, and have re- keeps off all glaring lights, and what- 

» curtains and window-mut- ever might too ftrongly affect him. It, 

or Jenlcs are never unbent but indeed, luffcrs a few animals, whofe 

moral of what gives themagi- prim afpett might fcare him, while he 

ind it is evidently this fervice, is at work, to go forth under favour 

i Night is commiflioned and of its darknefs, and filently feek their 

1. But let us con fid er, for a food in the abandoned fields. It af~ 

with what a difcieet caution fords thefe voracious creatures means 

•gea that duty. of coming to clear his abode of what- 

, in ferving ipan, does not tie ever might infeft it, and even of taking 

kacllv to any precife moment j from him fuch things as are by hun> 

not in a blunt and abrupt too carelefs'ly guarded. 

to extinguilh the light of the It |>crmits, however, the animal that 

1 all on a sudden to rob us of frauds fentry by him to give him no- 

of thofe objefts we are intent f ice of what concerns him, while it 

impofes filence on every other creature. 

Bjdtt4» from coming upon us It keeps the horfo, the ox, and all hi* 

I iai the midft of our works or other domefiicks, faft aileep around 

it advances on the contrary by him, It difperfes the birds, and fends 

pa, and only increafes and each of them to his rcfpeclive abode, 

its darknefs by degrees. It As it comes on, it gradually hufhes 

jf to make an end of what it the winds that difturb the atmofphere. 

itereft to finifh, and does not It evidently is commiflioned to fecure 

ly deny us the fight of the goal the lord of nature's reft. It caufes his 

• to arrive ah It is not till repofe to be reverenced every where, 

the 



«4 



REFLEXIONS ON NIGHT; 



the moment erf which is no fooner 
come, but all tumults ceafe ; all crea- 
tures retire, and, for feveral hours to- 
gether, an univerfal filence reigns 
throughout his habitation. 

Nor yet does nature's palace remain 
wholly void of light. For as thofe, 
who inhabit it, might perchance be 
inclined to prolong their works or 
journies during the Night itfclf, feve- 
ral flambeaus fcattered in the Arma- 
ment ftill guide their fteps ; but thefe 
lights, which were granted that they 
might not be left in total darknefs, 
yield but a gentle, and not very bril- 
liant light. It would have been nei- 
ther proper, nor juft, to fupply thofe 
that wake with men a fight as might 
interrupt the repofe of others. 

When thd abfence of the moon, or 
the thicknefs of the air, takes from us 
the light we (land in need of, we are 
always maftcrs of procuring it to our- 
felves. We find the principle of it in 
the bowels of flints, and its fewel in 
the wood, the oil, the fat of animals, 
the wax, which bees collect from flow- 
ers, and in the vegetative tallow that 
may Le drawn from feveral plants. 
But the nocturnal light fcrves us very 
differently from that of the fun. The 
latter invites us, it warms us, it prefTes 
us, it fends us to work. On the con- 
trary, the fire we light does not come 
of its own accord, but flays for our or- 
ders. Nay, we cannot come at it 
without foine toil, nor keep it without 
care. That borrowed light is always 
ready to disappear j it fceros to be 
mi (placed, and even loth to dilturb the 
repofe of nature. Man rids himfelf 
or this, as loon as it becomes either 
t. -oubielbme or u kiefs to him ; and he 
i-f nccdTity wraps himfelf again in that 
l>eneficial darknefs, which helps him 
to recruit his fpirits, and recover his 
ftrenirth with deep. 

It is not only by its darknefs that 
rn^ht becomes ufeful to us : it is again 
cf lervice through a coolnefs, which, 
by every where pre fling down the 
fpring of the air, makes it capable of 
working with greater activity in all 
bodies, and communicating a new vi- 
gour, both to the dry grafs, and to the 
enfeebled animals. It is in order to 
prefervt this beneficial coolnefs that 



the moon, in reflecting to nt 
of the fun, gives it us in fu 
gree as has no fenfible heat. 

Jn vain would we colleA t 
in the focus of the ftrongeft I 
glafs : it does not even affect. < 
tuoineter, when put in the pi 
unites its rays, nor cauiei 1 
lead dilatation in the fpirits 
otherwife fo fufceptible of it. 
mirable caution of the divine 
who has cftablifhcd the orde 
Night, and forefeen whatew 
be beneficial in it. He refc 
that time, a light ftrong enou 
move darknefs, but, at the fa 
too weak to alter the coolne 
air. He alone knows. his ow 
he alone can know the excenr 
nution of a bundle of rays, • 
caufes to pais from the bod 
fun to that of the moon : the* 
of which are reflected down to 
and cfuite deflitute of heat. ] 
feclly needlefs for us to dcta 
degree by experiments and I 
culations. It would be fo m 
lofophy loft, on account boi 
little ufe and great uncertami 
it is no lefs eafy than it it ii 
for us to difcern and praife tn 
wifdom, whole matters are fi 
proportioned to our neceffitiet 

When man is inclined to 
benefit of that faint light, 01 
fome coolnefs, which attends 
turn of night, he, indeed* 
more the fame beauties In In 
tion, and every thing it hsV 
and lively there. But, at ilk 
afforded hiin its proper (petti 
Night, in its turn, favours' I 
another, that has charms pa 
itfelf, and of quite another dj 

We cannot doubt but that I 
menfe globes of fire, whienl 
our Night at fo great p. ditan 
each of theiri, in particular, 
liar appointment, which ail 
God's piirpofes the magnifli 
their appearance. Doubfieft, 
fons and frame of the/e w 
works, about which the Ov 
once employed himfelf will 
deferve, that we ourfelrea 1 
employed about them in that h* 
which we all of us fo ardentlj i 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

Wjfktj of the Proceedings of the prefent SeJ/Son of Parliament t begun and 
Mi WcftminAer, •* Thurfday the %$tb fyty 0/ November, 1779. Bring 
VTU Sejton of the Fourtettttb Parliament of Great-Britain. 

{GouHuued from our loft Magazine? page 25.) 
HOUSE OF LORDS. 

TTwfiaft Dumber j* had reduced ui to our prefent deplorable 

Dmke of R'ubaewd, who had or- condition 4 At to the Civil Lift revenue, he 

d the Houfe to be fummoncd for approved of the annual augmentation made 

made a motion* to the following to it three yean fince, but he thought the 

* That an humble addrefi be pre- ciruemftances of the nation fo much altered, 

lis Majefty, befeeching bit Ma- that the crown (hould be contented with 

mfly to tarn hii attention to the left, and fet an example of exonomy. 

md impottriihed state of hii em- Tbe Earl of Derby feconded the motion, 

to vcueex on the very heavy ex- he informed the Houfe that he had voted 

the ftate in every department, for the augmentation of the Civil Lift revc- 

rofoflen prevailed inftead of that nue as a very proper meafore at the time, 

oeay which publick neceffity re- but ai he now Taw the difference in the 

?o asTare hii Majefty that every circumstances of the nation, he ihoold fup- 

r that ffoofe, holding any place or port the addrefi. 

emolument udder government. It waa evident from the turn of the de- 

I readily give «p fuch proportions bate in favour of the addrefi, that reminding 

iBolamenta, as hit Majefty in his the augmentation of lc6,-oool. granted to 

leajd think proper} and further the king at the time mentioned, was the 

their hopes, that hia Majefty, in objetl of the addrefi fo far as it related to 

on of the diftreflet of his people, his majefty. 

Sicieady pleafed to relinquish* Lord Stermont fpoke with great coolnefs 

vil lift revenue, to be applied and found argument againft the motion : 

lick tervicc.** he confefled that in his idea no regard had 

lining the motives fot this ad- been paid to (economy in the expenditure of 

stake took occaflon to give ai fom - the publick money in any department of the 

of the nation with refpecx to its ftate, under any administration for as many/ 

ind rcfoarcct, depending as he af- yean back as he could remember j and it* 

his friend Mr. David Hartley's any general plan could be adopted now, he 

dcnlatioflt. Oar military force by would heartily concur in it; he thought it 
aa he competed at 370,000 men, 'neccfTary: but the pitiful fu;n that could be 

itional debt incledir^ the foms to taken from the Civil Lift, would be but as 

bis year, at 198,000,0001. upon a a drop in the ocean, and it would have a 

1 that the war was to end with very bad look at foreign courts j that we 

ear, he hud, it would be ncceffary were in (o poor a ftate as to want to take 

f^ooOyOOol. to wind up the ex- back what we had voluntarily given to our 

the close of it, in which cafe the fovcreign for the maintenance of hit family* 

fct wonld attoent to two bmnirtd What like wife would be the effect of fuch a 

iotUBomi end the inter eft of this proceeding upon the people? Would not 

debt could not be paid, but by they confidcr the nation at undone, and be 

tions, by new taxes, and opprei- thrown into a ftate of defpondency by the 

be people, which they would; be reflexion f Defpair, the only thing wanting 

bear. From thefe premifes he to complete the lift of our misfortunes would 

, that a reform in onr national ex- be the refult of the noble duke's expedient* 

r cutting off a number of fintcurt therefore in his opinion, it was of all others 

I pennons, and by reducing the that which ought moft to be avoided. At 

it fabrics of various offices, was to what the noble duke had faid about the 

t two mearares left for the pre- refourcss of this country, compared with 

of the remainder of the Britilh thofeof our enemies, he had only to obferve, 

Another niethod of retrieving the that he did no; think the com pari fon proved 

ind power of the nation was, to any thing : the arguments deduced from it had 

the abilities of men of every rank, on application, admitting all the calculations 

I every department of the ftate with in which they were involved to be true, tor 

Bch dcfcriptioni, inftead of conti- the queftion at prefent was ; Shall we per- 

sifters in office, whofe inability fevtre in a war entered into on the meft 

Mao. Feb* 17I0, I horwirriblc 



66 PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

honourable grounds, or (hall we fubmit to a tion, and I hope my co nduit if it 

disgraceful peace? The latter every body re- below praile, will at Icaft be a 

probated. What then was the other alter- fare.'* 

native ? Why to profecute the war; that The Marqun of Rockingham con 

being admitted, all reprcfentattontof the in- the motion on constitutional groi 

ferior flate of our finances was improper, ai political fyftem in hia opinion r 

tirrying with them intimation*, uof which immediate alteration I the iaflni 

the c:\rrr\y might avail themfclvv*. crown wai become too extenfive 

Ike Karl of Effingham judicioufly ©b- motion had an excellent tendency 

frrve.^, that many ot the great officers of that evil, which if not removed 

the crown, fuch as the Lord Chancellor and in the ruin of the country. Hi 

the Secretaries of State gained their falariei that Queen Anne had once given 

with g'tac fatigue and anxiety ; but confi- from her income to aflift her f 

dering the motion in an enlarged light, he carrying on a war againft France 

could not fee the neceflity for a paymafter of hii late majefty had given 700400 

the forces enjoying immenfe emoluments for relief of hisfubjefts in time of 1 

very little trouble. He therefore was for thefe examples, he thought ever 

the motion, as it aimed at general reforma- the motion justifiable and expedii 

tion in the difpofal of the publick re- time when we arc profecuting a 

venue, thenfome-war. 

Tie Karl of Sbelbvrne pointed out many Earl Bsttttrfl faid, if the n 

1 Aires in which favings might be made, really come to fuch a crifis of mis! 

ar. 1 pTticulariy dwelt on the charge in the the noble lords had after tad, it 

Civil Lift for ihe foreign minifteri (that is, better to imitate Holland in 1 i 

t'jr minifkrs at foreign courts.) He faid of great diftrefs, when every man 

ihis article in the time of King William what he thought proper into tl 

amounted only to 4c,ocol. a year, when we Treafury : no man knew what an 

were at the head of a moft powerful confe- yet it was found to amount ton 1 

dcracy of the principal powers of Europe of every man's property* 

srair.ft the Houfe of Bourbon, and were Tbe Lord Chancellor thought pn 

obliged to have minifteri at every court. It to have been brought to parUanae 

bad increafed only to 50,0001. in the bright- wafte of the publick trcafurej and 

clt period ot glory in the late reign ; but Civil Lift, if that wat to be 1 

r.jw he believed it amounted to go»OOol« ought to be dope by the fame* OM 

yet we had not a (ingle alliance with any was augmented, by act of parli* 

I "Wir of Europe, nor the lead hopes of any. not by an addrefi of one Houfe. 

His lord (hip was pointed in his animadver- On a divifion the motion w* 

<;on<; on Lord Stormont, who he faid had by 07 non-contents againft yf 

received very great fums of the publick mo- proxies included, 
ney to iupport his cmbalfies at a great ex- 

pence at different foreign courts, and parti- ... -<MM 

cularly at Vienna, when that court only HOUSE OF COMMON 

maintained an envoy with a trifling lalary Wtdmtfday, Dec* 8. 

at Lo:;d.<n. Mr, Jcnkinjcn moved the army 

But he faid the publick would now reap and entered into a detail of the 

the benefit, fince his lorafhip, from his expence. He ftated the army ia< 

great weight and character at the courts of tain, Sec. in all, at 192,000 mea 

£urope, muft have fcifed opportunitiei of charge 4, ioo,cool. Of thefe the 

farming connexions and fiiendfhips with 37, 5C0, and the charge 700 ocol 

foreign minifterf, which might open alii- He ftated moft of thefe eftahliA 

anccb f >r this country in the hour of dif- charges as fupcrior to thofe of Jai 

trcfj j and we had reafon to hope it from plaining the rcaibns why they we 

.the expectations formed of hit lordfhip's ohferved, that the reauitiag f 

abilities, mentioned in every newfpaper, raifed 

snJ fm-n his having had the boldmfs to By volunteers — % 

acre?: the feah of fecretary of fUte in fuch By the prefs aft — 

a ::Tie cf pubiick danger. — 

l.a J Srsrmont in reply to the infinuations 9 

ot ttif. Tar! of Shelburne re ("peeking himfelf, That the new levies muft of nee 

only u'n thefe few words—'* As to the impeded the recruiting fervice, bt 

id 7' furn« 1 have received, they were only an effect which muft ever happen, 

irr uiV i ?ppoinrment» of amJbafTadors, I that fome gentlemen had cxpreflcd 

...h n .. r j»j ]n ^^t ftation, I had the ho- occafions, objections to the extt 

1. t.r au a ri.ppineis to meet with approba- land eftabli/hment upon the princ 

:.• *;, j Ail: co my duty in ay prefejx fitua- fuperior importance of the natal 



.PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



<7 



a* apprehended that (fait wat 
■■I tha different hranchcc of the land 
banenta amtjht and did interfere with 
par, hwl vary aWe or nothing with 
y. However, that thare «u not the 
itwajo. objaft to the one fervice rather 
iy other, aa there wat not the fmal- 
ethannnn of tha noble lord in the 
boon being enable Co provide by peb- 
A/arMb. 

SgwWei Vm vk n rj oppofed the vote for 
iaaate propofied by the Right Horn. 
ry at War on account of the 
ity of the fume, which he con- 
conld not he g aimed by the noble lord 
Uos ribbon; or if gained, it mail be 
Bcpcnce of the very Utt rclources of 
OjdOfli* whiffh would be drained and 
aft oven to bankruptcy, if chit de- 
l wax vaa pcrnfttd in at th« cspence 
l njnahng twietatti. He called upon 
entry i'"'/"^ to confider in time 
bit of that fnpport they gave to the 
adinjiiiiiafian Hit expremooi^his 
mbM not be attended to ; bnt he wat 
than eronld he eloquence more pow- 
aatoeaai* the pleadings of ruined te- 
inf commerce, and bankrupt 
j that the events which were 
before their cyci a gave them 
oiiaev to. believe chat their diftrcflci 
ha auuvcria) ; they spread to hit 
alga Chrooajb the country, with a ce- 
fcat oofht to alarm every confiderate 
Ho ndegrtad to the danger to the 
etioo, which muft refult from fuch 
tone ewabHtorntt i aa they gave the 
, an intoeaca which he thought ought 

■ over/ friend to that fyftem of li- 
ehich sad availed this kingdom. 

, Fur demanded of the miniflert to 

if it wm the plan of government to 

ate tha Aojaricaa war ofYennvely in 

America; ha taid chat, without tliis 

■ being jnfweredv it was impofliblc 
a to know how Co. give a vote. If that 
as to be pcrfifted in, he had the clear- 
of in the cventeof the laft campaign, 
ho number of troopt was much too 
Co he attended with any effect j on 
atrvy, if that war waa not tq be pro- 
I, than ho mould contend that the 
tr now called upon to be voted were 
larger than wai nccciTary. 

4 Cnrg« Gtrmmtu anfwered him, that 
» the intention of government certainly 
abandon tha American war; but if 
rnewable fentjeman eipefted him to 
a the degree of offensive mcafaret that 
n ha pnrfnadj it waa impofliblc for him 
I and if ha could, he mould think it 
•improper, for reafoot obvious enough. 
rcr, .ha b*tH. repeat, that it waa not 
to nfaawf? thai war. 
• Jew Uica 106 again* and 1a a long 



fpeech entered into a variety of mittrr, in 
(o large a compafi, that it it not cafy to iul- 
low him. —He f«id, it wai now granted that 
Che war wai to be cairied on in America as 
ufual ; for if tht: was not the plan, cer- 
tainly the noble fecretary would have ex- 
plained the intention. Ccuid it be neccfLry 
to enter into any (iifquifi'ion on tiut lub- 
jett? Thit curled, abominable, abfurd war 
wai to be profecuted in defiance of all ex- 
perience, and all common ienfe. Let but 
gentlemen confider the reprefen tattoos which 
had, at different timet, been made them 
upon this fuhjeft. Thry had been repeated- 
ly told that half, or more than hilf Ame- 
rica were in favour of government j that in 
addition to that, we had a corps of provin- 
cials in our femee, equal to what the Con- 
greft bad in thcir's. We know that in ad- - 
dition to all thii, we had 79.000 men cm- 
ployed there, Britim and Jurcign, and now 
we are called t j vote that force again. For 
what? For impollibi lilies; for if, with the 
people more than equally divided, with an 
equal force of American troops, we ought, 
without any thing more, to have had a 
clear fuperiority, and to have reduced the 
coloniftt to obedience. .What then ought 
we not to have done with above 70,000 men 
added? Doei not thit mow dearly the ab- 
furdity, madnefi, and folly of ihefe mea- 
furet, in which government ii determined 
to perfift, till the whole empire it involved 
in one common ruin ? 

The queftion wai then called for, and car- 
ried without a divifion. 

TOarjeVry, Dec. 9. 
L^rd North agreeable to the notice he had 
given a week before, laid before the Houfe 
his three proportions for the relief of Ire- 
land ; which were ai follow : 

Firfl, To repeal the a& of parliamrnt 
which prohibits the exportation of him 
wool, and woollen manufactures from the 
kingdom of Ireland. 

Sectnd, To repeal fo much of an aft at 
prohibits the exportation of glafs, glafs bot- 
tles, and other article* of glafs manufa£lu!e 
from the kingdom ol Ireland, to ar.y part or 
Europr, the Britifh colonic* in America 
the Weft Indies, -nd the Briiilh feitleaicntt 
on the couft or Africa. 

T'tirdy That Ireland mould be permirtei 
to c«rry on commerce in exports and im- 
ports to and from the B'itifti colonics in A- 
mcrica, and other fetllcinenls, fubjec't only 
to luch linutatlont and duties at the parlia- 
ment of Ireland mould impofr. 

His k.roi'hip in fliort rxpianation* inform- 
ed the H.ufc, that all tue Iri(b uiihcd tor, 
was comprehended in thefc proportion!, he 
declared that ihey had not given the Kail 
hint of a defire to have any alter a tier, made 
in their political conftitution, and in amVer 
to what had been thrown out of their i^m- 
1 2 fceiimt 



66 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



Feb; 



pel ling England to grant their unreafontble 
demand^ he affirmed that their addreflei 
and application* to the throne had been mo- 
deft, decent, and rather in the Style of pe- 
titions than demands. Though he wai cer- 
tain Ireland would be failed if the propo- 
rtions were paSTed into laws, yet it was 
not his intention to furprife any gentleman, 
on the contrary he wiShed to have them 
duely weighed, and for that end, he Should 
lay them on the table, and only move that 
a committee of the whole Houfe Should be 
appointed to take them into confideration, 
together with all the papers before the 
Houfo relative to the trade, revenues, &c« 
of Ireland on the following Monday. 

Sir George Tonge alone exprcfled his ap- 
prehensions, that the proportions though 
they might fatisry Ireland, would alarm and 
diSTatisfy all England from one end to the 
other. 

Lord North replied, that as the bu fined 
would not be hurried, there would be time 
enough in the progrefs of it to receive in- 
formation from every part of England, and 
to raifc objections in the progrefs of it, 
through its feveral Stages, provided the com- 
mittee refolved to adopt the propc-fitiont. 
The committee was then appointed, and the 
JLarlofDrogbeda nominated chairman. 
Fridsy, Dec, 10. 

Mr, Wood> the new member for Middle- 
fex, prefented to the Houfe, a very long pe- 
tition flgned by a great number of fix (hold- 
ers of that county, complaining of a viola- 
tion of i heir own rights and of the rights 
and privileges of all the electors of Great- 
Britain, by the intcrpofition of ministerial 
influence at elections \ and particularly 
slating the conduct of Lord North upon the 
laft vacancy for Middlefex occasioned by the 
death of Serjeant Glynn : his lordffiip hav- 
ing fecretly promt fed to grant the Chi Item 
Hundreds to one gentleman (whom he knew 
to be not the object of their choice) to enab ] e 
him to vacate his prefent feat in parliament 
and become a candidate for Middlefex $ and 
rcfufed them to another whom they wifhed 
to have elected; by which partial refufal 
of the vacating office to him, he could not 
become a candidate. They complained like- 
wile of the evil conferences of leaving fuch 
an unconstitutional controul over elections 
in the hands of any mini ft er, and ppyed 
relief. Finally, the petition recited feveral 
instances of national calamity and ill fuccefs, 
be fetching the Houfe to enter into a ferious 
enquiry into the caufes of our prefent 
wretched Situation. 

The petition being received, Mr. Wilkei 
Stated in a concife manner, the neceffity of 
giving due attention to the different objects 
of the petition, of all them being of the ut- 
most importance, and in order to have a fall 
Huufe, and that proper time might be given 



to the members to weigh the contents in 
their own minds he moved a general call. of 
the Houfe on the firft of February, and that 
the petition Should be taken into confidera- 
tion on the third. 

Mr. Wood then moved " For leave to 
bring in a bill to enable any member of that, 
Houfe to be a candidate for any county, city, ' 
or borough/* that is to fay, without being 
obliged to accept a place in order to vacate 
his actual feat, before he can be a candidata 
to reprefent another county, city, or bo- 
rough. Should this bill pafs into a law, 
the minifterial power of granting the Chil- 
tern Hundreds ceafei. 

The motion was agreed to, after a Short 
obfervation by Lorth North, his lord Ship 
faid he had no objection to bringing in the 
bill, but he de fired it might be remembered 
that as it propofed a very material alteration 
in the constitution, he Should coafidcr it as 
a bill that required very ferious diicoalton in 
its progrefs. 

CeUncJ Tuffntl then entered into a justifi- 
cation of his late conduct in applying for the 
Chiltern Hundreds, and a vindication of 
Lord North in granting him the promifet 
be faid no other candidate having Started in 
the courfe of a fortnight, he concloded he 
had a right to apply tor the vacating office, 
never dreaming any opposition waa intended ) 
but on finding an oppofition was Set up, ra 
order to preferve the peace of the county he 
bad declined. 

Lord North gave a plain, clear account 
of the applications of Colonel ToSfael and 
Mr. Byng, and faid he Should be glad if 
feme better mode could be deviled to free 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer from the 
difagreeablc Situation he was thrown into by 
refusing or granting the Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds; it was a power he 
thought vested in that officer for the conve- 
nience of the members of the Houfe j it 
could be of no fervice to the minister, and 
he only doubted the efficacy of the bill pro* 
pofed. 

Mr. T. Tcwtjbend replied to all the re* 
flexions thrown ' out by Col. TufFnell, re* 
fpecting the meetings of the freeholders | 
and though the colonel had aficrted that he 
could have carried hia election if he had 
not preferred the quiet of the county, he 
declared he had found but one man, after 
ftftn days canvafs, who faid he was to vote 
for him, and he waa under very unhappy 
circumstances, which he fancied the ho- 
nourable member would not wiSh to have 
mentioned. 

Mr. Byng related the progrefa of hia op« 
plication to the county, and to Lord North ; 
)}js chief point of blame he retted on hia 
lordSbip'a giving only a verbal reply to hia 
letter (fent to him on a Monday) telling 
hia he Should be in town, and would write 

feu* 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



*9 



ob 3W/U7.— Tbii loff of 

t he"Wd, night toft a candidate 
aa, by fafpending bii canvaffing 1 
Md waa a direct anfwer, Tu or 
■ anight have bees given in an 
hit May did not look very can- 
ial the interval, certain communi- 
fcht take place between the colo- 
« (he wUbed the Hoofe might be 
that friend was) and hit lordihip. 
aapar Lmttrtll neat moved a refo- 
thertnraft ctonfeqacoce, and very 
t after what hid paffed aboat the 
1 petition. H«ving mentioned the 
iniaencc of the fervanu of the 
(aerially ia the ' fcveral dock- yards 
■W officers, workmen, and othen 
ha voters at elections, he moved, 
the opinion of the Hoofe that it is 
toninal for any (ervama of the 
late r fere in the elections for mrm- 
that the Hoafe wilt always refent 
lation of their privileges* 
KaVi Seconded this motion, and 
rarfba that he had a letter in hit 
ikh be believed to be a letter from 
tefChende*, Lord Lieutenant for 
aty of Southampton, defiling the 
a to whont it is addreflcd, and his 
tofsrpport the intereft of Sir John 
ly, at the approaching election for 

Vtrtb did not oppofe the motion, 
as it contained new matter, it 
have been breeght U with proper 
ed not at the clefe of a day fad- 
er totally overthrew this objection, 
MxVarJng that it waa only a confir- 
F a former reflation on their joor- 
kh the noble lord had not oppufed ; 
fee to be continent, if he had any 
to what he had before voted, the 
ay would be to move a repeal of 



motion pafled with only 
live voice; and the name of the 
a being mentioned, Mr. Onflow 
Muttcmao, complained of it aa a 
P-privilege. 

■waa, by advice of the Speaker, hot 
e> in any other way to bring the 
fetter before the Hoofe, moved a 
t nearly in the following words : 

Shunt being made by a member of 
, that the Deke of Chandos has 
1 letter^ iaterfering in the election 
ato for the coaaty of Southampton, 
r « breach of privilege of this Ho'ufe," 
sad, That the fame be referred to 
avttee of Privilege*. 

Bhmds j, Die. 13. 
aajiiaiiiliii of the whole Hoofe, 
■abeda ia the chair, went into the 
ate of* the propofiue&i for the re- 
irtUnd* 



Lwrd Nertb in a very long explanatory 
fpeech, urged the expediency of forming 
them into rcfolutions of the committee, in 
order to be reported to the Houfe, that bills 
might be brought in and palled if agreed to* ' 
without lofs of time. The chief argument* 
on which he eftablifhed the political and 
commercial equity of his pronofitions, were 5 
Firft, That the wealth of' Ireland is the 
wealth of England. Secondly, That the re- 
ftrictions laid on the trade of Ireland by fc- 
veral acts of parliament in the reigns of 
Charles It. William III. Queen Anne, 
George I. and George II. had proved highly 
prejudicial to Ireland without producing any 
confiderable advantage to Great Britain. In 
the preferit diftrefled fituation of Ireland 
therefore, which upo:i fair inquiry, waa 
found to arife 11 a groat mcafure from the 
moft onerofc of thofe rtftridtions, he confi- 
dered it as found policy to grant fpeedy, li- 
beral, and effectual reliff. He did not 
mean, he faid, by moving tbefe proportions, 
to make them any part of a general fyftem 
for the repeal of all commercial reftrainte 
whatever that had been laid by the Britira. 
parliament on the trade of Ireland, for that 
would involve que ft ion • of tight ai well aa 
expediency} but folely to confine himfelf 
for the prefenr, to the removal of thofe 
grievances complained of by the Irifh par- 
liament. But at the fame time, he gave it 
as his opinion, that fcveral other reftric- 
tions ought to be taken off which he would, 
propofe hereafter : but they were of a tri- 
vial nature compared to the objects now 
befote the committee. His lord/hip faid 
that the prohibition on the woollen trjde of 
Ireland had been made in con Sequence of a 
mutual compact agreed to by both kingdom*; 
that England would poiTefi the woollen, and 
Ireland the linen manufacture, but his hr/l 
proportion, he faid, meant to put the two 
countries upon a much better fooling than 
any compact, that of mutual good ofrVes, 
mutual intereft 1, and mutual harmony. He 
contended for the good policy of being libe- 
ral upon this occafion, by ftill continuing 
-to grant the bounties on the exportation of 
Irifh linens, which he faid coft England up- 
on an average about 15,000!. per annum; 
and had greatly benefited thelrith manufacture, 
without any detriment to the linen manu- 
facture of Great Britain, which had confi- 
derably increafed, particularly in Scotland 
of late yeara. He then dated the impofiibi- 
lity of the Irifh rivalling us at foreign mar- 
ket*, or in our home consumption, in the 
woollen manufacture, and even if it were 
poflible, it was furely found policy to con- 
sider Ireland as part of the Britiih empire, 
the fu fur /iteration of whofe wealth would 
center in England the feat of that empire, 
and under thefe circumftances it was wtfcr 
to hare her far a commercial rival than \ 

iultA^fc 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



70 

foreign country, Ai to the fecond proposi- 
tion, be intended a repeal of the aft of the 
29th of G=orge II. prohibiting the expor- 
tation of glafi, from Ireland, and he ftated 
the advantage! of the repeal to Ireland, with 
the little advantage it would he to England 
to continue the prohibition. 

His lord/hip's third proportion he owned 
was of a more complex nature, and a 
matter of pure favour on the part of Eng- 
land to Ireland, which Jhe certainly could 
have no right to demand, iince the Ame- 
sican colonies, and other B'itifh fettlemcnti 
were acquired with the blood and treafure 
ot Great Britain ; and therefore he mould 
think it requited the moft ferioui delibera- 
tiea, and perhaps further information from 
jielartd, he iaould, however, fubmit to the 
eor.Goeration of the Houfe upon the repoit, 
if his two propofitiens palled the committee, 
to put them into the bill ; and to frame a 
fee aratc bill for the third. After farther 
argun;cnt> in fupport of hit two general 
maxims— -that the wealth of Ireland ii the 
wealth of Great Britain*— and, that England 
w<*u)d ioie little or nothing by aiTenting 10 
ail the propo6tionf v he concluded with 
mentioning the repeal of other ads, which 
fie Aouid move for at a future period— vi*. 
the abfuid act palled in the reign of 
Charlci II. to prohibit the inportation of 
kan cattle from Ireland into Great Britain. 
The act for prohibiting the exportation of 
Biitifh coin to Ireland. And the aft for 
laying a duty on the exportation of bopi to 
Ireland. It produced, he faid, about 15,0001. 
a year to the Englifh revenue, and he pro- 
posed that the Irifii parliament ihould lay 
an importation duty to the fame amount, 
when wculd tramter that turn from the 
kn h \\(h to the Iriflj Exchequer. 

Mr. Ton made a neutral fpeech. Neither 
he nor his friends, he faid, would oppoi'e 
the piopciiiiona, becaufe admini A ration mould 
not have it to fay, if they were unfatiifaftory 10 
Ireland, that they had been the caufe of 
their mifcarriage ; neither would he advance 
any thing in favour of them, becaufe he 
was ignorant of the difpofition of Ireland 
rcfpe&ing them, and of the advantages that 
might arife to that country, or the difadvan- 
fa-et to this; and becaufe, if he faid any 
thing in fupport of Come part of them— not 
entirely approving the whole— if they did 
not aniwer hereafter, administration and 
their friends would come to the Houfe and 
fay, You confented to them— That fide of 
the Houfc approved them. 

Lord Ge&ae Gordaw made one general ob- 
fcrv.'tioii on Lord North's proportions, which 
dclervri to be remembered. He feid thry 
put him in mind of Rabelais's will—" I 
cwr .1 grtat deai, I have birr little to pay, 
*nd j e:*t the re'r to the poi>r.** 

&r ',1'i.imm Men dub objected to the af- 



fertion that Ireland would not gt 
and England would lofe little or n< 
the free woollen trade, maintainin 
inconfiftcnt ; for that whatever w 
England, mull be a gain to Irel 
would have proceeded to further a 
ferns on the propositions, but a 
noife, which teemed to offend , 
vented it. 

Lord North infifted, that there 
reafon for aficrtiog that Ireland fl 
greatly, without England lofing 1 
That the induftry of the two coot 
not at f a II incompatible. Of this t 
of many countries gave the cleare 
but he ihould offer at an inftancc c 
he believed would not be contro 
was that of Scotland, a country, 
union, more leftrifted and cram 
I r elar.d is now } yet the union brok 
all thofe rtftridions, and laid open 
of England to Scotland : the en 
was, the two kingdoms flourinWI 
and feem to grow in greatnefs prop 
to the advantage of each other. 

Sir Jamtt Lwotbt* thought 1 
lord much too precipitate, and am 
poning n*nifhing the bufinefs till 
holidays, that gentlemen might I 
to confult their conftituenn. Hi 
in the mean time, the laying a U 
in the pound upon the abfenteea< 
which would produce, he faid, net 
and he thought his majefty might 
pay the Irifh prnfioni out of hit < 
which, with the propuGtiona lyu 
table, would, he doubted not, I 
fatisfy Ireland, till the matter conk 
up again after the recefi, and « 
with due fcrioufnefs s he declared I 
the increafe of the influence of t 
which the third proportion wouh 
by an cnoimous increafe of the 
and defired to know how that ti 
revenue would be appropriated ? 

Mr. Denpfter highly applauded 
pofitious, and wiflied thole who 
mean to oppofe them directly, wc 
abfent thenofclves than deliver advi 
fentimentt at this time. He fai> 
he represented a large manufatxnr 
he was certain every man of has co 
would give up all ideal of competi 
favour of the liberal principle oi 
pa ting Ii eland from the fterim f 
laid on her commerce. He then 
mode of applying the revenue tfc 
arife from the duties on (agar, 1 
faid he had calculated would a 
60.000I. the firft year. He ti 
lrifh, with this revenue, to afa 
hearth tax, and fane other odk 
which had occafioned great difturb 
di content in Ireland. As to an 
be dreaded from the military alloc 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 7 t 

related all idle tppreheniions of pies of them no ft be brought ; if not, ■ 
•, and did not doubt the focceft proper anfwer would be given in compliance 
frfitsoni. Mr. Dempfter fpoke with the order of the Houfc. 
ly vhh refpecx to Ireland, and [Mr. David Hartley made the fame mo- 
noble lord to bring np the report tion in the other Houfc, which was like- 
end not to lofe a moment in get- wife carried.] 

3 paflcd into a law. The Earl of Sbt/hume then moved the 
i propofirjens were then onani- following refolucion for the Houfc to come 
ed into refblutions of the com- to : «« That the alarming addition annually 
e next day they were reported to making to the prefent enormous national 
agreed to, and bills ordered in debt, under the head of extraordinarics, in- 
} which in the coorfe of a few enrred in the different fervices, requires im- 
pelled, and carried up to the mediate check and controul ; the increafing 
(e, through which they made a the publick expence beyond the grants of 
eft, not meeting with any oppo- parliament, being at all timea an in virion 
oa Che 13d they received the of the fundamental righti of parliament! 
B and the utmoft ceconomy being indifpenfi- 
— «^ __ bly neceffary in the prefent reduced and de- 
plorable ftate of the landed and mercantile 
US* OF LORDS. Intereft of Great Britain and Ireland." Af- 
WkduefAn, Die* ic. ter difclaiming all perfonal views in the mo- 
**# •/RkbmtMd moved an addrefs tion, hit lord/hip explained hii reafons for 
lefty, " That he would be gra- urging it. He complained that an uncon- 
ifod to order the proper officers ftitotional, minift*riaj influence had ufurped 
ire the tt>ufe copies of the mani- the regal prerogative, which muft be crufhed 
be conrta of France and Spain, *>' the falvation of the country. It arofe 
he reafons of thofe courts for ftom the Firft Lord of the Treafury having 
are with Great Britain, alio co- '* ' n his power to expend millions of the 
tech anfweri as have been given publick money without account, and with- 
r aay ef his majefty'a minifters, ©«* eeconomy, to gratify avarice, or promote 
Cher persona anthorifed by govern- corruption, by the bribes of lucrative em- 
ployments, fobs, and contracts. The great - 
ntbam, late ambaflador to Spain, «* opportunities afforded tor this, were in 
tasracaf, laieambaiXador to France, tne annual article of cxtraordinaries for fun- 
ecrctary of State, were againft the **y fences in time of war. The army ex- 
son this principle, that no fuch traordinaries he meant to make the grand 
been communicated to them in object of the debate : his lord/hip mention- 
aty of ambatTadors; nor were foch ed & vcraI ht **' of '•"» expenditure of the 
K found in the Secretary of State's publick money 5 viz. Four millions remit - 
lequently not being ftate papers ted to North America unaccounted for. 
act prod dec thtm. Bills •f exchange drawn upon government 
■!# rf Rkbmvnd inftfted that the ty the governors of our f:ttlemcnts abroad 
t motives of the court of France; *° a E'"* amount 5 by men who had no 
tto of the court of Spain; and proprrty and when called upon to account 
ring memorial of the King of t0T the expenditure, had nothing to refund, 
;*in had been avowed at the dif- and had (pent the money on thcmfelve?, 
its of Europe by the rcfpeQive mi- n <* ' ln the publick fcrvlcc. Extravagant 
each crown! they bad likewife contrafts, particularly for Rum, and the ap- 
ted in all the newi'papers ; he pointment of a new officer — Rnm tafter to 
(Bought it highly criminal in our the ™"» in America, loleiy lor the lake of 
rs and Secretaries of 6tate cot to K ivin 8 awa Y » fiUf Y to a favourite. With 
■reduce copies of them. rclocct to the army extraordiruries he quoted 
fl/hw*gt denied that they were a precedent for his m >:ion, which was A 
rf; and laid, if the noble duke rcfoiu'.'.on of the Houfc .,f Lords in 171 1, 
rhim to go to the printers and againfl the extr»;»rdinanes of the army under 
1 (hops for them, they might be the command of the great Duke of Marl- 
ine tabic, but not rtherwifc. borcijh, and oblcrv.ng thit tn= extr.v»rdi- 
iQhtnttU* clofed the debate in »«»« in the pref.nt war, i.avc ir.creafed in 
the motion, wh^ch was carried; the ptopcrtian of three M o«.e, more "than 
d that the papers ufually mcveJ they were »n the Lftj he C*\» t he thought 
: Houfc, were copiis {.rapcrly au- hirnfelr a goo.1 fricn-i m ad.ni.T.lrration, for 
1 of fuch original papers as were he wanted by necefLry ittrrnchxenl uf un- 
the officers of the crown, 01 re- nectary ciphers 10 cn-bi? tr.rm m cury 
them with prooei fignaiures : if on th« war -£«i 11 :Lc ri-.u& G r B.-:bj» 
ffiginaii esiftce v> ihe cfiUcs ;v- * i: *« vi »'« ;u ' 






PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



Lord Stvrmont again ft the rtfolution re* 
marked, thai it implied a cenfure without 
inquiry and without ftating as a fact, that 
the expenditure of the publick money it not 
already fubjvct to check and contmul. He 



Lord Sbilbune then offered a f 
folution to be laid on the table as 
for future deliberation, when their" 
had had fuii time to reflect opoi. 
this lo'ofe w.iy of leaving an inte 



thought the precedent a very bad one, for if tion on the table being objected to 



of order: it was moved in the 
words , 

" Ordcrrd, That the Lords be f 
for Tucl'day the 8th of February 
take into consideration a motion, 
committee be appointed, confiding 
bera of bath Houfes, polTcfling nei 
ployment nor penfion, to examine 
delaj into the publick expenditure 
mode of accounting for the fam 
particularly into the manner of m 
contract i, and at the fame time to 
confi deration what favings can be n 
fiircnt with publick dignity, juf 
gratitude, hy an abolition of old 
created tfrk.s, or revsrfion of of 
dutiet of which have either ccafed 



the Duke of Marlborough, for whole cha- 
racter he profciTcd the hip heft veneration, 
had not been contiouled in his ertenfive mi- 
litary operations by the resolution alluded to, 
he wruld h.tvc cru/hed the power of France 
i'o effectually that we flioutd not have had 
occafrun for any fubfequent war with that 
crown j and he apprehended the word con- 
iequencrs from any impediment to our pre- 
sent military operation:, for which reafons 
he thought the motion highly improper. 

The Earl of Hilljbvougb was again ft the 
propofed refutation, becaul'e it aiTerted a 
3ul ehood j for every article of the army ex* 
traordinanes is in confcquencc of fomc grant 
of parliament, and included in the votes of 
cielit of the other Houfe. 

Earl Bat bur jl declared that another fact on enquiry prove inadequate co ti 
impliedin the ic folution was erroneous} for the other emoluments arifing tnerefro 
cxlraorcinaries are all checked and controuled the reduction of fuch falariea or 
in the Exchequer ; therefore he thought lovrjnees and profits as may appt 
the motion negatived itfelf. With refpect unrcatonable, that the fame may b 
to the governors drawing bills on the Trea- to leiVen the prefent ruinous exj 
Jury, to his own knowledge the bills of 
tho:e vu»o had no right to draw had been 
protested, and one of the governors named, 
Mr. Morris of St. Vincent's, had been ic- 
Cilled. 

Tie Duke of Mancbtfier cautioned their 
lori].*p? againlt rejecting the motion, be- 
came a cloud of diftrefs is approaching which 
\\\\ inv. Ive all manner of perfons from the 
th:->ne to the cottage, unlefs rigid ceconomy 
prevent* it. 

Tie Duke cf Richmond in fupport of the 
motion, mentioned the partial arrangement 
ot appointments in the army 5 and took no- 
tice of the Governor of Jerfey, Genial Con- 
w y havng charged only thirty pounds for 
excac-rdinaiiet, though he had put theifland 
into a Hate of defence again ft the enemy; 
2nd he afktd why fo able a general, and 
one fo inclined to economy was not em- 
ir, yd in more important feivice. 

7 be Duke cf Grmfizn. the Enrli of F.f- 
fr.£.'..;a, SuffJk, and Cvuettry f'poke a kw 
»v>oi on the fame fide, and itemed to won- 
the file nee of the minifterial lords. 



and to enable us to carry on thi 
war again ft the Houfe of Bourbon, ' 
derifion and vigour which can ah) 
from national seal, confidence* an 
mity." 

The rejection of the Duke of Ri 
motion «n Tuefday the 7th, an 
Earl of S-ielburnVi fir ft refolafioa 
h.ts occafione'd the Court cf CoasHV) 
cil of London to vote their tbani 
two noble peeis for their mottooi 
declare that they will give every 
tinnal fupport in their power to th 
ry plan of reformation propofed I 
highly approving the motion inttn 
debated on the 8th of February, 
have been held in feveral counties 
fame pu*po.e. 



HOUSE OF COMMON 



cor 



Ii • l.'.rdCbancelhr clolcd the arguments 
ty j i.^ual analyfis of the mqtion, and de- 
cared it to be totally inexpedient at this 
t-.mc, ii the fir ft place, becaufe it had been 
f!iov«? the extraordinarics in queftion are al- 
ready f object to check and controul \ in the 
w. xt, becaufe if a confidence is not placed 
;'i the commanders of our army, in cafes of 
t.v^ciuy, n ) war can be carried on. 

On a oivifion, the motion was rejected by 
r- 1 n t- contents— againft 41 contents, proxies 



Fridjj, Dec, 17. 

IN a Committee of Supply Si 
Cacks, Comptroller- General of the 
Ordnance, moved the eilimate for 
vice for the enfuing year in a loi 
fpcech, in which he acquainted 1 
that the cflimate exceeded that of 
in the fum ot 131,000!. which he 
for by the increale of the army and 
both of which muft be fupplird wi< 
ry, and o'her aiticles belonging to 
nance. He confidered the ordnanc 
as a fupplemer.t to the votes for 
and navy both of them larger than 



*i"-» 



CJC&LIAMENTARY HISTORY. 73 

the sjiantnre 1 Bit k€b highly detrimental to tht poblick 

to ranWI on the service, which ought to ho enquired into, 

war w« tro ncccf- and feme remedy applied by parliament. 




am to enventl dtfa cewatnr CoIhh/ &rr/ took the greater! part of the 

hkieen.dengna of theHeufa flwnegemcnt of thii debate upon hlmfelf. 

IfilmftmUm attempt! of o«r He obferved, that the Ordnance eftimate 

bt Itnaauared tho Boole, the wai increafed out of alt proportion, to the 



^Kttmt 



tho Boole, the 

aw at depended on 

has) tent/ provided} 

a foffcicat quantity 



tftke 



in all parts 
with taking 
cenmUnts that had 



tarn* the 




flat Charka Frederick, Survcyor- 
f the Ordnance, who enumerated 
tf of pewter, ball, cannon, and 
in tht dtadd and in the 




whofpoke again and 
they an allowed to do in a 
.hat aVal) give a gaacral ftate of 
aataiaft At Board of Ordaance 



wai increafed out of aH proportion, to the 
cftinutei of that fervice in the laft wars. 
yet at the peace, the Houfe had thought 
proper to appoint a committee to enquire in- 
to the aba wt of that department $ thole com* 
mitteta had the fate to be Jhoit lived, but 
they had come to a refolution which pointed 
artillery, at detected abnfet. An enquiry of the (ame 
at Ply- kind he thought more cflTential at thif time, 
hud nude the when our total cxpences are fo heavy, and 
■by into tba mauar, therefalt thofe only to carry on an offenfive war* 
Ma,' that Mae ttn^rcprefentation Formerly, he faid, our wife ancestors took 
these reports, efpe- the great articles of fopply for the Ordnance 
tonyaaoath on the day separately, and referred them to feparato 
4 1 and he was fopported committeei. He ftated three or four qusf- 
~~ ~ tiont, to which he beiged an anfwer from 

the gentlemen of the Board, viat. What 
quantity of powder ii there at this time in 
aMnti in At rttsdrl and in the Great Britain, and . of what quality ? The 
keek might have been tranfport- reaibni be gave for aflting this queftion were, 
aawfici in a very most fpace of that he wimed to know if we had a fuffi- 
afc iadaratlont gave rife to a long cient quantity of powder in hand for oor 
waauKaey a aaiarr, that we {hall home defence, independent of what muft be 
ft oa tjte the f peec h e i of fifteen lent abroad ; and at to the quality, becaufe 

he wai very well informed, that in the en- 
gagement with the French fleet on the 27th 
of July, 177S, the powder wat fo bad, that 
it would not carry the balls to a proper dif- 
taacc, which was complained of by fevcral 
of the officers. This, he faid, wat owing 
L couctralag the defeacelrfs Hate to our fending our heft powder to America, 
!*» tad addled other particulars ; to deftroy oor beft fiieodi, and keeping oor 

bad for oor worft foes. Dutch and Swiff 
powder bad been bought, and was ufed on 
tbarday infrrad of English powder, becaufe 
that fink of EngliJh glory, the American 
war, had fwallowed up all the good pow- 
der. 

With refpe& to fmall arms, he faid he 
had vifited the Tower in May 1777, not to 
fee the Ivoni, but to view thofe lyons which 
in the hands of proper perfoni would ft nice 
terror into oor enemies fleets and armies $ 
but there were not 15,000 fland of (ervicc* 
able arms in the arfenal 5 he was glad to be 
informed we had now a proper quantity, 
but be wifltrd for proof of ir. 

Lord H*we complained bitterly of a pam- 
phlet, entitled *' Two Letteis to him and 
his Brother, on their Conduct in America." 
He f*U that if the tenth part of what the 
calumniator had audited wat true, the Houfe 
ought never to forgive them : the rcafon of 
hit mentioning thefe letters wai, that one 
article of malevolent accusation turned on 
his having purchafed a quantity of powder 
at New York, which, it was faid, he did 
not want, but did it for emolument to hint- 
felf. He declared hit rcafrns tor purttufing 
K. ii 




defended bis aflertioM on a 
ring the defeacelefs trace 
tad addled other partkutati \ 
rtMata eattaaaa of feme of the 
JBt hattariaa, which, if they had 
Mite, would have fuak into the 
am which they had only fia-and- 
lae It nfsa them | and the not 
It amUida he c om mand ed to exer- 
llta, to be la? readieefs for the 
anas they Jetd not powder to fpare; 
tared there wat not a proper num- 
«o fill the Unci. 

iiinjiaisf would not enter too 
a department ant of hit kaow- 
1 cteamendad Sir Charles Cocks't 
w sot tackUg the ordnance to the 
ale, Ba bad been* formerly done, 
n i> Borate day, which pre the 
t p po i tuahy of objeftiftg to any 
: expenditure of the large Aim re- 



ananrabte gentleman, and thofe 
•i him on the fame, fide of the 
oclaccithcy did net mean to op- 
; Ike fiata reeuirad, nor did they 
aavaxiona on the principal officers 
tig but they coaceived there was 
stout in tome inferior officers, 
la, want of okouojby, and neg- 
if AG» Feb. 1780,. 



7 6 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF 



•Feb. 



force and otmoft extent ; tnd not only to 
know, but to practice all the moral and fa- 
cial virtoei : for thefe attainments he mod 
Hand indebted to the moft celebrated wri- 
teri on moral philofophy, policy, and pub- 
lic Jc oxonomy j and let it be remembered, 
that in fuch bodies of electors as,'ufually af- 
femble to nominate candidates at a general 
election, there are never wanting perfons of 
learning and experience, capable of judging 
whether the parties propofed have purfued 
fuch fludies a* are requifite to form the 
character of an accomplished fenator. The 
freedom of this country, therefore, can ne- 
ver be endangered, if the electors will re- 
folve to reject all gamefters, debauchees, 
prodigals, and ideots; and to choofe only 
loch perfons as are properly, as well as lr- 
gally qualified, to anert and maintain the 
rights an J privileges of their constituents. 
4 It is'alfo highly expedient, that a Briti/h 
member of parliament mould be perfectly 
matter of ancient and modern hiftory, but 
more particularly .the larter, in which muft 
be included the moft accurate knowledge of 
every part of the' hiftory of his own coun- 
try. 

From the records of antiquity, he will 
leirn true fortitude, fidelity, jofiice, tempe- 
rance, eeconotny, and a fpiric of heroic ar- 
dour Inciting him to facrlfice every private 
confederation; health, eafe, fortune, and 
even life itfe.'f, for the good of his country, 
when (he is fo critically fitoated that her 
brefervation front ruin depends entirely on 
fuch fignal exertions of patriotifm. Mo- 
dern hiftory will make him acquainted with 
the commercial and political interefts of 
thofe nations, whofe 1 foperiorlty or rivalry 
ftre*to be guarded again ft, or whofe friend (hip 
and alliance is to be cultivated by hit own 
country; and it mould be a fixed role with 
electors to obferve if the candidates for their 
Votes are converfant in the hiftory of the 
Vevolutions of their own country; for he 
who is not animated by the glortaus ftrug- 
f Tes that have been made in defence of pab- 
Ttck freedom, and the fignal fucceflet that 
tiave attended them, will cither be fopinely 
indolent and inattentive, when minifterial 
y ower encroaches on the rights of the peo- 
ple, or he will countenance the oforpatioh, 
if not from venality, yst cither from want 
of poblick fpirit, or ignorance of the danger 
to which the con dilution is expofed. 

The manners and cuftoms of bis country- 
xaen, their natural genius, temper, general 
Behaviour, and mode of thinking and rea- 
foaing on publick affairs, (hoold be tho- 
roughly inveftigated by every man, who pre- 
sumes to follicit the honour of reprefentiftg 
Bts fellow- citi sens in parliament ; and no 
'greater proof ean be given of the incapacity, 
or of the finifter views of a candidate, than 
■ manifeft contempt of the manners, opi- 



nions, and bold, free behaviour of the mats 
of the people; for a familiar acquaintance 
with thefe, enables the accompli died fenacor 
to allay their prejudices and animofities, to 
file nee their clamours, to remove their dis- 
contents, to fettle their differences, to quell 
tumults, to difperfe rioters, and foraetimea 
to prevent the moft dangeroos in furred ion*, 
by his affable, courteous behaviour, hil 
friendly interpolation, and his prudent ad- 
vice : thefe are the advantages fociety will 
derive (out of doors) from his knowledge 
of the difpofitions of the people, and bow 
they (tand affected as to the immediate pof- 
ture of publick affairs ; and, in the fenate, 
he will always propofe lenient, parifick xnca- 
fures for correcting and reforming popular 
abufes; while, on the contrary, he who 
heartily defpifes the vulgar herd of consti- 
tuents, and what he may be pleafed to call 
" the fcum of the earth/* will be violent 
both in the fenate and in poblick, and will 
be ready to aid any defperste^mioifter, who 
(hall take it in bis head, that there is " a 
political neceffity,'* to make the people fob- 
mit by fire and fword, or by rigid, partial 
profecotions, to his arbitrary will and plea- 
fore. 

All the re a font and ends of government, 
every occurrence in the adminiftration of 
poblick affairs, the proceedings of all courts 
of judicature, and all poblick aflVmblies; 
the characters of all perfons who enjoy pofta 
hf honour and confidence in the ftate, and 
the defircs and expectations of thofe who 
haunt the drawing- room,' and the levees of 
minifters, are fubjecti 'of profound medita- 
tion; and of critical enquiry j and will con- 
tribute greatly to the accompli 0im en t of a 
complete fenator; «■ for the knowledge of 
men is a principal branch of true wifdom." 

It is then the duty of Britifh electors, to 
caft a retrofpeetive eye on the way of living 
'to which their candidates have been accuf* 
tomed; it will be eaflly traced how they 
have pmffed their' time, and whether they 
have employed it generally, in fuch a man- 
' net as was likely to rornifli them with '» 
competent knowledge of fovernment, and of 
the state of that civil fociety, whofe honour 
and intcreft they are to fppport in parlia- 
ment. 

The taft, and one of the moft important 
points I (hall have occafion to mention, 
respecting the education of youth defigned 
for any publick employment, is, the art of 
ijwaking in poblick ; which in no country 
in Europe is fo effentially requifite ai in 
Britain, nor in hone fo neglected. 

" Eloquence is the ornament of wifdom, 
and the imperial diadem of fcience: 1 * to 
* what porpofc will all the attainments already 
mentioned ferve, in a poblick capacity, if 
the gift of fpeech ii wanting; efpecially in 
■ country where it it almost impoffiblc to 

mis 



A BRITISH SENATOR.. 



77 



', without finding fome oeca-' 
p deliver our fentsmenf. oo fubjrcli 
, commerce, or policy? In all our 
rtfcmvliei we meet with fpcakers ) 
■not well proceed without themi 
9 snortlf ytag it fi to obferve men of 
r&ed la'emi, verted in all the other 
I sciences which entertain or inftruA 
4, lb deficient in this, that we are 
he torture in bearing them, though 
: convinced that they are the heft 
if the matter before them! But, in 
bm parliament, thia qualification ia 
stably neceflary ; forthc senator, who 
ify indention, a doc arrangement of 
jeftt an hippy choice of words, and 
■1 a ttitude, It enabled' to add a man- 
■ja ai o i i voice, will render all hia 
ticcnp l unin csits mil more confpico- 
id fapport the caofc of the common- 

by the dignity of a complete cha- 

The examples of the power of elo- 
m ancient timet, are almoft incre- 
lai ia on? days, we have feen iti 
ins; cficclf in a Britifh Hoofe of 
M, I ihoold be taxed with partial i- 
f vert to specify the few fpcakers, 
I Art prefent parliament, do honour 
Jetvca and thatr constituents, by the 
. of their reafoniag, the graces of 
xotton, and the dignity of their ac- 
ts, oaring attended the court! of law, 
itr poblkk ajkcmblies, occaftonally, 
ity ycart peft, solely from an early 
tot to the science of eloquence, of 
I bow prcfame to think myfelf a 
rut jndft, I cannot ntglecT this op- 
yof paying a feeble tribute of gra- 
i ta* only man whom I could ever 

at the Cicero of this age and coun- 
d to whom I ftand indebted for the 
wlflRt, rational entertainments, I 
Joyed throogh life. Thofo who re- 
: Lean Mansfield in the prime 
matt do him the justice to own, that 
were united all the natural and ac- 
Kcompliumcata which, in the opi- 
r the baft ancient and modern wri- 
nftfoitc the fimflied orator $ and fo 
vat ae admired when at the bar, that 
I mvoorite pablick amufementt were 

byi young gentlemen of tafte and 
cat, w a ca ao c i it waa known tbit 

ta plead, particularly before the 
[lor- at IdOCoLaVlnn-Hall, where 
off often laft during the evening ; 
dttfe few, if any, inftances cin be 
jkc# of foch crowded audiences, and 
general clofe attention, pot only of 
in ef the taw, bet of ftran|eri; who 
thither by the charms of ge- 



\§. lame writers of 
l 9 * That the bberty of the 
atj* ia Vintt .isce/tvc, be? dcux- 



mincd by the ftate of arte and fciencet, sol 
any country .*" If thefe are patronised ant 
carried to a great degree of perfection by tbo 
rulers of a nation, it is fiid to bt a proof 
that they are friends to the political ftee» 
dom of mankind ; and the very contrary ia 
faid to be the cafe, where the cultivation of 
them is either totally defpifed, or manifestly 
neglected. To this opinion I cannot abfo- 
lutely fubferibe } becaufe, I apprehend that 
we have, before our cyet, a striking evi- 
dence of the futility of the arguments for 
all the polite arts and fejences, except one, 
are cultivated, patronised and fupported too 
lavifhly, with a degrre of vanity and idle 
oftentation, which muft, in the end, prove 
highly prejudicial to our commercial inte- 
reftvc but the art of eloquence, one of the 
nobleft of all human fciencei, is (hamefulty 
neglected by the nation in general, and ia 
openly difcountenanccd and warmly oppoled, 
hy the court-intcreft in particular] it » 
likewife very remarkable, that in proportion 
as the arts which are nourished and fup- 
ported by effeminate luxury, have been fa- 
voured in this reign, eloquence, which pro- 
motes publick virtue and found manners, 
has been decried $ and as it has declined, 
so have we deviated more and more from 
the principles of political liberty, which 
ate the pillars of our excellent .constitution* 

Let me then earnestly intreat my coun- 
trymen, not to cleft mute reprefentaiives. 
Can any thing be more abfurd than the prac- 
tice ot tying the tongues of two or three 
hundred, fenfible freeholders in a cjty or 
county, every one of whom coujd deliver his 
frntiments with fortitude, cafe, and accu- 
racy (if not with dignity and elegance) on 
national concerns, by c hoofing a dumb man 
to reprefentthem in parliament* Every can- 
didate who is unable to adc>cfi hjs country- 
men in a manly, nervous, eloquent (rile, 
fhoold be fet afide as an unqualified per (on j 
and the art of f peaking wel) in publick, 
mould be made one of the moft viTcntial re- 
quires for attaining the diftingui/hed ho- 
nour of being the deputy of a free people. 

If this reformation takes place, thefcier.ee 
of trye eloquence, which fuppofet that the 
powers of oratory *ill only be employed on 
the fide of virtue, will be attentively stu- 
died; and our future parliaments will be 
. compofed of men not only willing, but 
able, t; slop the progrefs of miaifteriai en- 
croachments on publick freedom. At pre- 
fent, it is demonflrable that, if the people 
had more fpeaking members, (he /hameful 
practice of cutting snort the debates in op- 
position to the ministry* by calling for the 
question, would be impeded, if not effec- 
tually prevented; and, vague as the idea 
may appear, 1. fee no rcafpn why a minifter 
may not be harangued out of. hit motion, as 

WcU as a juryman he ftirved owl <•*' his 

«l '.iiiort s 



7« 



A SCENE OF DELICATE AFFECTION. 



•pinion t at all events, the independent 
ele&ors of Grot Britain will be highly 
blameable, if they do not mike the expe- 
riment. I will go one ftep further, and 
venture to affirm, that if the fptrit of true 
patriotifm, inftead of its (hadow, the fpirit 
of party, prevailed vnivarfally in thii enan- 
try, they would find it more for their in- 
tereft, in the alternative, to give the legal 
qualification to a very poor, honeft gentle- 
man, poflefted of that eflcntial accomplish* 
ment, true eloquence, and to eled him aa 
their rep r* tentative, than to chonfe the prin- 
cipal man in the coanty, qualified in every 
other refpect, srttt totally deficient in 
this. 

Bur, In cafes where there ii no fuch al- 
ternative, after baring ascertained, by a 
Uriel fcrutiny, the feveral qualificationt al- 
ready pointed out, and included in a perfect 
education $ it moaM be an invariable rule 
with electors, to prefer men of generooi 
birth, p«y>ng particular attention to tbeir 
family connexion* $ for we very often re* 
reive imprefiiont from education, favoura- 
ble to virtue and pobKck freedom, which ace 
afterwards eradicated by the private influence 
and example of oar relations. The hiftor y 
Of every nation affords ill oft rat ions of this 
troth ; but in none are they more frequent, 
than in the annals of Britain, 

An independent ntoatioa with refpeel to 
fortune, and a known contempt of riches, 
•wfily difcernible by a liberal, beneficent 
character, nuy be confidcred as the final 
accompli Himcnt of a Britifti fenator. 

Happy the people who have the fortitude, 
dlfcernmtnt, and virtue, to elect fuch cha- 
ndlers, and fach alone, to enact the laws 
by which they are to be governed, to protect 
their property, to prefcive and improve tbeir 
commerce, to raife the publick revenues 



with discretion, and to note the ana 
of them with a jealous eye I 

Permit me now to take my leave 
fubject, with a few political aaot 
fuited to the times* 

If minifterial influence in par 
should prevail fo far, as conftantly fj 
a majority in the Hoafe of Coarm 
favour of every meafure indifcrim 
which the reigning administration 
proper to adopt and pcrfift in, then i 
to the renown of this mighty empi 
glory dwells not with (laves* bat ci 
•r diminishes with the liberty of the ■ 

A free nation may furvive tat 
thraldom $ it may have a (avion* 1 
people enflaved by their own venal 
tardly conduct, can only change fra 
oppreflbr to another. The natural I 
viktui is by the fide of libkbt" 
when liberty degenerates to licentii 
vice takes her place, and a gcncri 
lotion of all order and decorum cnfiaei 

Remember, therefore, my friends, 
try men, and fellow-citizens, that . 
tremes are dangerous ; you were bor 
preferve the integrity of your wiftoi 
ceitors, and you will remain lo.— Bu 
wilfully adopt the vicioos dlfpofitioai 
nrrs, and coftoms of (laves, abforbinj 
idea of publick good, in the faA 
difiipations of a round of empty pi 
your national character will be Iwtj i 
distinction between yoo, and the fob 
neighbouring defpoiic ftatet, will Jc 
vifible I Vice and folly forge the 
o( a degenerate nation ; .bad tniniaVe 
put them on t aroofe then 10 a lease 
lick virtue, and you will (ban find, J 
freedom and happinefs of yoav com 
pends folely on a vigorous rvrrtion o( 
principles in the commons of the ra 



■ 



A SCENE OF DELICATE AFFECTIO 

Taken from The Tutor of Truth. 
(Recommitted in the Appendix to our relume fir lajl Tear, p. 59S.J 



LETTER XXXVII. 
Captain Carlisle to George Las- 

CfcLLKS, Efq. 

I HAVE had a very foolirti accident 
happen to aggravate the uneafinefs 
of the MarchioncfTs laft letter. It is 
in itfelf a trifle, yet the conference 
to my peace will make it important to 
yon. Sir Andrew Flight was playing 
off his witticifms and waggeries upon 
the ignorance of fome country fitnple- 

tons that are now at the PUue, when The rucroamdin^v foiit^, tot, «f 
I became (o weary of his vociferoos thickert growth, beiftfc.fa&rod 
amullnicnt ; for where; is the plea/ore pand for ftvertl jut*, mtiwn 



of (porting with mexpericaice-- 
withdrew to Mr. De Grey's ^ 

unobferved, or at ieaft amneeti 
by the cornpafiy. Mvdway was ' 
ing his fifning-rod : Lord Bl 
bourne was withdrawn to bis d 
for his afternoon's nap. M 
Grey's garden is exceedingly larj 
part, of it is difpoled into a) wile 
whole zig- sag js fo inuieeie tt 
may fometitnes have tJ y our wboli 
pea terminated by a yard'-*, di 



i 



I)fe A SCENE OF DEtlCATf AFFECTION. n 

tsma «»*tsee, only ffcroke to our pride and vanity. Over 



_ _ jd Jappiajft a* lo leader (be entrance, our guardian caufed to 

lbvsrttocpj»ifiWa**reegr**abW, be imprinted upon a label, in gpW» 

fceMsd b ii w i apparently artificial, letters, this frothing ipttjligencc tsj 

idfr hyeaa d thaw a drinpmg grottn» theftrangar: 

fifa^e^'w^ ThuBawerw«raif«d by Clement tn4 Lucia, 



£**e to-bew a radwn r cheer you The robia-redbreaft built in it the 

J fcsvd s, fh a a by peraatsaom J have, next, the very next year, and we had 

Hr a*/ wmf^ part, en ^attachment— a then, you know, the beft reafon in the 

it! wi jkmn m nml Jhandihia, and world to think that Heaven itfclf was 

p tj .w P» w tray bench, and for pleafed with our amufement. The 

mqtmi tjssv ware.alL favourites of neft, you may be Aire, was preferred, 

Wt JM tm iJ i I At upon the benches, fo r both piety and pity were concerned 

sail caught iniro&OA from the kpa m lt9 proteaion. We trod with cau- 

wMfar Be Grey, under the trees. t ton while the fund bird was hatch- 

Hit, therefore, was the firft time of kg. tne whole feathered family pre* 

' ■ybaDmrthcm fince my return. Be- fently took wing ; and I do verily be- 

km me, I felt fepfa tfons that thrilled ij cvc I hear one of them now whittling 

■v>w) f re*vdberf the places of my near my window. 

- * * templation; I bade Qh, Lafcelles I how foon is 




contemplation; i Dade Qh, Lafcelles I how foon is the 
t with as much ardour as heart that wifhes to be inotfenfive, Jul- 
ifttwy were animate. J walked along led by little circumftances ! Smile not, 
fe green njeaadcr. , wewmifing my old then, if I tell you, that I few with 
ars ju mr li n es; IJjfienedto birds whofe tranfport the names of Lucia and Cle- 
at* 1 Afbaei to be tatinuU* with my meDt itill legible on their bower—the 
sar, as if ther sffutd from the fame tamches ofjfweetbriar, on either fide, 
I had heard formerly. I wer e eagerly extending as if to em- 
tis4 the caftadea upon an brace— and I beheld the initials of my 
melody in tteir cadence i nMt vcr y recently cut in the rind of 
*try hreeae that played upon every a hawthorn, that formed one of the 
leal, revived the balmy nteafures of fupports of our alcove. 

Even insercourje with other \Vha t f weet circumftances— how they 

(not odorous Italy hcrfelf) mt \ t t he heart ! cried I. 
,._ »e>t.beenaWetofupplant the //a- At tnat moment the fofteft-tuned 

dMM^bosetotbe vernal beauties of v ^ t j n the wor ]d repeated diftinaiy 

AsuMince Puce* the following verfes, /rom her favourite 

Ah, Laiceilcs 1 what could be the ^^ x 

ssmeaofthist Presently I came to an 

alcove, which .was originally the ar- u In thefe daep folitudei , and twefol cetlt, 

caitefture of two children, who grew Where beav'nlypenlivcCoBtempUtiondwclIi, 

ep together. It waa a whole week's '*** ew-saafine; Melancholy reigns j 

Jahtw, divided bftwixt Mils De Grey ™*« meini tew "amok in a VefiaPs vernal 

and your Garlifiei our little hands ™ h '™ } my th " ,shtl *■!•■■*» " ■•- 

tuuuHm w^mmuwc wruui wiui y^ y^ j ^ ffogi AbeUre it came, 

nceiyable mduftrv. Many a Ume And EWJl -* m & ^j, ^ n^ » 
atnatd fcom the toil, and, as often 

jyjinf delighted with, our progrefs, we You are not to be told it was Lucia 

jsmewed it. tf hen it was completed, De Grey. In the next inftant (he paf» 

we a^TO— oh, I r ihall l neTer forget itn- fed within fight of me, the book ftill 

^ hiia of taadeseft •congratulation, as in her hand. Unprepared on both fides 

at having finished . a work of infinite for the furprife, we were inexpreifibly 

.jhaffrs>n«r#« Big with this innocent confufed Beautiful lines, Mifs De 

Jtatsery, we ran, hand in hand, to our Grey, faid I. Yes, indeed, replied 

pus/dian, and with elated hearts bade flic. I think, Mifs De Grey, in a for* 

Epi furvey wall oar workmanihip. mer part of our life we uled frequently 

'The gravity with whkh he commend- to read the charming Mr. Pope tog'e- 

*/sdt and .hit ajSsfted aAonUhment at tber— In this very garden, Mr. Car- 

T ifimiOi gevje.tli» left andfulUft liikj do you recoiled your old bower, 

~ A laid 



to 



DESCRIPTION OF 



laid (he? If I miftake not, madam, 
faid I — Madam, Clement? Madam, 
Mr. C irlifle ? replied me, as if a little 
offended. I fay, continued I, MifsDe 
Grey, if I remember right, this is that 
bower. You had almoft forgot it, 
then, Mr. Carlide, had you ? I fup- 
pofe Italy (the garden of the ur.iverfe) 
hath put all our Englifli roles quite 
out of countenance : Prudence Place 
is, to be fure, a tnsre nettle- bed.— Ah, 
no, madam ! (faid I, upon the edge of 
an explanation, but happily checking 
myfilf in time) though certainty Italy 
hath its charms. Oh, no doubt of it, 
replied Lucia ; but I believe, fir, the 
company will have loft their chief fe- 



licity by your abfence. I hi 
Medway coming ; I know hi 
random ftept and I dare fay hi 
is from the deferted fociety to 1 
away Captain Carlifle. If you 
Mifs De Grey, we will retin 
I will juft finifh ray poem am 
you, fir. We parted. 'Tis 
me loves Medway to diftraftio 
celles.— She kntnvs bis flep.— 
then in fearch of her, doubt Ufs, 
appointment.— I wifh them \ 
very, very happy. But mv heac 
my heart is not quite well ; anc 
wifli you a good night* 

C. Car 



DESCRIPTION OF WINDSOR AND ITS ENVIR' 

(With a View of the South Wefi AfpeSl of the Sheens Palace, and Par 

CaflU, fnm a Drawing made on the Spot.) 



KNOWING our intention to in- 
troduce part of the Cattle in our 
plate, an ingenious correfpondent lent 
us an anecdote concerning the building 
of the church and chapel of St. George, 
which he believes is not lb generally 
known as the common accounts of 
this ancient ftrufttire given by thofe 
who fliow it to the publick. 

It was a very great undertaking, 
and requiring a ere at number of hands 
to carry it on, writs were directed to the 
(heriffs of feveral counties, by order 
of Edward HI. requiring them under 
the penalty of 100I. to lend a certain 
number of mafons to Windfor within 
a given time therein fpecified. Mid- 
dlefex, Devonshire, Somerfet, and forae 
other counties each fent forty, but 
ibme dying of the plague, and others 
deferring the fervice, new writs were 
iflued for frefh fupplies. Yorkfhire 
then fent fixty and other counties in 
proportion, and ftricl orders were given 
that no one mould entertain or har- 
bour any defcrtcrs from the works, 
under pain of con fife it ion of their 
property. Hereupon the mafons en- 
tered into a combination not to work 
at all, unlefs thtir wages were railed, 
in confluence of this refolution they 
agreed upon certain figns and tokens, 
Ly which they were to be known to 
each other, and to receive aiUltance if 
thev were a (Tailed in order to be com- 
r>< lied. Determined to be free and to 
lijiii w t <n\ [hcaro'Yu teiir.s 5 they called 

z 



themfclvcs Free~Mafins 9 and tl 
bination lafted many years, 
the wars between the noufes < 
and Lancafter, the difcontented 
herded together, and the gentrj 
ly ftipporting them, feveral 

Eirliament were made againft t 
i nation -mafons and other peri 
der that denomination \ the 1 
which acts are ftill to be foun 
printed ft at u res of thofe timi 
though the caufe of thefe afts 
fince totally buried in obfeurit 
fucceflion of the name and of t 
monies has been handed down 
times, and focieties of Free- 
ex ift in different parts of the ki 
who keep up their lodges or at 
with great pomp and filendour 
The celebrated William oi 
ham, Biftiop of Winchester* 
fuperviibr of the buildings fo: 
he was allowed one (hilling a d 
one (hilling extraordinary when 
veiled. There is in an aft of t 
year of Henry VI. a clause, 
will in fome meafure Seconal 
fecrefv fo folemnly fworn Co 
ferved by every man who it 
free-malon. It recites, " * 
yearly congregation and confe< 
made by the mafons in their 
ufiemblics, the good caufe an 
of the ltatutes for labourers 11 
violated and broken, in fubvc 
the law, and to the great dam si 
the commons ; our faid Soverei 



WINDSO& AND tTS ENVIRONS. 



Si 



willing in this cafe to pro- 

a y by the ad? ice and af- 
. and at the fpecial re- 
ic commons hath ordained 
Ihed, that fuch chapters and 
>na (hall not be hereafter 
d if any fuch be made, they 
fuch chapters and confere- 
be anembled and holden, 
: thereof convift, fhall be 
r felons, arid Other roafons 
to fuch chapters and can- 
wall be puniflied by im- 
: of their bodies, and make 
infom at the lung** will.*' 
las likewife ariien the tra- 
iie frec-maibns being an un- 
:iety 9 and praAifing fomc 
■ednefs, fo tnat many of the 
have held it m abhorrence, 
treaded that their hufbands 
>ng to them, 
the true origin of Free- 
England, no other can be 
id though they have copied a 
lonies from fimilar focieties 
yUru/uau originally) fuch as 
a grand mafter, wardens, 
:annot trace any origin from 
he benevolent and charitable 
ifforded to their brethren no 
nmenced with the occafion, 
ree-mafons who refufed to 
compulfion muft have had af- 
am fome quarter ; this bene- 
it in the fraternity has fince 
mded in proportion to the 
the members, and is the beft 
e inftitution. 

ir has always been coniider- 
nctpal town of the county of 
, but its importance has been 
iminifhed at fundry times, 
i caftle has been neglected, 
n vifited by any of the royal 
In the laft reign it was only 

by foreigners to view the 
d as a Sunday excursion for 
a : at prcfent its fplendour 
f is reftored, by the profpecl 
oming the fummer refidence 
majemes. The beauties of 
are not many, as it has but 
d ftreet, the courfe of which 

fouth from the Queen's pa- 

1 the chief building in it is 
•hall creeled for the ufe of the 
>n at the ezpence of Queen 
d confequently decorated with 
ty's ftatue, and that of Prince 

Mag. Feb. 1789, 



George of Denmark her con fort, at 
the expence of the town. The cor- 
poration confifts of a mayor, high 
Reward, ten aldermen, three benchers 
or affiftants, two bailiffs, a town clerk, 
and fifteen younger brethren. It fends 
two members to parliament, thole for 
the prefent are Admiral Keppel and 
the Honourable John Montagu. It, 
has a plentiful market on Saturdays, 
and is well fupplied with fifh from its 
Situation on the banks of the Thames. 

No town in England, we believe, 
can boaft fuch beautiful environs; 
which ever way you walk or ride from 
Windfor, variegated fcenes prcfent 
themfelves to charm the eye. It would 
fill a volume to defcribe all the fuperb 
country feats of the nobility and gen- 
try furrounding it, within the diftance 
often miles. 

To the Great Park you are cond lift- 
ed by a delightful avenue proceeding 
from the fouth end of the town, to 
the top of a hill about three miles dif- 
tant, from which you have a view of 
the whole park, faid to be about four- 
teen miles in circumference, and it is 
well (locked with deer, and a variety 
of other game. The adjoining forcft, 
which Mr. Pope has rendered immor- 
tal by his admirable poem entitled 
Windfor Foreft, is of great extent; 
computed at thirty miles; and con- 
tains feveral agreeable towns and vil- 
lages, of which Oakingham, or Wo- 
kingham is the principal : it is a large, 
populous town, nas feveral good Greets, 
a handfome market -houie, and was fa- 
mous for a (ilk itocking manufactory : 
the diftance from Windfor is about fix 
miles. 

Another beautiful fpot in the weftcrn 
neighbourhood of Windfor is the fine 
feat at Cliefden in Buckingham/hire, 
five miles diftant from Windfor : the 
houfe was built by George Villicrs 
Duke of Buckingham in the reign of 
Charles II. in the fame ftyle us the 
Queen's houie irt St. Junes's Park, 
having the fame architect : the fitu-ition 
on an eminence, commanding a view 
of the river is delightful, it was the 
fummer refidence of the late Prince ot' 
Wales, his Mnj ally's father, who 
greatly improved it, at prcient it be- 
longs to the Earl of Inchiquin. 

Eaton at two miles diltance from 

Windfor on the op poll re banks of the 

Thames, and connected with it by a 

J» bridge, 



8t • *$VIEW OF BOPfcfi, 

bridge, is only famous for the college Auguft annually. Np other A 
founded there by Henry VI. for the 



maintenance of a pfovoft and feucn 
fellows, one of whom is vice-provoft, 
and for the inftru&ion of feventy king's 
fcholars on the foundation, who, when 
they have completed their 'learning 
here, from whom as many are elected 
by Seniority to fcholarfhips in King's 
College, Cambridge, as there are va- 
cancies for, on the firft Tuefday in 



can be admitted to. fejlpwihj 
King's College but tbbfe whf 
been on the foundation at Eat* 
is now become a flouriflung i 
for beiides the king's fcholars, 
are feldom lefs than three hi 
boys, not on the foundation, 
board at the houfes of the nr 
or at other boarding hou&a 
the college bounds. 



An Impartial Review of New Publications. 



ARTICLE VII. 

MEDICAL and Pbilojopbieai Commenta- 
ries, by a Society i* Edinburgh* Vol* 
VI • Port 4. is. 6d. Murray. 

THIS part concludes the volume for the 
year 1779 ; and contains fome curious at 
well as ufeful article?, but does not abound 
with that variety and important matter 
which has difttnguiftied the former publica- 
tions. A new year, and the afliftance of 
this hint may per nipt produce mere atlen- - 
tion on the put of the medical prof e fib rs 
concerned in it. The plan we have always 
recc mmended, and we with, to fee it purfued 
with unremitting zeal for the health of the 
publick ; it (hould net drop into a mere re- 
view of foreign or domeflick medical books. 
Ufeful experiments and oblervations in the 
medical, chirurgica), and philosophical de- 
partments made by eminent men in Great- 
Britain or Ireland, and communicated to the 
Society by correfpondencs, ufed to form the 
chief merit ot this wok} and if care is 
taken to give due encouragement to fuch 
communications, the fuccefs of it will be 
in lured. 

The hiftory of a Angular cafe of Rabies 
Cunma terminating favourably, by the laic 
Jame; TiUon, M. D. of Dover county on 
the Delaware in America. The hiftory of 
an uncommon cafe in midwifery, by Mr. 
"W ilium Spier, of Ardte in Ireland; and 
memoirs of the htc celebrated Dr. Halle:, 
arc the principal papers woith notice in this 
publication. 

VIII. / jflt addreged to the Landholders, 
St::klz!Je>3 t Merchants, Farmers, Manufac- 
iureri, Irjdtfmen, Proprietors of every I)e» 
j't\pt\:.r. % and generally to all the Subjecls of 
Lircat-Eritain and Ireland, is. 6d. J. John - 
lun. 

IN T this performance the grounds of com- 
print againft the prefent adminiftration, 
and the extravagant fyftem of government 
which has been carried on fince the accef- 
J; ..*. cf his pre lent majefty, are explained in 
lo regular a mode, that the meaneft capa- 
c*t> may become matter of the fubjeft. The 



integrity of parliament, the aatho 
obferves, ii the key-Atone that fcf 
whole together. If this be fluki 
confttaition totters; if it be quite p 
our conftitution falls to the grow; 
aflcs, Is it then only JhaJcen ? It it I 
removed ? Fads and very alarming i 
produced to prove, that it is not only 
but if a fpeedy remedy is not apptii 
it will be totally removed. Tb« 
made in the Houfe of Lords by the I 
Richmond and the Earl of Shdb 
December la It, which haw becaVm 
tlje debates upon them in oar pupal 
hiftory, ace difcuftcd in thia DM 
pamphlet, in order to Jhow the p 
whom it is addr cited, thai fbay a 
founded and ought nut to hive bees 
ed. "The rejection of them if attrib 
minifterial influence, created apd 
by places, pennons, contracts and 4 
all at the publick rxpencc j the" net 
a thorough and fpeedy rcformatioa by 
off many of the golden, vdint of the T 
ii pointed out, an^l all the' la u r im 
travagant w-fte of the jpuhUck lb 
difpliyed, under' the diftfertat «k|M 
oftheftatci in fliort, this pis^Hcatv 
be confidered as an iJluftritioa of lb 
of difpofing of the publick moneys a 
td be known by all pcrfoni, wfeo.a) 
regard for the welfare of their cjoaat 
The aftonifhing expenecs of tfie 
war, fuppofing a peace had been ft 
Chrftmas 1779, " fated in a ma 
clear account. According to this calc 
it has toft the nation 47,4371 <c 
brought on an annual expence of X,8cj 
to be railed upon the people by caaej 
lefs a flop is put to future prefufion, 
dition ot thiiiecn miiltona will be oil 
year during the continuance of the 
the principal of the national debt 
proportional inter eft muft be annual! 
from the people, if the methods pro] 
the noble loids, and by the commoa 
minority are not adopted. That 
not repeat the aif omenta already 1 



-IfiVftW'OVftOOtis. 



tlofif (TfiftBli ktet\Hk 
mii4it*iitHm mi have t Hoi of 
fclti wW ftfelfctwly ndf* th* trier* 
•I atrikipg .fads concerning placet, 
aid Jiftfomlt* of the poblick mo- 
ther porpofet than thoie for which 
e granted by parliament, to be 
this publication, which we do not 

r to h*H k* a »° P" nt before* 
■ Adireft to the Freeholders o/Mld- 
fembleof Mt FrofMsfont Tnvorn, 
ttttv, December %ztb, 1779,* fir the 
f ejkbiifiing Atutiags to mnmtoin 
wh the freedom •/ EUaio*. 6d. 

ontlinea of a plan for a general 
cntioa) of the friends of liberty with 
r p arc given in thit »ort addrefs, 
vitn .r}irit, and a fincere defire to 
in rfbufc of Commoni in future, 
mi of the mioiftry. 

general election 11 not far diftant, 
iiig?, we hope, will have a good ef- 
in electors. 

8Ut* of tU Expedition from (Un*- 
m before tb* Houfe of Common, by 
k T (fenersJ Jfrnrgmnt, snd verified by 
I +nkh m CunBto* of outbtntuk 
fa, «■/«* Addition of many Circnm- 
wm& there pnoMmied from sppenring 
t Amfo by tkSe Prorogntion of Par- 

Written emd colkBei bybimfeff, 
emend to tbc Ojfeers of the Army be 
■a*. 410. lit, Ajmon. 
lY paper necefcry for a complete 
if the, General's character, and con- 
collected in thii methodical, accu* 
ell-written . performance. AU the 

and documents which we could 
the General and' hii coonfel would. 
tin kit Mai before a court -martial 
i fabcmtiec\ to the poblick ; unfor- 
i however,- no man out of the pro- 
%m go beyond the fatisfaction of cu- 

aoo therefore independent of the 
1 so judgement can be formed of it 
(fence and exculpation from blame. 
I finccrely wiih he may live to the 
tea tftry obstacle to hit uial it re- 
and that ht may then be honour- 
■uritted* in the mean time all but 

montd fofpend' their opinion, and 
d this.. book for amoiement and in- 
>rf. That thofe who have only pe- 
hc advertifement may know what 
n to expect fioa it, we shall briefly 
: con^e'nti. 

rdicalory epirlle to Major dfcneral 
1 nod the other officers who ferved 
let Central upon the Caoada expe- 

A »wt introduction a&gning the 
W collecting, writing, and poblifli- 
ili own nafldc, thit slate of the cape- 
. His foccch ia) tht Houfc of Qom- 



*i 



,* 



nVodt jif efitory to hit nirraUve, i?ne nar- 
rative with the evidence examined at the 
wU of the Houfe (an abridgement hat been 
given in our Parliamentary Hiftory for larf 
year, Vol. XLVIII. p. 450). A review of the 
evidence, compared with the fpeech and 
narrative, and additional remarks and ex- 
planation!. Concluficn, recapitulating hit 
conduit at home, the Tub fiance the fame aa 
hit letter to hit constituents, amply reviewed 
in the fame volume, p. 515. The Appen n 
dix, containing General Burgoyne's thought! 
for conducting the war from the ride of 
Canada, laid before his Majefly upon the 
General*! fir ft return from America in Ja- 
nuary 1777 5 in confluence of which he 
wat appointed to the command in Canada. 
On an attentive pern fa 1 of thefe thoughts, 
at more p'operly his plan, his exculpation or 
condemnation in undertaking the expedi- 
tion, greatly depend;. A correfpoodence. 
between Lord George Gerrruine and General 
Carleton, and a variety of other lettere 
fwellthit appendix, ail relating to the pro- 
grefs and fatal end of the expedition. The 
military operation! of the army at Saratoga, 
are like wife ftated, and the detail is very 
interesting. The minutes of the councila 
of war prior to opening the treaty with Ge- 
neral Gates, contain fome curious particu- 
lars which did not appear before the Houfe 
of Commons, and perhaps it would have 
been more prudent not to have fufTered them 
to appear in print t they are proper docu-. 
mentt for a court-martial, but by no meane 
for the poblick, who we apprehend for 
want of military (kill will entertain no very 
favourable idea of them, efpecially as the 
General himfelf has thought proper to fup- 
prefs the names of the officers, who gave 
their opinions at the laft council when the 
surrender was decided. A map of the coun- 
try in which his army acted, mowing the 
marches and the placet of the principal ac- 
tions. A plan of the action at Hubertaia 
under Brigadier- General Fraier, on the 7th 
of July, 1777. The pofition of the detach- 
ment under Lieut. Col. Baum, near Ben- 
nington, mowing the attacks of the enemy 
on the i6ih of Au^uft. A plan of the en- 
campment and pofition of the whole army at 
Sword's Houfe near Stillwater, with the po- 
litions of that part of it that were engaged' 
on the 19th of September. A plan of the 
encampment and pofition of the army on 
the aotb of September, with the pofition of 
toe detachment in the action of the 71b of 
October, Scz. And a plan of the pofition 
the army took at Sir-toga on the 10th of 
September, and in. which it remained till 
the convention was figned, are the plates an- 
nexed to this work : they are all drawn by 
engineers, and cxccUeatly engraved by Mr. 
W. Faderu 

L * XL An 



n 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



XI. An Anftotr to the Lttttr addrtffed by 
Francit Riollay, Phficisn tf Newbury, f 
Jama Hardy, Pbypcla* •/ BsrwJUplt. is, 

CadeH. 

IN the vear J77J, the ingenious and 
learned Dr. foardy pobliihed a treatifeon ike 
Cholic of Poitu and Devon/hire. See our 
Review of Books, Vol. XLVII. p. Z77. In 
that ufcful performance the doctor threw out 
fome hints refpecling the origin of the gout J 
afcribing it to the action of mineral fub- 
flances, efpecially thofe conveyed into the 
human body by the medium of adulterated 
vines. This opinion has been canvaffed 
and difpuied with great candour and mode- 
ration by Dr. Riollay, in a letter which 
becafions the prefent anfwer. Our limit! 
will not permit iff to enter into the contro- 
verfy, and it is more for the benefit of fo- 
cieiy to mention that the inftances Dr. Har- 
dy produces to (how that the gout is fre- 
quently produced from drinking adulterated 
wines, or wines fined with mineral fub- 
flances feem to overthrow all the objections 
of Dr. Rial lay, which are founded on ftrong 
re a Toning, but unfup ported by facts* One 
or two hiftorical anecdotes are worthy of 
notice. Before Constantinople was taken by 
Mahomet 11. in 1453, the inhabitants were 
remarkably fubjeel to the gout. The Chiif- 
thns drank wines liberally fupplied from the 
i Hands in the Archipelago, and the Medi- 
terranean, of wh'ch Crete was themoft emi- 
nent for its abundant produce. But fince 
the Mahometans whofe religion prohibit! 
the ufe of wine have pofleffed it, the dif- 
e-fe has been almofl baniflied. The gout 
has been almoft totally removed from the 
German?, in confequence of an edict patted 
1696, making the adulteration of wines 



in 



by mineral* a capital offence. Thofe who 



are liberal drinkers of 
read this pamphlet* 



wine, are advifedto 



LIST of NEW PUBLICATIONS far the 
AIoKtbs of January and February, 
btf.dti tlofe that have been reviewed, 

HISTORY, 

RUSSIA ; or, a complete Hiftorteal Ac- 
count of all the Nations which com- 
t ic dm empire. % Vols. 8vo. 10s. Boards. 
Cadell. 

The H ; ftory uf the Political Connexion 
between England and Ireland, from the 
Reitin of Her.iy II. to the prefent Time. 410. 
7s. 6J. fewed. Cadell. 

An HiAoncal Account of the Virgin 
Ifiand* in the Weft Indies. By George 
Suckling, Efq. as. fewed. White. 

The HiAury and Antiquities of the Four 
Innt of Court. 8vo. 3s. 6d. Kearfley. 

Biographia Britannica; or, the Lives of 
the mo ft eminent Pcrfons who haveflourilhcd 



in Great Britain andlreland. By i 

Kippis, D. D. F. R. S, and 8. A. a 
Folio, il. us. 6d. Boards. BatnoHU 

P O M T I C K S. 

THE Elements of Commerce, Po 
and Finances : In Three Trearifei 
important Subjects. 

In the firft, the Origin and Pro) 
Commerce are traced, and the true 
pics of univerfaJ Trade explained; w 
marks on the Adminiftration of Com 
Affairs, and a Sketch of the Edocal 
ceflary for a Britifli Merchant. 

In the fecond, the Science of tj 
Politics is defined 5 the Origin and c 
Forms of Governments are illofrrat 
the pecnliar Advantages of the Briti 
ftituiion dearly pointed ontf witl 
tures on the Royal Prerogative, 1 
Rights of the Subject, concluding 
Sketch of the requifite Accosnjrii 
for a Britifli Senator. 

In the third, an Historical Ap 
given of the various Modes of rti 
public Revenues of Nationi j with 1 
on the Nature and Advantages of th 
ing Syftem of Great Britain s, and Obfi 
on Taxation, and Methods proposed 
proving the Public Revenues; wid 
for abolifhing Taxes on the Necen 
Life, and fubftituting others men f 
to fupply the Deficiencies. By 
Mortimer, Efq. 410. 18 s. Boards. ] 
win. 

The York (hire Queftion, or fed 
Addrefs. 8vo. ad. Almon. 

Subflance of the Speeches mask 
Houfe of Commons, on tht 15th of 
her 1779, on Mr. Burke 1 * giving 1 
his Intention to bring in a Bill 1 
Cbriftmas Recefs for the Retread 
Publick Expencei, and for the b 
curing the Independence of Parlianv 
s>d. Almon* 

The Syftem, occafioned by the S| 
Leonard Smelt. Efq. late Snb-Goi 
their Royal Highneflb the Prince < 
and Biibop of Ofnaburgh, at the M 
York, Dec. 30, 1779. 8*°' &• A 
A Letter to the Right Hon. I 
count Cranbourne, Lord Licntcn 
CoAos Rotulorum of the County of] 
8vo. 6d. Almon. 

Propofals far paying great Pert 
National Debt, and reducing Taaw 
diately. By Robert Bird, Efq. if. 
Reaionsfor Uniformity in the Sta 
a Supplement to the Britannkk i 
tion. Svo. is. Bew. 

Thoughts on the prefent County I 
By an Old-fafliioned Independent Vi 
L. Davis. 
The CotTMWcial Rcftrainta of 



XEVIEW O 

■ a Seriea of Letters to a noble 

sgman. 

e Thoughts on the American 

lei to the Moderate of all 

frllkie. 

n front the Country Gentle* 

ubjed of Petitions, 8*o. 6d* 

b of the Political Hiftory of 
Mm BocJteC* 

' of toe Afts of Parliament 
far the Relief of the Roman 
[a* J.Johnton. 

the Utility and Policy of em- 
ince to shorten Labour, occa- 
iate DiAarbancet id Lancashire; 
added, fane Hints for the for- 
ts and Improvement of the 
a*k and Manufactures, is. 

W the People, in a Letter to 
km on hie intended Motion in 
Commons, on the nth of Fe- 
OMervatioot on the Petitions 
ms. it. Backet* 

ARTS. 

nr of the Bengal Language. By 
bitty Balked, ii. is. Boards. 

far biceding Game Cocks, is. 

ition of the Sexual Syftcm of 
ly John Miller. 8vo. il. is. 
let. 

Art of Land Mcafuring, or a 
i&icaf Surveying. Showing a 
»ct Method of Meafuring and 
ads, Woods, Waters, Sec. By 
wo. 6t. bound. Lowndes, 
petal Diaionary of the Englifh 
vended by a Rhetorical Gram- 
boaas Sheridan, A. M. a V. 
6d. Boards. Dodfley. 
Jttsonafii ; or, an Efiay towards 
the Melody and Meafure of 
6d. Nichols. 

Lingoae Gallic.*, or a View of 
fragae. 5*. Elmfley. 

CELLANEOUS. 

I Anecdote of the ancient Fa- 
inkvervankotfdarfprankengotch- 
Talt for Cniiftmaa, 1779* 3s* 

Sketch of the Controverfy bc- 
tftstJcy and hit Opponents, if. 

to Mr. Gibbons'i Vindication 
agfcs in hit Hiftory of the De- 
ll of the Roman Empire. By 
rda, B. A. 3s. Dodfley. 
1 Elocution s or, Miscellaneous 
aft «ad V«ftt fclccled from the 
, Bj WUhato Scott. Teacher 



F BOOKS. %f 

in Edinburgh* room, js. hound. Long- 



The Picture Gallery 5 containing near tw# 
Honored Paintings by the moft diftinguiuest 
Ladies in Great Britain. 410. 3s. Krarfley. 

The R— 1 Regifter, wifh Annotations by 
another Hand. Volume the Fourth, 12010. 
as. 6d. fewed. Bcw. 

A Tour through Ireland, in 1776, 1777* 
177S, and brought down to the End of 
>779* B y A")"" Young, Efq. F.R. S. 
4to. il. is, Cadell. 

The Travels of Reafon in Europe, as, 6J« 
Macgowan. 

A Tour through Ireland, made in 1 779. 
limo. 39. Lowndes. 

Thoughts on improving the Government 
of the Britim Territorial PofleJfions in the 
Eaft Indies, is. 6d. Cadell. 

Letters from an EnglUh Traveller* *itoi 
39. Nichols. 

Account of a Debate in Coach-makcr*a 
Hall. By Haxuxn Sfcarum, Efq. is. Kear- 
fley. 

The Deaf Lover, a Farce, an two Acts* 
By F. Pilon. is. Bowen. 

The Beauties of Brxtifll Antiquity. By 
John Collinfon. 8vo. 6s. Boards, Long- 
man. 

Serious and Free Thoughts upon the Doc- 
trines of Election, Reprobation, &c. By 
T. Mendham. is. Wilkie. 

A Defence of the Liberty of Man as a 
Moral Agenu By John Palmer, 3s. John* 
fon. 

LAW, 

REPORTS of Cafes upon Appeals and 
Writs of Error in the High Court of Par- 
liament from 17OX to 1779. With Tables, 
Notes, and References. By Jofiah Brown, 
Efq. BarriAer at Law. Volume the Third, 
xl. lit. 6d. Boards. Uriel. 

The Touchftone of Common A durances; 
or, a plain and familiar Treatife, opening 
the Learning of the Common Aflurances or 
Conveyances of the Kingdom. By William 
Sheppard, Efq. Folio, il. is. Boards. 
Uriel. 

MEDICAL. 

THE Anatomy of the Human Body. By 
Samuel Foart Simmons, M. D. F. R. S. 
Volume 1 ft. 8vo. sjs. Boards. Murray. 

Practical Observations on the Treatment 
of Confomptions. By S. F. Simmons, as. 
Murray. 

Syftematick Elements of the Theory and 
Practice of Surgery. By J. Aitkin. 8vo, 
6s. Murray. 

Some Obfervationt on the Origin, Pro- 
grefi, and Method of treating the atrabilious 
Temperament . and Goat. By W. Grant, 
M. D. is. €i. Cadell, 

POETRY 



ft 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 

POETRY. 



f&r 



Watfibf IT.D. F.R.S* 



FEMALE Retaliation, a Poetical Effay. 
Ry a Mm. 410. 6d. Fielding and Walker. 
The Triumph of Affectation. A Poem. 

si. fcew. 

A Ride and a Walk through Stourhead. 

A Poetri. 4». ii. Robfon. 

Eaftern Eclogues. Written daring a Tout 
through Arabia, Egypt, and other Parts of 
Afia and Africa. 410. 21. 6d. Dodfley. 

PoefM Ofli vatioui Subj*a», feleaed to 
enforce the Pradicc of Virtue, and with a 
Ykm to* contyriae in one Volume the Bean. 
ties of Enzliw Poetry. By Thomas Tom- 
tint. *»• fcwed.' Wallii. 

A Selcd Colleaion of Poems. With 

«ote* Biographical and Hiftorical. By J. 
icholli. 4 Volt, final! S*o. 101. fewed. 

Jttchol. . - . ». 

• PoenU ffr for a Bilhop ; which two Bi- 
ftops will read. 410. U. Almon. 

Ingratitude, an Ode; and Sir Salvadort, 
an AtlegorickPoem. is. eTd. Wood. 

Zoraida, a Tragedy. 11. 6d. Kearfley. 

The Timet, a Comedy, by Mri. Griflithi, 
It, 64. Fielding and Walker. 

The Shepherdefi of the Alpi, a Comick 
Opert. ti. 6d. K«arfley. ' 

.An Heroick Epiftle from Hamet the! 
Moot, Sllpper-miker in London, to the 
RmpeWf iri Morocco, as. Cadell. 

Speculation i or", a Defence of Mankind. 
4W. at.' 6d. Dodfley. 

NOVEL. 
HISTORY of Lady Bettefworth and 
Captain Haftings. In a Seriet of Letteri. 
a Volt. jamo. 5a. fewed. Noble 

RELIGIOUS. 

A Sermon preached before the Univerfity 
of Cambridge, on Fnday, Feb. 4th, 17S0, 
feeing the Day appointed for the General 



Fa*. By 

Ato. is. Cadell. 

Sermons on the mow; prevalent Vices. Te 
which are added, an Ordination Scrmoav a 
Synod Sermon, and two Sermons on a fb» 
tore State. By the Rev. Davis) LamnwU 
8vo. 5*. 3d. Crowder. 

Sermons. By Colin Milne, L. L. D. Rec- 
tor of North Chapel, in Softe* ; no4 lec- 
turer of St. Paul's, Dcptford s, ami one of 
the Preachers at the. City of London Lying- 
in Holpital. tvo. 5«» Boards. Cadell. 

A Letter to the Rev. Mr. Aidadeacoa 
Law, on his Defence of Popery, as deliver- 
ed in bis Charge to the Clertv of the Arehv 
deaconry of Rochefter. 11. Kearfley. - 

Difcourfes on feted Panacea of the Scrip- 
ture Hiftory. By Jofcph Jenkins, A. M. 
a Volt. 6t. fewed. Bocklaod. 

The Patfion ; or, a defcriptive and criti- 
cal Natrative of the Incidents, as they oc- 
curred, on each Day of the Week, in which 
ChrisVi Sufferings "are commemorated* By 
Thomas ftnewlcs, D. D. Prebendary of Biy. 

iifflo. 35. bound. L. Davis. 

A Sermon preached at the Ordination held 
at Chrift Church, Nov. at, 177^ « By John 
Lord Bi&op of Oxford, is. Rtviagton. 

A Sermon. preached before the Univerfity 

of Oxford. By J. Williamfon. i«. DudOey 1 , 

A Sermon preached before the Univerfity 

of Oxford. By B. G. Bellas, D. D. is. Co. 

nant. 

The ftentim Curate's Letter to the Rev. 

Mr. Archdeacon Law. is. Daviet. 

A Synodal Charge to the Clergy of the 

Diocefe of Abo, in the Yesr 1774. Tran- 

flated from the original Swadiflu 11. 4*. 

Robinfon. 

Ad Explanation of the Prefhecy of the 

Seven Vials, or the Seven Plagues contained 

in the Revelation. By a Country Clergy- 
man, is. Rirington. 



POETICAL ESSAYS. 



£V£«flKG: An Ode. 
By a Ymng Lady. 

MILD- eve afcendi her throne; the god 
of day t [M«i 

Wheels his bright chariot down the wetter a 
The blulbingeloudi yet brighten'd by hit ray, 
Adorn the glowing iky with purple dyei. 

The boifteroua windi are loll'd to fweeteft 
fteep; [breeae} 

Sbfcly end flow ere***! foftk the dying 
Salutei the heaving bofom of the- deep. 

Or fcaliih wliifpeti ihro' the wavy trees. 

The prnVaV dewi defcend on every flower 
With gentleft lapfc each mnsm-ttng cue* 
rent flowi } 



Th' o'er laboured ruftick hails the peaceful 
hour 
And flies to biasing hearths and calm re- 
pofe. 

From yon bine field, yon wideespanfe above* 
What fpangled gloriei burft upon the ftghtf 

Gliding the flowery lawn and shady grove, 
And deck the folemn fcene with ftrenma 
of vary *d light. 

At this flill hour, when fir* the infant earth 
Pour'd forth her bounties with unfparing 
hand, 
BehWd on every flower fpoataneoos birth. 
And deck*d with flowers th' uncultivated 
land. 

All 



PONTIC At 5*8 AYS. 



L|fm<iu|fc»n<L 

f snidnifht revejry owcesu, 

)|fi cnejch Jjccjtfe from danger 

ifcfety oa the life) green. 

tires, no hissing torches bright, 
i dna sir with radiance not iti 

MrVa beneath the veil of night, 
co nrigc and to crimes unknown. 

I the fecaw, yet o* thii peace- 
• [dwell ; 

atentmeati here lie fare muft 
I comrt het and her pathi explore, 
■9 atow-raofd cot, or hwnble 

ent how (JmsneisM in care) 
aaCf ooperceiv'd, thefe walks 

taffon, Heavesj*defcendcd fair, 

■ my brcaft to raiie the rap- 
Mg! 

Bf madts, this duiky twilight 

Hi fiilncis of the fober fcene, 
1st ghmen'rings of declining day, 
mhw, repott or thoughts fercne. 

gay fceaej with all their pomp 
1* [tin, 

ore with her mirthful train re- 
and Ate the landscape have 
» 
A in ardent yoatkthe genial fire. 

y Evening then of life fecoxe 
n the lotre of fair Virtue's light, 
UneJi may Ihttmgh every age 

[gloomy night. 

■ throagh dreary Death's cold 



. • D 1 

•it tie J*b* y s Birth Day. 

. of old Oblivion hail ! 
m thy fwift revolting glafs j 
rerfc can ooght avail, 
i thy moments as they pafi s 
nwenta of my youth, 
hood and my boyift days* 
Piobity, and Troth, 
sportive frorjckhyii 
anembVance brine to view, 
r that whilom bfinful flew, 
em of the panting hoars, 
I fweetry Uw'd, or aitt'd the 



» 



Far hence, ye vain ddufiofts tH» 

•^1s time I tear yon from my hraaftt 
Methinks I hear fweet ReVfi tail* 

■« Be not with empty dream* pcaTcal V* 
Away delusive ffcades away, 

I brook no longer fond delay, 
Reludant ftill ye from me fly, 

Your airy forms yet Hit before my eye ! 

Whether adown the ftream of Time, 

1 pafs wiih eafy profp'rons fails, 
Or o er its waves I painful climb, 

Forlorn and. tofs'd by ftormy gales : 
Still let me check the wanton breeee, 

And ftedfaft fteer when tempefb rife. 
Nor be abforb'd in flothful eafe, 

But eafy gain the blifsful flcies : 
From hence each day may I adore, 

'Great God ! foms wonder of thy pow'r, 
Here tafte Life's quiet guiltjcfs joys 

Then leave the world, its pomp, and. 
empty noife. 
Jan, 14. Henry Limoiki, 



CoaaxcTKB Copies 0/ the SONGS fitng 
in the Pantomime called HARLEQUIN 
FORTUNATUS, audfaidtoke written 
by Mr.SusaiDAN. 

SONG I. Sailor, Mr. Bannzitik. 

WHEN 'tis night, and the mid-watch 
is come, [main, 

And chilling mifts ban| o'er the darken'd 
Then failors think of their far diftant home, 
And of thofe friends they ne'er may fee 
again : 
But when the fight's begun, 
Each ferving at his gun, 
Should any thought of them come o'er oar 
mind, 
We think but fhould the day be won, 
How 'twill chear their hearts to hear, 
That their old companion he was one. 

Or, my- lad, if yon a mlftreia kind [true, 
Have left on ft ore, fome pretty girl and 
Who many a night doth liften to the wind, 
And wakes to think how it may fare with 
you: . 

O ! when the fight's begun. 
Each ferving at his gun, 
Should any thought of hik come o'er your 
mind, 
Think only (hoold the day be won. 
How 'twill chear her heart to hear 
That her own true fail or he was one. 



fate, 

■/ fbsl to yonder iky, 
sawn to snao create, 
I'd Fotwity r 



S.QNG II. Sailor, Mr. VxaNQN. 

I. 

CHEERLY my hearts, of courage true, 
The hour's at hand to try your worth, 

A glorious peril wait? for yuu, 

And valour pants to lead * ou forth j 

Mark 



POfcTICAt £S$AVS. 



C H O R l 



Amji'd, cntifuiM, itt fate ai 

The *.rW Irani!- rrtmblirrr, « h 

While each paHfinne, ' 

Ju.r nodding, /hook Ir 

■• Offending net of huoun-mr™, - 

By nature, .eiibn. Learning blrnd. 

Yen, who thro - frailty flrpp'a aCntc, 

And you who 



' Britoni Alike home I revenge jour coun- All you who diff-icnt fsfli hi« fhcran' 

try's wrong !™ And cone to fee each other ditnu'J [ 

„ So feme folki told you, but (try knew 

"" No more of Jove'i defign! than J«. 

Wtitn rolling mitri thtlr mirth (hill hide. The world's mid bnnnef. now il e'er, 

At dead of nigh! » ehoftn bind, And I pieTem futh pranki no more. 

iJlVnin. toihedifhinjiiiie, I— at fmh blockhead! fef. my wit,. 

bill print the find: 1 damn fueh fool.j go, go, you're 1 



Then where the Spanidii 
We'll Ic.lerh. Willi, or 



fh toloun fly, hoyi, 



SONG. 



III. 

: cruel Sp.niird, then too lite, 
itfmiy'd, thill mourn th' avenging blow, 

vinuuMiM meet the milder fate, When melting ftr.ini fell from he 

/hith mercy (MBit. i. 1 1 en lot. Which goai might wifh to fip i 

it (hall the Birtilh hanne" fly, bojt. When all wai harmony and »htb- 

yon proud turret! raii'o on high, boy! ; I thought ii wai her lip, 

md while lheg.ll.nt H.g "•Jj*> But when (he d.nt'd ! fuch air, fuel 

tt II .wwe* watch-word Ihll (hall be, m ^ ^ cog||J rf[ , 

.tttotu Unite heme I Re. , ^.^ ng loo ^ on he[ fKi __ 

^,^_ 1 furore it w« her Ibine. 

THE LAST DAY. When feen by chance, her breaft t» 

Bj Di. SWIFT. „.f h ,* Tt1*U" '" 
oppreii'd, 



Wllii .. v.- 1 . . r I , f ih.-.uii-.! lyrvrtl. ■!, 
I funk from re.eri. to .eft. 






A dreadful virion feii'd my head, Nor eye, nor fhipr, nor neck, nor (a 

ive up their dead j 
terrori, buift the ifci 
i, and light'nin| fliei 



ie ■■-.•/■■ give up their dead ; My bolom aid enthrall ! 

Jove, arm-d with terrori, bu.ft the fcier. 'Tw» frrr/i. I fnund, the fc ., rx & 



THE MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER 

LONDON. (ommitted above a year ago on 

predeeeffor of Monf. Cinlli, lh 

WtnNiiOAV, Fikuarv t. Refidentof Venice, who tru irre 

WTW JgCTHESTERDAY a Court of AL debt of jod. ibt courfel for the 

£i '^'S.W *""•«> *" ncl * " Goildhill, proteft the right of imb.fiidor. in ( . 

W Y ^P* and the new eleflrd Alderman try were, the Attorney and MUdU ( 



if Aldgate Ward, John Bur- rat j for the defendant!, Mr. Mam 

wNCJeT'iJ ncl), Efu. wti Iworn into hii Mr. Howanh, Mr. Ming.y, and Mr. 8 

K.*TiJ5 uffl[Ci iritnr „ om f vVil- pole. Before tke caufe wn entered 

liam Lee, Efq. refignrd. <hr Court informed the defendant!, lb. 

Timii-.iv, 3. . pmceedingi of [be information wer 

Yetlerdiv came on II Lincoln'! Inn Hall, pnint of law, not (Welly regular, and 

before ihe'Luid Chancellor and the Lord fified on they mod he imenfled j but > 

Chief Joflice. the important hearing of an flip would pntraA time *rdieM »nl» 

ini..,rm-.lion bruujhl by ihe Aiiomry-Cenc- any fubftar.ml ground, il wh advifea 

("erjeint at mate, foi a breach of privilege meiin 1 the dEleiidinti admiuc< !bi 



KJOMTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 

M.'lllH, lfc«l If lilMi (e- idlomion" of the R.jih 



3h Ho 



muum : 

EH*. 



aadcrSandiag of wbich be hid been difpniTefled by the 

fWriiw of the Nabob of Areot. He therefor* thought ■ 

r'tlf Pareign amMTadon, for fine, impriionment, end incapacitation from 

ihK food M utrj particular faring government in mj port' L 

hewii for- defendant-. Mr. Rcji followed hi 

.- .-_ n (he (amet 

.. „ ^ canteaatslly hi bed beadt of argument. Mr. Donning, coun- 

I* .Ml to deport ; ind the de- frl for the defendant!, offered many affida- 

Wl>il f hiaa in the efairicltr ilti in ntenaitlon, to the reading of which. 

bad beta (If wronf) the Attorney. General objected, bat he w» 

"* Tbitan oaer-ruled by the Court, ind the .ffid.iin 

- ' Mtcrad, which, run over ell thepaita of 

[he defence urged upon the trill, and fame 
new miner which ».i not then entered upon 
ntt datauntaed, that it wii i rio- for went of eridenee t Mr. Donning pleaded 
■IftlrikfttofMonr. P. notwilh- for two how* tocumbat the Attorney-Gene- 
U ftcettTil bad arrived. They ral'i fpecch. 
►«*■» aOtJaaa limited for the da- MoKDar, 7. 

On Saturday the caufe icfpefting tbe im- 
prifurtmenc of Lord Pigor, who died in hi* 
conftnrmmt at Madraji, wii refnmed in the 
Court of King*) Beach, wben inAead of rt- 
.„ . , , _ plie> to the former argument! in behalf of 

flb; the defendant! being immeaiately catered 

" ■ ' I*****, 4. upon by tbe gteit law officer of the c rawn, 

tfattr laft Meeting, II it ra tip cited, the Hon. Mr. Erfkinc, 
an akilte a medal ia Mr. Hardingc, Mr. Chamber! , Mr. Willon, 
knVatud navigator Capt. and Mr. Pig* rofr, and ft;* lely made 
■a *f that medal, Id goM, very lone rpecchci in favour <., the gentl*- 
i. by tbe Society to their men, which took up ftrcral noun, Mr, 
law Eaaprtft of Ruffii, Ice. and Hitdingc look an exception to the tnf-r- 
W^rbeducaafcd} imprtffiooi in mation, which did not Bate that the cefen- 
*> ha Cent to feme of the molt dtma iffjuhrd and imprifoued hit lordlhip, 
a* academita ta Europe: and af- with intent tn fruArate and prevent the 

" -"-^ ■ - ■■ ■*-•-- ortr,, f ,he Eift-Indla Company bring ear. 

rird into execution, but omnted tbe litter 
part of the ebarga fo Arongly iniifled upon 



7 (tough t) 
ttadtfdtda* 




the AttomeyGenenl, that Mr. Bnfield 
1 made of at oool. on the reienuci of Tin. 

R^afpa torar oB Writ. Th« peace jure, when that territory waa ordrnd by ih« t 

vat .h- E.«-lnJii CnT.paoy't direOon tn be rtftond !o the Raja*, and 

icing ilrriijr #j«urb<-» *y cirri which Com be actually idea nerd on mnt;.go 

M with laoRajihol Tanjoie, the of tbofeuery rearnaci to theofuiping N/b'b 

rpot'jni Ixrd Pigot hid ntir'vbeen of Artot, when (he Coaairy wat fn putT'lTton 

« of iti« malt iihrui (onicqiitaaMt */ that print* j lb* ■iaanrfmrr.t of th« 

( totally d(ft>t<4 ttr« Cotnpjnj'i iattrtA bf (bt delvndauli alter 




oo MONTHLY CHEONOLOGER. 

tht dff/ini; of liii lordfhip : and the afluil Thit committee «>i defiled to ci 

Stuffily of (he revolution of Midnfi fo u with the com mi lie ei of the ftnnl 

toeonfuU the welfare, price, ind good go- A committee wai al fo appoin ted 

vcrnmn; of the E'fl India Cooipiny't if- fpond with ihe committet af the 1 

fain in that part of the globe. After the Commons for amending tbc bill i 

cwinfel h>d eihauftrd all ihe fubtlery of fonmenl fordtbt. 

language on thefe general principle) of (he There war 1 very full court, ■ 

fubjeit, the Attorney General Ipoke above (idering the nature of the bnliocfr, I 

>n hour and a half in reply, wherein be the icatt flute of inf. fine or pi 

faiii, that notwitbftinding all whith wai ever remembered, 

file, he wit fir f ram being con vi need cut Yrftcrdav morning, purfuant t» 11 

of hit former proportion, Uiit thtTt wai a the Court of Iting'i Bench on Situ 

fecrei defrin loditpiich Lord Pi jot, by fome foor gentlemen of the lite council 

meant or other, either nnde r pretence of a were brought up to tht bar of (hat 

Kfcue to fall upon him, or 10 embrace fome receive lenience, hiving been fount 

other-opportunity of taking hii tnidflup oat removing Lord i'iput from the p ret 

of the way. But all the judjet agreed that Madras, and impri uning bun 

there wai not a findow of evidence to fup- mrmthi. which wag f-.iJ (o be tbt 

pot fuch an intention, ud it wii entirely hit death, 

t, ,'. of tht ,■■ ! -liiur.. Thecnart broke up it Mr. Juflice Afhhurft being the] 

half pan n>ti And paftponrd judgement, m pointed to pifi fenteoce, btfote' 

' confider in the mean lime the arguments on nnunced, h( went through the hit 

both fidei. Lord Minsfield eapreffed great evidence, both for ihe pro lectin on 

1'atist.cliDn at me difplij of abililiei made defence. 

by two of the counfel (joniori at the bar) He made feveril remark! at I 

whom, he laid, he heard with tall plea- through it, in which he obteivad, 

furc. Fort St. George had bclanpd to tb 

Fiibay, it. the depriving Lord Pigoi of the p 

Yefterday a court of common -count:! I was would h.ir hren high rreafon; but 

held it Guildhall, when, after a deal ofal- under the Ell! India Cifflpairy, Ha 

(creation, the vacancies in the fever al com- mJfdemeanour. He tnokaotire ik 

rnitleei weie tilled up agreeable to ihc lift of fendanti had imprilbned Lard Pitt 

the previous meeting, eiiicit in tilt iddition miiling fevcral memberi from (be 

of one name. Tht grand bnuncfi of in jet the, they thcmfclvti had dqaett 

■ddreii tn Parliament wn then entend upon three infttoccij but he could fay, t 

by f.'r. Hurford, uhn moved for petitioning they held the rtini of governm* 

the Home of Commons to enquire into the thing fuccetded, both in tndi if 

expenditure of the publick money, ind the army; andlhjt the prefideocy af f 

encreafini. influence o! the Crown, in fup- whom the wh-le of the bofinefi w 

p.nt of which he faid, tbat (he citiiens of red, gave tn opinion tn their favei 

London being mod h-.tily burtheiied wjth thtn proceeded to tht Sentence U !i 

raxes, hid a greater right to know bow thofe '■ Ceniiemen, you ire now ealli 

imports were applied; be paid many com- tcctive fenitnee tor an offence w 

plimtnti to tkt county petition', and wai have eommiittd, ind been found | 

iliiftrd by Mr. A !. ■ ■■', ..-, KLkman, who but, as there ii no diiiioOiea in y 

ipoke iu behalf of Id- motion, but are guilty alike, you art feeler 

Mr. Merry oppafid trie motion, ind ridi- of you to pay a tine to hit majtfly < 

cultd the jf (cflioni of a certain Right Ho- and lo be impri'oned tmiil the fun 

nouiabte member of the Houfe of Com- They initially pud the money ii 

muni, by contraffing one of bis fpecchci, and departed. 

■.■SuTi nianjirillaJminiftiitJon. Yrflerday, foon aftrr two o*cl 

Mr. Aiderman Siwbridge, Mr. Alderman 
Townfend, and Mr, Hurford anfivired the 
objections. They fald that the abilitiet of 
the Right Honourable Commoner wen fo 

great, as to become well worthy the eneou- lo on Thuifday by the « 

'Iniii.iihition, and the ev.tr- council. Theciry mcmbi 

til's i ;' iliem in dtfenca of the people m oft order to be ready to fpeak t« 

derr^njiiaiireiy nir.^ed ilie jriLegiiiy ofiha( delivered. 

tcnrleman'i publiek line of twnduft ; tht Fubjiy, ) 

ai putiod cirritd, A committee of On Toefday lail a cauf< 



fudge N.„ 
bert Tajle 



which wt» bert Tayletandihe owncn of one o: 
i ana (ne menm, with ibe 't- chefterflagts.The iftion wav broug 
, ait to prefent the fame to tht recovery o( damagei foe tht injury « 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. si 

ikbwb wit Stratford, by which j,,,, ,j, UnMHGimri 

■ m thrown down, and Mr. Tiy- J4_s-A- na~ T-l-_ .. 

inea ntr V the hind wheel of (he .-wuraw, <&*> ****7 M. 

Taw learned judge in fsmoring up f^APTAlN Thompfoo, of hit nijdry'i 

rate informed thtjury, that the liw \J *!• the Atactica, arrived lit* lift 

t la making the owncn of ft'ge night villi ■ letter from Admiral Sir Qeorge . 

■ttaaaublc fcr the mifcondufl of Brydgei Rodney to Mr. Stephen*, of which 

the following it i copy : 

*■■-'-■-' - g/a, jMwmtrjq, Lsiihtdi 41, 



the PiriniiiT, if it appeared from 
nee that the coach was nut on th; 
■f the road, for that if fo the aeci- 

happtnin in confca.ucnce of that 
■ft- Thejuryretijed for about leu 

aoJ*iou[h'. in 1 vtrdifl far the 
with 150I. diirap,, 

WiMtou, a*. 

ttntdaj wai tried in the court of 
inch, before the Tail of Minificld, 
■' .lie- - H j I', in indictment fjorJJ by 
1 jury of VYeBmiofler, ae.air.ft a 
t juflitr, for a commitment of a 
at London, and * member "f tjie 
■ of ticket potterr, to the Sjvoy, 
1 author i1; of Ihe imprefi ict, there- 
in! him in be aa idle and oii-r- 
rfon, whereat in truth and in fifl, 
raWrwn an iadsArinui fober man, 
rdlnartr good reputation. The pra- 
wn cor.dulitd bj the direction of 
0/ aldermen, to protect the righu 
Itowftip, ihey fating all freemen, 
rnes by an alderman. The indict- 
• laid alto -n E airfi two conflahlcr, 
riflca! luioll, prior to the eiami- 
«Fote the jafii.cj but the noble 
" • n the bench gave . dirrcl 



Stwatoicb, OtSm, Jmmatrya, Lttltvdt 41, 
44. Lapndt 14, 15, Cm fiMifem, 
E.N.E.ItLupti. 
Sit, 

YESTERDAY, at day-light, th* fo.oa.roa 
of hia m»jrfly"i Ihlpt under my com- 
mand defcricd *i fill in the North E.ft quae 



few boo 



ilalely gate chafe, and ii 



They pruye (0 he a Spinifl) convoy which 
failed from St. Sebafiiio'i ib* ift of January, 
and were under the protection, of frvea ffaipi 
and TcfTeli of war belonging to the foyil 
>m piny of CahaccM.vix.thc Guioufcoana, 
The San Carlot, 
The San Rafael, 
The Stafa Te- 
rn* n. The San 
140 men. Tht 
' 16 gun! and 60 
1, of 10 guai and 



Of 64 l«i 

of 30 gum and 155 1 
refl, of si gnu! and 
Brano, of aft guni 
Corbet tr San Fermi 

men. The San V. 



irr/ided at 

uttotbeji .. 

juiiifiibte ; and they' were 
■con acquitted. The point 

to the wiminality 0* the j 
■the* he Wat my wayi li*t>l< 
on for the iajory Oone 10 the 
o had been handeyft'ed, and fa 
rravgh the ftreett ; and hcf.de 
L the Siv:.j a miferable M 



■.men. Parte/ the convoy wn laden with naval 

ndlft- ftoreeaodptOTifiona lor the Saanift A i pi of 

abler, war at Cadi*) the refl with haleeoodiac- 

lami- longing to the royal company. 

noble Theft laden with naval ftorca and bill 

dirt*, gaodi Ifcitl imm.ai.u), difp.teh for E«g- 

1*1 of land, noder convoy of hii majefty'i ihipi tha 

with- America and Pearl ; thofc laden with pro. 

•cited *itWniI mall carry » Gibraltar, for which 

ultice, place 1 am -now Uterine, and hive not a 

: to be doubt but the ferviee I am lent upon there 

profe- will be fpeedily ewected, 

d like Von will likcwifc pleili to acquaint their 

1, hjd lordfhipt, that ai I thought it highly ne- 

nf.ne- canary to fend a 64 |on (hip to protect lb va- 



fe that by meie accident a writof eered, and nutned the Spanilh fliip of war 

lerpoi wai obiainrd by ike city to of the fame rate, and named her the Prince 

thimoutof a lo.thfomc room. The William, in tefpettto hia Royal Highncfi, 

"ai the juftice relied upon the act >f in wbofc prrfence the bad the honour to be 

ntas •lufficitotanfweriothechjrge, taken. She baa been launched only lie 

bar. the jo A ice ntrcifid hiidifcre- monthi, it in every rcfptcl completely fheed 

A waa not to be confined within any for War, and moth larger than the Birnhi- 

W Una WeawavS) if it coold be Cut, Captain Macbride, 10 whom tneAnick. 
he. had waatoeily abofed hit power, Ibegieavete - 

eawi law caA raried m 



« IhaeaATaried materially. Urd On tbil e 
M. that the jaf ice had refufed -' 
icea, whom he wu 



tongntnlate their lord 9J pi 
rhiah muff jreaily rfiflnfa 



the Jolrica wu'nofto I hae. 



» th. Jol 
wtpV t) 



n well in 

; of prorifiont and 






>il ftorei 



. ., to head aaajitdga accordingly, 
wMthM*/ impnfCT motileii 
ilhat tllplll ml l u . k waa for the 
Mwaeiai. TVahwUea waa found 

■aj fa to . mi ll fantence next Kja), 



fir, your roeA at 

Ci. B. RoEMIV. 

Lijl if Mtrtlnti Silfi utdtr Caayrj t/ltt 
trmiJSbifi mtniietid in tin firtph'tLittfr. 

NoRraSenoradcL'Orei, laden with floor. 
Stn Francifeo, ditto. La Conceptione, with 
ditto and wbul, Saa Nicholu, with wlear, 

M» S*. 



t* 



MONTHLY CHRDNOLOGER: 



f<*: 



San Jeronemo, ditto. Divina provjdentia, 
with flour. San Gibilan, d'tto. San Pa- 
cora, ditto. San Lauren, with French wheat. 
La Providentia, with flour and wheat. L* 
Bdlona, with flour. E'peranrs, with French 
ditto. Le Cidada de Mercia, with naval 
(teres. L'Armifhd, ditto. San Michael, 
with anchon and cables. La Fregattc de 
Bilboi, with tobacco. 

St. yamex*s, February 12. Letters received 
thii day from Mr. Fitzherbert, his nvjefty's 
jefident at BrufJcIs, bring a confirmation 
of the fignal fuceefs of hit majrfty's fleet un- 
der the command of Admiral Sir George 
Rodney, on the i6frh of laft month, near 
the ft raiti mouth. 

The Spanin fquadron, commanded by 
Don Joan de Langara, made a running fight, 
the circumftancei of which are not yet par* 
ticularly known. That fquadron confifted 
of eleven fail of the line, three of which, 
the St. Genaro, St. Judo, and Monarca, fe- 
parated bf fore the engagement ; the San Ja T 
liano, San Eugenio, San Auguftino, and 
San Lorenzo, are arrived at Cadiz in a very 
Shattered condition j the San Domingo blew 
up during the action $ and the Phoenix, Prin- 
*e(Ta, and Diligent, were taken. The Phoj- 
nix as an eighty gun ibipj all the others 
ieventy. 

Promotions. 

JAMES CUNNINGAME, Efq. major- 
general of his majefty's forces, to be cap- 
tain-general and governor in chief of his 
inajefty's ifland of Bjrbadoes in America. — 
The Earl of Ayleibury to be Lord-Licuten- 
ant of the county of Wilts. — The dignity of 
a Baronefs of. the kingdom of Great Britain 
in Lady Prifcilla Barbara Elizabeth Bur- 
reli, by the name, (tile, and title ct Baro- 
nefs Willoughby dc Ercfhy, in the county of 
Lincoln.—- Sir Henry Chnjon, and Marriot 
Arbuihnot, El'q. jointly and feveraily to be 
his majefty's commiflioners for reftoring 
peace in America, and for granting pardons 
to fuch of his majefty's fubjec^s there now 
in rebellion, as fhall defetvethe royal mercy. 
—Lord Vifcount Beaucbatnp fworn a mem- 
ber of the privy-council. 

Promotions i* Irt'ani. 
The Right Reverend Doctor Georg«rChii- 
nery, Ei/hop of IyiHaloe and Kit'enora, 
alias Tenabore, to the bifhoprick oi Ci^yne, 
with ihe rectory or un;on ut A^haJa, in 
thf fjid diocefe. — Do&or Thom-s Ban.ard, 
pcanofDerry, to the biftoprck if Ki!U- 
loe and Killsnora, al'us Ten. bore— Wil- 
liam Cecil Pay, Citrk, M. A. Dean 
of St. Flmaa Kilialoe. to the Deanery of 
perry.— S;mu*-1 Ra.iali,c!crk to tnc Deanery 
of St. Flanan KilMuc. 



ment for B Idgenorth,toMifs Foley,of Stock* 
tun, in the fame county.— Guftavus Brander, 
Efq.of the Priory, Salifbury.to Mrs.Elifabeth. 
Lloyd, relia of the late John Lloyd, Efq. Vice- 
Admiral of the Blue — At Dublin, the Rc 9 
Honourable Arthur Earl of Arran, to Mifa 
Underwood, daughter of the late Jticharsi 
Underwood, Efq. 



DlATHI. 

>».^lEORGE PERROT.Efq. late one 
30. V_T of the Barons of the Exchequer,^* 
31. The Right Honourable Lady Jane Boylr, 
lifter to the late Richard Earl of Burlington, 
and the 1 all of that noble family. -Fib. 1. 
Mrs. Martha Abdy, daughter of Sir An- 
thony Abdy, Bait, of FclixfHal!, in EfTcxl 
— %. Thomas Bladen, Efq. aged 8a, father 
totheConntefsof EiTex. He formerly re- 
presented the Boroughs of Old Sarum, Stey- 
ning, and other places, during feveral fef- 
fions of Parliament.— 4. The Honourable 
Lady Foulis, re lift of the late Sir William 
Foulis, of Ingleby Manor, Bart.— 5. The 
Right Reverend Doctor Richard Richmond, 
Bi/hopof Soder and Man.— 6- Francis Bo w- 
yer, Efq. one of the entering clerkaof the 
High Court of Chancery. — 7. John Brown- 
ing, Efq. one of the matters in Chancery.-— 
10. Sir William B.'ackfrone, Knight, one 
of the judges of the Qaurt of Common 
Pleas. — 14. Samuel E^crlon, Efq. of Tat- 
ton- Park, and one of the members for the 
county of Chefnire.— 17. The Right Ho- 
nourable Lady Catherine Pclham, ranger of 
Greenwich- Park. — 18. Captain Stewart, of 
the Royal Navy, ion of the late Admiral 
Stewart.— 19. Lady Lucy Douglas, wife of 
the Honourable Mr. Douglas, of Douglas* 
and daughter of their Graces the Duke and 
Duchefs of Montrofe. — A few days aj.o, at 
his apartments in the Cattle of Dublin, the 
Right Honourable Thomas Waite, fecretary, 
one of his m-jifly's moft honourable privy 
council.—* A I Co at the feat of John Ludfvrds, 
Efq. at Anfley-Hall, in Warwickftiire, Mrs. 
Lulford, widow of the late John Ludford, 
Efq. of the fame place, lifter to Sir Roger 
Ne*'digate, Bart.— Gregory Oliver, £fq. of 
Suffolk L*ne, London, merchant.— Tho- 
mas Browne, Efq, garter principal king of 
arms, 



A' a:-, riacis. 

A Few days fin>e, at Birmingham, 
Thoms Wnitmcre, Efq. *>f, Ap- 
b. it m S.iropihire, repic tentative in Parlia- 



BANKRUPTS. 

tSNAC Cstrie, late of Long-Alley, Meorficlde, 

1 viaualler. 

John B»yly. late Of Oporto. In Portugal. b»it now 

. of Newton- near Cambridge, wine merchant. . 

Cnir!e» MaitlanU, Of Newmarket, in $urT«U;, car* 
penter 

Richard Pitt, formerly of Prince* Street. St. 
James, VVer>mlniier. *nU late of St- Alton** 
Street, St. Jamct, Weftmtniter, upholder ur4 
eab'ne».-«r.sVer 

Philip Chiver*. late of PiccsdUly. opkoifterer. . 

ja^ne* Greenwood, late of Norton Ftlgate, iron- 
monger and braeler. 

Joieth Butter, of WokiDgbsa), tfl&eikr, tfrocftft. 

Ct«A 






' MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 

a**! Ha^pe* 0*0* Hon, pattea-ma- 



to 



** loda. 



tff% Of POtfOOf 



!■ Uacotouirf) fcfl. 

la Bedfordshire, Uw- 

lace of CheUr, fron- 
tal grocer. 
' " i 9 of Tewfcsbory, la Gioueener- 



taeau of lory St Bdauad't, In Suf. 

Abler 

rtk, of Wood Street, London, inn- 

. of U. Helen, Is WorceAer, taker. 

iof Artillery-Street, Spital* 



rUMnarifjo* tare of 0!d Barge Yard, 
■ck, Surrey, nmber merchant. 
£***» Of CamberwtU, Jn Surrey, brew- 

lard, of OarJbrd-Street, Mlddlefea, fad- 



of jefcafba* Court, Charing- 

C of Httton-Street, Middlesex, coal. 

aan, of Milton Abbott, In Devonshire, 

d% late of Manchester, money fcrive- 

••#, of Wbittnavea, in Cumberland, 

ckiflB, of UBper-Thamea-Streee, Lon* 
nset* and fptce merchant. 

of Keatfc, in Glamorganfkirt, 



tfjbK, Of Better, teftmaker. 

■> tote of the panm of Brdminfter, at 

am bat now a prifooer in hli maje 

RlvtJeneaVer. !■ die faid couocy, and 
aw oflrlAol, brick and pantile mak- 



e» of Coventry, wine and brandy mer- 

U ntte of the parish ofEardlfland, bat 

hanongar, ib Herraordfrwre, tanner. 

Oman of Bath, blackJmlth. 

yamnf, of Long Acre, ftationer. 

fBMNda H ghmore. of the Three Cranes, 

oal merchant. 

en late of He-denm, in Kent, desler. 

if Linle kuffell Street, St. George's, 

ry, brkkUyer. 

Ucil, hint of Moorgate, apothecary, 

yward, late of Chelmsford, in Iffex, 

, joiner, snd mnho der 

eoiinc. lace of the Tenter-Ground, 

i. timber merchant. 

Acodor, of St. Mary MjgdaJea, Ber- 

lurrey, trerchant 

arccy, late of St. Saviour's, Saiithwark, 

a*. 

a, of CroyJon. la Surrey, butcher. 

rooOi lateof Pjccidil'.y, bur now of the 

•ch Priloo, ttoho'der. 

a, tare of Effrx-Street, In the Strand, 

if St. Maiy-te-ttoaDt. money-ienvroer. 

infer, law of Lewes, in Suffex, (hop- 

te of BJhop*a Hall, in Somerfctfhire, 

lake*. 

of Taoa worth, In Warwickshire, mer- 



it oa and saaiDel Spendley, of Man- 

lercer* and cosaiinera 

aj/a, of Laabcth, in Surrey, coal-mer- 

m and Ana PrleSUey, of Turk, mille- 

■fpaitaers. 

Brre.of Worcester, Mnen draper. 

rt cot elder, now or jate of Sf. Mary 

t Boiiimiii rj. Surrey, carpenter and 



UNTRY NEWS. 
t**9*rf—l, January ax. 
1Y Ian arrived at Whitehaven the 
i, Wcftward, from Rotterdair, 
*** This is the fiift import of the 



kind ever made here 5 many hundred bogf- 
heada of that article have been exported 
hence to Holland, but that the Dutch Should 
ever furnifh ui with it was amongft the 
thing! never thought of. 



SCOTLAND. 

Haddington y in Scot/and, January 17. 

THE juSKces of the peace, and heretori 
of the county of Haddington, having 
met, and deliberately considered a copy of 
Lord Stormont'a letter, tranfmitted to this 
county by the Lord Advocate, relative to the 
plan tor arranging the force of the country 
in general, for the internal defence thereof, 
came to the following refolutions : 

" That it is abfolutely necefJary that Come- 
th ing Should be done for the internal defence 
of the country, and that the thanks of the 
meeting Should be given to the Lord Advocate 
for hit attention to a matter 01 fuch publick 
concern. 

" Some difficoltiei having occurred with 
regard to the conditions mentioned in Lord 
Stormont'a letter, the meeting appoint tho 
committee formerly named to correlpond with 
the Lord Advocate upon that nutter, and au- 
thorize the faid committee to meet with the 
other committees in Scotland, to confider 
whether an application lhould be made to 
parliament for a militia, or in what manner 
the internal defence ol the country Should be 
arranged ." 



AMERICA. 

THE following is a correct account of the 
current prices in Virginia, September 
: 779» ylz " t0Dac °> 20). per cwt. flour, 40'. 
per cwt. bread, 4. 1, per cwt. Inni^n corn, 
40I. per barrel j pc-f>, 4I. per bufhel j Wb?at, 
12I. per bufhel j pork, 40L per cwt. 
European good 1 *, 6000 per cent, advance 
on the ftcrling cod by the package j Weft- . 
India rum, 50 dollars per gallon, by the 
hogfhead 1 brown fugar, 90K per cwt. by the 
barrel j l^lt, 20'. for cwt. exchange, aooo 
to 2500 per cent, bills very fcarce. 

A'.w Orleant, 0&. 14. We had here on 
the 18'h of Auguft the nr.ofl drcadlul hur- 
ricane that ever was remembered j all the 
vcficls that were in the river were either 
funic cr blown on Shore ; among the num- 
ber of thofc that were funk was the Mo-ris, 
an American frigate, commanded by C-pt. 
Pickles and Tome of her crew drowned, aa 
W ic feverai othtr perfons who were on board 
of veiTLJs in the river j great nomners of 
houfes in the town, though very low, were 
entirely blown down, and ail the others 
furTered very considerably ; all the planta- 
tions from the bottom of the river, to fix or 
fet en leagues above the town, were entirely 
laid wafte ; trees in the foreft wexe lorn uo 

In 



M MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 

for iVvtril rat let wiieihtr i the dlftfer [hit attheiflind of Otaheitc, where 

tea hurricane ' i.il ■■ .-.J it !u greet, thit ic Orniah, i natire uf that iflind, 

will eetiuirc two Of three year' libooi to put health. Since the fir* toyige I 

the colony in (he Sale it wii twforr. Cook W Jut iliand, rht Spaniard! 

Exi.tlJtfakmrfraiNwrfk, J?«. 16. there twice, and fliyed font, mc 

•' from tlit prtfrflt dif'r.iiittan of the their (hip* bid lilt behind i» (an 

general,*! hup* twit to fuiwud you fotne tad domelick irunutf, bot oalyo! 

veiy interning inteltitence, « a fait of feeciei; fo thtt thrj reeeieedtk 

Sooa gallant fcllowe ire aour crrbaikiag, to the the putt ih.t Captain CaoJ 

be commanded by Cental CUnton la pei- there with |tui plcaJare. He 

inn, and Lord Cornwall^; ibe whnle of the iil)od in the month of Dieember 

Cienid^rt, Light Infantry, Royal Welch, lud afier hnin,; made fetetil IU 

pbittalion of Hefiar.1, Ice. are ordered to lit 1 in the Siutti Set, he Ma 

cnVaatlc it tht White Swat >(>• proceed up the month of March, 17 jj, an il 

the Sound, pcJjiWy to aeoid being (Wpptd by America, fluxed no the Sooth 

(he inc. or toeonrthegeiKririictt deOini- fchatlta. A leak belog dllio.cn 

lion, j^enlleponficiBihctdtuirtert hiotcd lain Cook"i ftip, the Refalopon, 

thit the cneral n ;ula Bot bt long ibienr. on io| a very floiaiy lei, oblijtd bin 

thii itmie, Congrefi bill! tie it 50 foe in 1 bty in thtt part of tat em 

one or fi-ru in Philajelphii, and iron il hieing repaired hit own (hip, the? 

abiolutely 1500I. per bundled, or jo.coo'. to fea, and failing along the ecu 

b ton. Tot Caagrefa, it it ftid, are pro- lift Jiflinclly dikoeeied the On 

podng to march frum that oily to ConneeHi- Afia and America. The two n 

(ot, oreading >a infurteflioB and the fafety warld prefented ooly, it thtt hel 

ol their pcrfoniinFuilidelphii- the rebel- tude, alow barren linej, withsat 

lion ii now more likely thiB ete' to fob- a f:a 0/ a eery middling depth, 

fide, for face D'EAaign'a fiimmoniij Gen. tinued their route tiil ihty persei» 

i'l-..! 1 !:, forrtnice Siuonah in tht name the American eoait, cttindingta 

si ihe French kin;, an inconceivable de. lift. He then thought hiBi* 

feeaion had taken place | ihe people without nearto the boundi of hit viftta, 

our lint) cesfefe their tyei to be now open- he c»me to 70 degterj, 45 miaul 

«u to the iefigm of the Bourbon family, and io3 eleg-eer of longitude (pro 

whith ire to conquer end keep poffeffinn of oning from Grtenwi.h) he met 
urincci, pretending to ' 



* 


him to turn towaro! the S"otb. 
chor mil ihe illand of UnalaAJl 




FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 


Captain Cook dated hit letter, r 


rj-«HF. following eelrtcT. of a letter from 
J. Berlin, dated Jiou.ry 11, contain. 


illand in jj, $j luitnde, and 11 
gitode, t onfeo,acnlly gi.isg thi 


inert ialcrrftilM particular, of the late on- 
foiiOQ-tc Ctpuin Cook, ih.n any of the ac- 


mure •■■:,■■ and fluthcrn poEtls 


the new general chart of Kuffia, 


eoonti fiiiherto made publick. 


f^-und himfelf to the E.fl of 


" Our umoui gtogriphc, M. de Bofchin 


■■;■:■■■. which he had pitrtd in hv 


hath juureceieed a Ktttr Irom Mr. Pinal, 


teifonably thought he mat one 


profeir.ir of the imperii!' Academy of Pe- 


iflandr ; he therefore failej agai 


terlhourg, dated the ntl of December, con- 




Uir.inj a recital of the unhappy cad of the 


temperate elimtre. He aflnall 


funoui EnghAl Tn.ellcr, C. plain Cook, in 


di'eriotherifland', which appea 


tr.e ful."«in* worde j 


eairemely futile, and where the 


■■ The imperial court and fenatc hid re- 


had railed done walli upon the 




il-eir defence. He call anchor at 


tount from K.im(clntka, that fome B«g- 


ifltnoe, nimed O'wy'be, ia 1 


luti Inifi had ipptired or. the Ihaa of that 


Cauca-CotTi, and fretted eery in 




the attjata, who paid bin ilmol 


t,, .e V mo time brfore, but it wai noi made 


i:,.:.:-. Alter he had itfrtfh-d 


pi aliw till then. At length lall vetlc dff. 


one of whom only had died in 


p aKhei Mcredcliteied ro the Chciaiicr Har- 


and two other) hid fallen lick, 
ready got under fail, when a ft 


rii, tr.»oy from the Court of Lonoon to oor 


tTouri, !. iv, Captain Clcrkt. who rommand- 


hurt hii rniien-maft, which on 


ci the Difcottry under Capltin Cook, and 
all'i a letter to Mr. Stephen!, ftcntary 10 




e.ib.camce.c.yday more bold 


the Admiralty. Dy an citraft from thefe 


clearly dcmonft.ated tbett IBS 



heft, which went fo fie 
ihitCipttin Cook, after he had palTcd the bl> bo.K. Captain Cc ok, Willi 
Cipc of Gond Hope, had continued hii i u ilice for thit robbery, went or 
courfti alnng Van Diemin'i Land, and New 'hi. lieutenant, and ten « IB 
7..alj;.ii,IIi ajuitJ happily, in Auf,ult, 1777, atw. He iduntca towndi t L 



MONTHLTCHRONOLOGER. 



whd always paid him great 
' their Chief. Whilft 
carrying on, the info- 
nf the iflanders, who was in the 
fed him to fire on him with his 
itVd only with fnsall Jhot, which 
penetrate the mat with which 
rod. The Indians begun then to 
earn 1 when the lieutenant had at 
nwi killed hif man, the whole 
r the body; and as foon at the 
Kfcnarged their pieces, they did 
l CD load again, but killed Cap- 
id fhar of hie people, forcing the 
f wounded, to make their efcape, 
r nf the' fire of their pinnace: 



9* 



agree, unit ft in augmentation of the troop* 
of tbcfe provinces takes place at the fame 
time. 

" The Province of Holland has not yet 
come to any determination about the ex- 
pences for the current year, a: the City of 
Amfterdam will not agree to any thing on 
that head till the fitting out of the fifty men 
of war in queftion is fixed. 

** We have accounts from Paris, that 
Dr. Franklin, the Ameu'cn plenipotentiary 
to that court, ha4 aflced and obta ; ned his 
difmiffion, and that he will foon fet out for 
Philadelphia. The true motive ci" his v/king 
to be recalled is not known j fome think ic 



is becaufe he and the members of G>ngrefs 
fee, to whom tho command then have difagreed in fame material points, whilft 
r ao aofibility of revenging the others fiy, it is that a« he is very far ad- 
vanced in years he wifhes to retire, and 
pafs the reft of bis days in pcarc. It is not 
abfolurely ceiuin who wiil faceted him, 
but it is imagined it will be M*. Adam?, 
who arrived lately at Paris as deputy from 
theCong'efc. 

" M. Du Chaffault is appointed to (he 
command of the grand fleet of France this 
year, and is gone to Brrft to take the com- 
mand of the mips which are ready in that 
port. Since the beginning of this month, 
feveral convoys of mip*builcing timber,™ a 3$, 
and naval ft ores of all kinds have arrived at 
Breft, in formic h that tkee are at p relent 
4 co fail of veflcls in that port laden with 
the above-mentioned article. 

" From St. M.»lo«» wc hear, that feveral 
cartel ihips are arrived with exchanged pri- 
fonersfrom England, who all extol the ^wod 
treatment they have received during their 
captivity, and indeed tf.eir healthy appear- 
ance mows whatttuy fiy to be tn.e. 

11 The fame accounts fr.-m Paris men- 
tion, that the new regulations relative to 
the reformation in the rxpenecs of the court, 
to be made by M. Neckar, otcafions gteat 
murmuring among thofe by whom it will 
be moftly felt. Certainly many who were 
brought up to nothing but couit fervue 
will be greatly diftrtficd, and M. Neckar 
will probably be completely hated, which 
may one time or other prove fatal to h : m. 
It is faid he means alio to take the clergy 
in hand, and to introduce tome innovations 
relative to the free gift which that body of 
people annually make to the king j hut 
this will be a dangerous undertaking, and 
it is generally thought M. Neckar wiil very 
maturely weigh the matter before he deter- 
mines to medd.c in fo delicate an affair as 
this." 

A letter from Peteifburgh, d-tcd Dec. 31. 
fays, feveral per Ions emplo)ed in the ditte- 
rent departments ol'lhe finance?, as well here, 
as in other places of the empire, have lately 
been arretted and fi cured in \h~ fortuf* of 
this capital. They -are accufed with embea- 
_tbey certainly will give their sling the revenue of the fiate, and are to be 
lift others think thty will not tried by a commifllcn nominaud fotihat v^t- 



1 brave Captain Cook, but was 
irwontbedefeafive till his mift 
■ In the mean time he made 
1 the lavages, and quitted the 
•to to Kamfchatka, where he 
host Awaticha from the 1 ft of Ja- 
, till the month of June, in that 
en 'failed todifcovrr (as he writes 
t exactly the iflands between 
1 and America.** 

rat* letters from the Hague, 
he raft mail, contain the foUow- 
trss 

tares 0/ Holland adjourned laft 
ednefdary the a 3d of this month 

Jt is laid that aflcmbly, during 
Inn, came to three very impor- 
inations, which have been car* 
ffembly of the States- General to 
to resolutions 1 The firft is to 
fix months the doable hafi & 
the fceond is relative to a new 
saval equipment given in by the 
mixarties, by which it is pro- 
s' and fit out fifty new men of 

thofe already agreed upon, in 
sift; a foftdent convoy to the 
sips of the republick, and to 
etpecx to he paid to the flag of 

Provinces for the future, than 
Etta mown to it. This plan the 
Aland fnppoft flronply as ind.f- 
tlTiry in the prefent circum- 

infift upon its being agreed to, 
th an unlimited convoy: the 
Ination b to caufe the rtrongeft 
rions remonQrances to be made 
it of London, relative to the 
lie Dutch convoy under Coont 
lie firft of thefe determinations 
reed to bf their High Mightt- 
ht two others have been fent 
live confrderates for their con- 
rw remains to fee what the de- 
of tho other fix provinces will 
nagine that from the late con - 
Eagliftt, relative tO the convoy 



* 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER.- Feb, 



abie, and of which Major-General Tolftoy 
U appointed prefident," 

Late advices from Paris contain the follow- 
ing particulars, " Dr. Franklin ii fhortljr to 
leave this kingdom, being fuperfeded in bis 
place of ambaftidor from ibe United States of 
America, at his own earneft requeft. Hit 
departure is much regretted by the Literati, 
who found great entertainment in his focierv. 
He will carry home with hisn the ftrongeft 
marks of the frieiidfhip of this coort towards 
bimfelf and the Congrefs. He is expected 
on board a thip of 60 guns at Breft, in March 
next.** 

In one of the edicts juft published by the 
French king, is the following paflage : '< We 
have been obliged to extraordinary rcfources 
for carrying on the war, but we have for that 
purpofe augmented our revenue by oeconomy, 
improvements, and reformation, introduced 
into every department of our finances ; and 
according to the ftate of them laid before us, 
there fubfifh, by virtue of thefe regulations, 
an exact balance between our revenues and 
eur fixed and neceffary expences," 






The laft advices from Madrid fay, « Or- 
ders are juft received here from Court to ftatV" 
p?nd the operations in fitting out the Flota* »] 
which ufually fails the laft week in Marda" 
for Sjuth -America } and to make thegreatr# j 
application in fitting out the men of war, 
many of which are in bad condition, and want 
great repair. It is thought from this that no 
{hips will be fent to America this year, at 
there are fo many Englifh crofters, men of 
war, and privateers, on the look-out for 
them. The war is leverely felt here, on the 
fcore of commerce, trade being quite at a 
ft and, even the Dutch merchants not choof- 
ing to export what they think will fall into 
the enemy's hands, except from their own 
ports. The ftores are full of wines, fruit. 
Sec, which, if they do not find a vent, will 
prove a great lofs and inconvenience to the 
dealers; our only hope is,, that the pre fent 
war may not continue much longer than the 
la ft. An ordinance is publifhcd, forbidding 
all perfons to talk of politicks at Ma- 
d>id." 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

T O 

CORRESPONDENTS. 

ct'JJ E temporary article of the Britijh Theatre, has obliged us to poftpone Lec~ 
•*■ tare IV. on modern Hiftory to next Month. 

The fecond Volume oftbi Btographia Britannic a will be reviewed in §mr Maga- 
zine for March ; works offuch magnitude demand long and clofe attention. 

The Account of ' Ruffia will alfo be reviewed in the fame Magazine. 

The Effay on Concupifcence is under confederation. We are much obliged to the 
author jor his kind intentions of becoming a regular correfpondent : fome correcHoni 
we hope he will admit. 

The Clothes Prefs, an eiffeeling ftory, will certainly appear in our next. 

Alfo the Anecdote in proof of King Williams valour; and a Memento on the 
Faft. 

A Comparijin, bj H- L> will be infer ted, but the laft ftanza muft be omitted : 
the author, we believe, on mature reflexion will approve this Jlep. 

Many thanks to the gentleman of the North who fent us the jingular ftory, whicb 
he thinks refemblts tint of Lord Lyttelton's dream ; We fee it in another lights 
quite natural, we apprehend he Jaw the real perfon who ajlcrwards committed 
the robbery, and underftanding that he was very young and juft recovered from 
a fever when the faH happened, en that account, and becaufe it off eels a living 
ptrfou, we cannot puhlijb it. 

Our beft acknowledgements are liieivife due to the gentleman who has colleclcd 
witbfo much accuracy, a lift of the Court cf Aldermen and Sheriffs from the Re- 
volution, but having already publijbed a lift in our Magaxine for December 1770, 
Vol. XXXIX. we cannot pqffibly confent to reprint that lift, nor can we conceive 
the utility cf carrying it jartber back : the lift from 1770 to the prefent time Jh all 
le inferted if he requires it, if not, the vjbole is lejl in the publt/her's bands to be 
returned, when called f^r. 

The account of the number of in be hi fonts, &c> at Nottingham W WUfl declint 
accepting, and can only thank the writer for bit obliging offer* 



HE LONDON MAGAZINE .- 



. ^^^#k_ 




GENTLEMAN'S Monthly Intellin-encer. 



For MARC H, 1780. 



tcliht Eir! oflvi bums 99 


Defection Mr. BurLe'i Molio 




127 


■tthondriiclc, No. XXX. loo 


On Mr. Peninl-i prel'e 




Ihe pr. 


IV. on M.. .-. rn Hi loi v il. .-. 


titlnn of ihe MeiOunit an 


VI 


nier> oi 


Xhci-Prefl, in lUtcln; Snjry 105 








«i Virion. Sabjerti, No. XVII. lug 


S.r George SaiiUe 1 ! K 




JiMo- 








laid. 


On ibc Pillion of Angei 109 


Colond Birrrl'i Nolic 


nf 


1 Mtr- 










mi oa the lift Gtncn' Fifl 1 1 r 


1 CjIrul.iInnoftheEcIiple ncsi 






On Solitnde and Retirement ill 


Br.Tiiw or Niw Pun. 






Briiifh Heroifm difpbicti ibid. 








Nir-etiteof (be Suffering, of L dy 


Of ihe Hiflory 0' R..fli 






id Arkhnd, who mended her Ho'- 


0!' (he Hiftni. of ihe 1 




1 C u n- 




nrftion btrween Engltnd ir-d 


IH 


nd 131 


-■iK ■,.■ w:.i;. m in. ,:- 


— — ■ Ol Hijrjini'i Etftaa 




un Ce- 








ibid. 


Mrrnoin of Lord Bithurft ib<d. 


Of (he Speech of Edmunt 


Bailee, 








ibid. 


Of Mcof.de Feriol ibd. 


. Of Lrffrni in Blacmtm 






Ol Ad mini Rowley ibid. 


PoiTICAL Eli /.I 






iiilimiTiiii Hiitoit. 


A C mpirlfon 






lintbrHqofeofCe-nmOTii m 


An Epitaph in CtlefhiMI Cho 


h 1 




On Mr. Willtei'i Complain: i. j : . ■.:;■ 


Fuowlit Air, in lbs w,d..w 






Mac "f Chindot ibid. 


One ut the new B-'l-di (n 


iM 




On Sir Geont Sinllc't prefeiting ' 


Mr. Linlrr 






fork ft ire petition 111 








lin ibeHonfeif L-rdt 1=4 








On ihe lid pi Shilborne'i Mo- 


1 Ar.etreon-.tek Sonj, by ihe hie 


R. TomlMi- 


1 in ihe Houfe of Cmufni 117 


Monthly Chronolc E ;r 




Ibid, 


With ihe following Embrlliihmrnti, tie. 






An elegantly engraved Hcid «f LORD SilELBURKE, 






it of the St. A it 1 orCiiKiTti 


with ihe Ocean, indCoAiTi of 


SrA 


K AND 



LONDON, printed for R. Baldwin, 
mm.tbtbido.mplet.Set., from the Yea. 
»noftitch«d, or.n r iifig'e Volur 



4\ 



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THE 



NDON MAGAZINE 

FOR MARCH, 1780. 



y 



ACCOUNT OP THE EARL OP SHELBURNE, kc. &c. 
(With 4*1 tngrmud Fmrait fir$m mn original PiSure.) 



£HXIAM Petty, a peer 
of the realm by the (tile 
and tide of Baron Wy- 
combe of Chepping 
Wycombe in the coun- 
ty of Buckingham j and 
alto Earl of Shelburne, 
p it2maurice and Baron Dun- 
Che cotinty of Waterford in 
1 the Ion of John Petty Lord 
, &c. who was raifed to the 
the peerage by his late ma- 
te toth of May 1760, being 
irof his reign. His lord/hip 
rrm his new dignity quite a 
ha died on the jsth of May 
was fuccceded in title and 
he prefent nobleman, 
iclburne verv early embraced 
y life, ana rifing through 
■t gradations of rank, had 
1 to Jbe made one of the aids 

his ptcfent majefty in the 
ibon after his acceffion j and 
was failed to, the rank of 

genera], which he now en- 
without any command $ and 
taking no further notice of 
military line, we (hall en- 
> do j office to his lordfhip's 

1 the walk of civil life, in 
has taken an active and con- 
art both as a fenator and a 

(me of hi* father's death he 
ibex of the Houfic of Cora- 
reientinff the borough of 
Wycombe, though he was 
in the twenty- third year of 
is removal to the Houfe of 
not inftantly followed by 
' of thofe political talents, 
i oStagailhed his character 
•y dormant about two years, 
' affairs of ftate under that 
r, the lane Earl of Chatham* 
ita of April 1763, his lord- 
WwnJd Fiif Commiffioaer 



of the Board of Trade and Plantations, 
and at the fame time fworn in one of 
his majefty's moft honourable Privy 
Council. The Board of Trade and 
Plantations was not at that period a 
board of reference and fubordinate to 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
as it has been fince made. On the con- 
trary, the Firft Commifiioner of that 
board was then an efficient minifter in 
the cabinet, and the department was 
one of the moft important in the go* 
vernment. 

His lordfhip fucceeded a gentleman 
of great abilities, the late celebrated 
Charles TownAiend, at a very critical 
juncture, juft after the general peace, 
when the commercial interefts and con- 
nexions of the nation, extended and 
improved by a fuccefsful war, required 
the difcernment and delicacy of an 
able ftatefman, to place them in (ecu - 
rity, on a permanent footing. In this 
fervice Lord Shelburne acquired great 
reputation by his affability and clofe 
attention to all the applications made 
to him by the merchants, planters, and 
traders, concerned in our commerce to 
the American continent, and to the 
Weft- India Hands; but not continu* 
ing m this ftation, for which he was 
fo well qualified, above five months, 
the puhlick had not an opportunity ox 
reaping thofe advantages from his 
knowledge of bulineft, which would 
have been the fruit of his long conti- 
nuance in it* His lordfhip, however, 
fcems to have inherited from his aij- 
ceftor the great Sir William Petty, a 
turn for mercantile affairs, on which 
he always (peaks with greater accuracy 
and intelligence, than any of his bro- 
ther peers. In all the parliamentary 
debates on tbe fubjelt of the American 
war, it will be found that his lordihip 
nnderftpod thoroughly the trading in- 
terefts of the two countries, and macje 
exaft calculations of the lodes the tnq- 

N a * tVtf 



106 



T.UE. HYPOCHONDRIACS. 



March 



thcr country would fuftain by this xin» 
politick dilute. 

Upon the change of the miniftry in 

'the year 1766, hit lordftiip by the re- 
commendation of Lord Chatham was 
appointed Secretary of State for the 

• Southern department; in which office 
he continued till another change took 
place in 17689 with which, and the 
meafures then purfuing, he was lb in- 
cenfed, that he threw up all connexions 
with government, and has itood forth 

* a formidable opponent to the miniftry 

# from that period to the prefent hour. 

' Different characters have been drawn 

of his lordfhip, in which the hand of 

' party has manifeftly guided the pen : 

*"with refpett 10 his puhlick conduct in 

? parliament, wc think it much better to 
etourreadeis form thrir own judge- 
tnent from a review of his motions and 
' Speeches given at large in our Parlia- 
mentary Hiftory; fortunately lhat de- 
"partment of our prefent publication, 
comprifes a debate in which his lord- 
' ihip gave full fcopc to his fenatcrial 
'talents. We are forry, the multipli- 

• city of bnfinefs in the other Houfe of 
Parliament, has prevented our bringing 
the debate on his lord(hip*s lafr motion 
in the Houfe t:f Lords on Monday the 
6th of March, into this month's Par- 
liamentary Hi (lory ; as fome expres- 
sions that fell fioin his lordfhip, re- 

' fpefting a reginv nt rnifjpg for a fecret 
" expedition by William Fullarton, L'iq; 



member for Plympton, occafioned a 
formal complaint to be made by that 
gentleman again ft the noble Earl in 
the Houfe of Commons j and the con- 
teft has jult been terminated by a duel $ 
for the particulars of which fee our 
Monthly Chronologer. 

ki hit perfon, Lord Shelburne ex- 
ceeds the middle ftature, and ta rather 
too lufty to be genteel ; bis elocution 
and manner are calculated to com- 
mand veneration, not to infpire affec- 
tion ; the force of his arguments, his 
extenfive knowledge, and the impor- 
tance of the fubjects he bring* before 
parliament are all calculated to qfitund 
nis adverfaries j but he wants that har- 
monious voice, and thole winning 
graces of oratory, which pleafe and 
perfuade, at the fame time that they 
attempt to enforce conviction by the 
ftrength of rcafoning. His coni'cioua 
feelings of luperiority betray him into 
a fmile of ineffable contempt for thofe 
whom he oppofes, which Grangers be- 
low the bar have fometimes miftaken 
for that difagreeable diftortion of the 
features called a grin- In private life 
he is univerially revered, and juftly 
, com fleered as a model for reforming a 
diffclutc age. His lordjhip bis one fon 
living by his flrft wife, Lady Sophia, 
daughter to the late Earl Granville, (he 
died' in 1771, and he lately married a 
fitter of Lord Ofibry, 



THE HYPOCHONDRIACS No. XXX. 

Ebrieias cjl blandmi da:;:cu, J::Lc veriexui", f.u* :v jiwa.'utn ; quod qui habet 
Cttlfutn non habet j queu tjttijiuii^ /•t,\calu/.i /.;// Ju^t, jl^i ij-fe eft ftcatum. 

St. Augustine. 

• " Dninkenncfs is a flattering devil,, a fwcci poiiun, a plea fa nr fin, which 
" whofoevcr hath, hath nut hiinielf j which wlioloever doth commit, doth not 
*' commit tin, but he himfelf is wholly fiii.*' Sir Walter Raleigh. 

Promifed many months ago to give . which has not been fa notified by great 



• J[ my readers a paper upon Drinking; 
and'although I have not vanity enough 
'"to believe that there is much attentive 
•^expectation, I am now to fulfil my en- 
gage m cut. 

Here n^ain I am anxious to have it 



authority. But as I am only the com- 
pr.nion cf my readers, I have no fcru- 
r»ietowiire (rcely, as they will judge 
h?r th.'mleives. 

I do fairly acknowledge that I love 
Drinking; that [ have a constitutional 



tinder flood, that The Hypockondriark inclination to indulge in fermented U- 

'docs not pretend to ths wfiucm and in- q'uors, and that if it were not for the. 

'"ffuence or a teacher. Did I confider -reftraints of re a fon "an 3 religion I am- 

"irjyfeffas in that character, I fhould afraid \ fnould be as con (tint a vqtnry 

, ".hardly venture to pur any opinion or of Bacchus as anylrran. Tobfc'fcn- 

.. Wr.any fentlment inw ahefe papers 'frble of this is a continual taufe> of 

n }\.. fear, 



THB "HYPOG'HdNDRIACK. 



»Ol 



t uneifinefs bf which greatly Does it not confirm the opinion of 

■Juices both the faleaiure of thofe" who have thought and aflcrtcd 

i gratification and the pride that in this ftate of being man is rcft- 

NBt Ibcceftfui refiftancc, and lefs and unhappy, and always willing 

t it is certain] y m misfortune to to forget himfelf. Does it not pro- 

ha cbtJHratfon.' My thoughts claim the truth of what the gloomy 



rinking cannot be ruppofed to but noble minded philofophcr Mauper- 
t uniform and fixed. Yet I tuts obferves, that mankind are all 
■rfelf that as I have revolved agreed in this : " de chercher des re- 
in very often in mylnind, and mfdes au mal dcvvvre — to endeavour 
i m very different fates, I may to find remedies for the pain of ex- 
ifetber fome particulars which iftence." 

nm a periodical effay fufficient- An Hypochondriack is under pecu- 
liar temptations to participate freely of 
wine. For the impatience of his tem- 
per under his AifFcring* which are 
Jbmetimes alinoli intolerable, urges 
him to' fly to what will give him im- 
mediate relief. It has Often occurred 
to me, that one muft be oMlinate to 
an extraordinary degree, whu feeling 
himfelf in torment can refill taking 
what he Is certain will 1 procure him 
wpflme as Sir Walter RaUigb, eafe, or at lead inlcnflbility. To be 
eU them; thai the fetitence and Aire we know that an excefs in wine 

which alone can move a thick melan- 
aV t$ his Stop in the chapter choly, will probably make us worft 
. " What, inco^veniencies hap- when its violent operation has ceafed, 

fo that it is in -general better to bear 



lotto of this paper being a fen- 
f a faint, may perhaps be 
to portend a very rigid dif- 
But they who think fo will 
nJeJvesmiftaken. And indeed 
her apprehenfife of erring up- 
other fide. As fome of my 
nay be curious to know where 
rand fo illuftrious a tranflator 
Vme as Sir Waiter kaleigb, 
them; that the fetitence and 
lation is in that great man's 



ich aadelight-in wine ;"" which 
has : " Take efpecial care that 
light not in wine.; for there 
as any man that came to hc*- 
|wreferment that loved it.** A 
on which many eminent cha- 
both in ancient and modern 
ve proved not to be true. That 
»f wine have rarely been good 
t of fociety in the decent me- 
of ordinary parts, is a jutter 
For men of fuperior talents 
n able to rife high, notwith- 
thc impediment of a vice which 
ave deprefled feebler ipirits. 
not be denied thai by far the 
part of mankind have in all 
n fond of drinking. Children 
"ages take fermented liquors 
i eagernefs which lhows that 
nefs is natural. And travel- 
e discovered that in countries 
le art of making fermented li- 
iS not yet been ducovered, there 
t means of intoxication. Is 
a ftriking proof of the general 
neft of the human race ? 

kVapan 1 who liveft here in tsjU, 
* MnpJaU of this- thy fc*rd tfbre $ 
p as cindNC tfcoo mitft sacr moii . 
4Jaa*fff amsras atss» .. . 



the mental malady with firmnefs. Yet 
I am not Aire but when the black dif- 
trefs has been of long continuance, it 
may be allowable to try by way of a 
delperate rtmedy> as poifons are fome- 
times given in medicine, what a joyous' 
ftiock will produce. To have themimf 
fairly d! (engaged from its baneful foe, 
even for a little while, is cf tfo.nial 
conicqucnce. For it may then exert 
its latent vigour, and though hurt by 
its rough deliverer, be abie to get the 
better of what pic (fed it down before 
in abject fubmifiion. 

But we arc not to con fid er the world 
as one immense hofpftal : and when- 
ever we fee a company with wine cir- 
culating aiuonglt them, to think that 
they are patients fwallowing a nccef- 
fary potion. Drinking is in reality an 
occupation which tm^lovs a conside- 
rable portion of the tiire of many pt«j- 
ple j and to con duct it in the molt ia- 
tional and agreeable manner is one of 
the great arts of living. 

It is in vain for thofe who drink li- 
berally to fay that it is only for the 
fake of good company becaule it :s~ 
Very certain that if the wine were*: e- 
moved rhef company would loon bre?k 
up, and \t is plain that where wfm is 



LECTURES ON 



102 

largely drunk fhere is left true focial 
intercourse than in alraoft aay other 
iituation. Every one 19 intent upon 
the main objed. His faculties are ab- 
sorbed in the growing ebriety, the pro- 
gress of which becomes more rapid 
every round, and all are for the mo? 
ment perfuaded of the force of that 
riotoqs maxim which I believe has been 
ferioujdy uttered, that u Convcr&tion 
fpoili drinking.*' 

Were we io framed that it were pof- 
fjble by perpetual l'uppjice of wine to 
keep ourJl-kes for ever gay and happy f 
there could be no doubt that Drinking 
would be %hc fumanm bottum 9 the cbitf 

foody to find out which philofopherg 
ave been fo variouHy bulled. We 
Should then indeed produce in ourftlves 
by the juice of the grape the effects 
which the inducing lerpcmt pretended 
our fir ft parents would feel by eating 
of the forbidden tree in the mi Aft of 

ERRATUM. 
In The Hypochondrick, No. XXIX* p. 53, col. 1, 1. 35, for aUurt read 



the garden. We (bouM u be 
knowing good and evil;'* and 
wild imagination of feJidty mi 
filled the mind of Homer, 1 
thought of representing the , 
the Greeks as drinking in he 
he does in fo high a ftrain of 
that one forgets the abfurdit 
mythology. But we know £r 
miliating experience that men 
be kept long in a Irate of elevi 
toxication, and that druokenn 
be followed either by immecKao 
or by fuch wretched ruin both 
and body as muft render its 
defpicably miferable. 

1 find that my thought* upon 
ing will not be contained in on 
I (hall therefore break off hi 
referve to myi'clf afterwarda M 
nue thefubjtct, while I think i 
able to myielf and my 



found an afylura at the court of 
magne, and he made the moft I 
life of hit exile, by ftudyiag the 
war and policy under chat renews 
a-nd ftjtefm<m. The emperor trnc 
periencrd the difatWantaget of g 
divided dominions, favoured the 1 
of young Egbert, who meditated t] 



LECTURES ON MODERN HISTQ&l 

LECTURS IV. 
(Continued from our loft January Magazim.) 

C\ UR pre Cent lefture muft neceflerily be loufy of Brithiic King of the Weft 
} confined to the affair s of England, in who had feifed on the throne n 
order to conned the hiAory of our own lineal defcent belonged to Ifjh 
country with that of the moft con6derable 
nations of Europe, at the fame ana*. But 
as little information and lefa inftruclion it 
Co be derived from thii early p*rt of our 
hi ft 017, we may be permitted to draw it 
within very narrow bounds, in conformity 
to our plan, which it to exhibit a cornet 
out-line, not a riniuSed historical picture. 

The «era we propofc to make the fubjtcn of btcoming fole monarch, if he ec 
of this narrative calends from the year 800, recover the throne of hit anceftaie. 
to the death of Charlei the Simple of ric died in the year too, and Irie 1 
France in 929 , when his widow the lifter men immediately fent a depotatio 
of our King Athelftan, took refuge with bcrt to offer him the crown. Oi 
her brother in England, and brought over turn home, he found himfelf at I 
her fon Louts, who afterwarda afcended of a powerful, rich, and united a* 
the throne of France by the trile of eager for renown and conquest. 1 
i,oui« IV. fir named D'Otrtremcr, from be- afpiring prince. At fir ft be only 
yond fca, owing to that circtsmftance. "*~ ~ " ~ 

Thecrnf.ifed hiftory of the Heptarchy 
(the Saxon government of England divided 
into (even kingdoms) do fed with the efta- 
blilhment or a more no u le and- durable 
form of government in the perfonofthe 

entcrprifm^, valiant, and prudent, Egbert fubjeSs, and hit fucceft in negm 
ths Firft, Kin* of all England* This prince, peace between Eardalf and Kernel 
at an early age was driven from hia.coun- dearei him to the other Saioo fcii 
try, his life being in danger from .thejea- he wu uoaai«ao*v> ele€led< efcael 



the amiable character cf medlaier t 
ployed his good offices to reconcile 
King of Northunrbria en<hKenn1| 
of Merria, who had taken ep am 
cide their differences. The juftiee 
deration with which he governed 



UODZtti HISTORY. 




f t aujrfaft tke Mtifi 
» at tHi turn were nuking the 
ntafkaka eJf tb*Sexoa yoke. 
k tke supreme power, Egbert 
mm agalnft tke Britons and 
afca ■ dMHoa people and na- 
eat tnended kit flops where- 
K, fcc kMMAWaio, old car- 
aWel, Mawdjr war upwards of 
pi«n> the eeaumwerated Briton*, 
•tk were evEatt to yield to kit 
I aft* ahlUctok Hii rapid foe- 
I tke fofp ie ion i of tke otkor 
■cat, eJ^iaftr/ an they found 
BojUftoi too coaqoefts ke kid 
•mag Cornwall *nd Walei to 
imioM, inftaad of soaring thofo 
coceanea witk them* 

King of Mercia, wai tin firi* 

opposed kin, by making an 
i rk* Britons, and taking the 
ktn. Egbert secretly rejoiced 
rabio opportunity of breaking 
irltk Ike Sesoa prince*. Tke 
ag Invaded kit aewly conquer- 
i in Dfcfonfurt and Cornwall, 
again* tkesn, and totally de- 
e&ek force:, la tke mean time 
ranted with a fepcrior force 
art of Egbert*! kingdom, but 
ens Bgbcrt soon tame to the 

kift Abjecto, and though in* 
saver, unlace 1 a complete victory 
rcinatp tke awft powerful peo- 
entarcky. 

lorn of Kent being tributary to 
i» Egbert, feat kit Ion Ethel- 
acad of a deteckment from hie 
my to excite a tuvolt t on the. 
hie troopt v Baldred, the vaflal 
a the throne by Bcornulf, fled, 
t£U readily fobmhted to Eg- 

The South and Eaft Saxona 
few yaafi after, and tke Eaft 
wato likewifc vaflali to the 
voiced, upon whick Bcornulf 
ttuft tbesn, and was flain in 
aTaaanatedf in tke year Xa> 

focceflbr, the ugh an expert- 
l f wu unable to repel the fu- 
el Egbert, wko continued af- 
Eaft Angle*, and being driven 

to province by the Concue- 
skefcer in tat Abbey of.Cro) - 
ft Egbert in peaceable poflef* 
rfa, in la 5. Nor'numbe/land 

1 oary country unfubdued, and 
U making preparations to in* 
Ircd the fovcicign. (enable of 
weakness, bit country having 

to civil war, voluntarily fur- 
9 Egbert, on condition that he 
r tke fliadow of royalty, at hit 
tie. Tkua oadad the Heptar- 
1 tfci year 0*9- Egbert held a 



»J 



general council at Wlnchcrref, ceaJUtiag of 
tke principal nobility, clergy, and laity from 
all parta of South Britain, when it wee 
unanimoufly reXblved to crown Egbert fole 
monarch of all tke coontriei on this fide 
the Tweed, by the title of Xing of Eng- 
land, and he wai crowned accordingly with 
great folemnity. From thil period there- 
fore it will be proper to diftingvtsa all pub* 
lick tranfa&ioni footh of the Tweed, by 
the tide of the hiftory of England, till the 
union between Scotland and England, when 
the united countriei took the name of 
Grcat-Britiln* 

But the founder of the Engliih monarchy 
war not fo fuccefifol again* tke Danee aa 
he kid been againft his domeftick oppo- ' 
nentt. Elated by conqoeft, he defpifed 
thcie powerful foei, who landed at Char- 
mouth in Dorfetthire, and marched into the 
heart of that county without oppofition, 
plundering and laying wane with fire and 
fword ai they advanced. Egbert wai fo 
firmly pet fuaded that they would retire at 
hit approach, that he invited hii bifliopa 
and feme of hit principal noblei to accom- 
pany him, in order to take the diversion 
of hunting the Danes down to the fea 
Aorc: bot he found hii mi (lake, for the 
Danet gave him battle, and gained a com- 
plete victory ; the king only efcaping 
through the darknefi of the night; while 
four prelatei and two Ear It *ere fiain ; 
thii event happened in S3*. In 835, the 
Dane* landed ag*in in Cornwall, being fe- 
cretly invited over by the Welch, bot Eg- 
bert, taught by experience, had kept up a 
well difciplined army, expecting a fecond 
vifit, and upon receiving intelligence of 
their arrival, he immediately put fcimfrif 
at the head of hii troops, marched againft 
them, before they had time to take an ad- 
vantageous port, and obtained fo flgnal a 
viclory, that England wia delivered from 
thefe favage invaders, during the fhort re- 
mainder of hii reign. This great r rince 
died in the year 838, and wai fuccoeded by 
his eldeft ion Ethel wolf, a prince of an in- 
dolent difpofition, and fitter for a iloifter, 
in which he had been educated, than fur a 
throne. The Danes taking advantage o£ 
his weaknefa landed in great force, and 
committed dreadful ravages in different 
parts of the kingdom year after year* 
Ethel wolf waj likdwife f<> foolifh as to 
adopt the plan that b* ought on the ruin 
of the French empire; for he gave up part 
of his dominions to his natural (on Athel- 
ftan, with the title of King of Kent: he 
ii fuppofed to have loft his life in a battle 
againti the Danes about the year 852, when 
he attacked them in Surrey, and defeated 
th:m, but no mention is made of him af- 
terwards in hiftory. Ethel wolf died in 
857, after an inglorious re gn of twenty 

veait, 



>o4 



ON. MODERN HISTORY. 



the Danea, he imported the ft 
difguife to that nobleman, invite 
conference, and informed him c 
gerous enrerprife he had resolve 
take, which was to vifit the Dani 
diiguife, that he might learn the 
of their discipline, the number o 
cei, and the probability or impi 
attacking them with fuccefs. A 
character and habit of a minftrel 
their camp with fecority, imafi 
ceived them, examined every pan 
witnefs of their neglect of dift 



years, In which the interefls of hit country 
were fieri fie ed to bigottcd devotion* 

Three of hit font, in the order of fuc- 
ceiTton, reigned after him, in a manner 
equally inglorioui, from 857 to 871 > little 
more than their names deferve notice. 
Ethelbald, thecldeft, reigned to 860. Ethcl- 
bcrt, the fecond fon, till 866; and Ethel* 
red 1. the third fon, till 871, when Alfred 
the Great, the fourth and youngeft fon 
afcended the throne. All thefe brothers 
fucccedcd their father, by virtue of his will, 
which had fettled the iucceffion in this 

manner, to the exclufion of the fons of blindnefi, formed the plan of an 
any of (hem. withdrew to carry it into extent 

Alfred of immortal memory was only in after he gave notice of his retreat 
the twenty- fecond year of his age, when chofen fubjeQt who thought 
the throne devolved to him by the death of after they had vifitcd him, the jo 
his brother who died of the wounds he re- were nude publick, and multiti 
ceived in a battle again ft the Danes, who to his ftandard ; a general rendeai 
remained m« ft era of the field. No prince forces was fixed fur a certain day 
had ever greater difficulties to ftruggle with in the fore ft of St 1 wood in WillA 
at his acceffion. The nation was almoft ex- that day he marched with his fo 
hauftvd, great part of the country laid wafte folute army to attack the Dim 
by the Danes, and the people in general fo encamped at Yattendrn on the 
di [heartened and worn out by being conti- Hampshire, and coming upon tl 
nuulJy in arms again ft thofe lawlefa inva- 
ders, that they feerned difpofed to fubmit 
to flavery on any tolerable conditions, ra- 
ther than to make any extraordinary ef- 
forts for freedom. Yet, notwithstanding 
«U thefe unfavourable appearances, Alfred, 

difdaining inglorious eafe, and fecurc of the tic in Northumberland and East 
affections of his fubjects, refolved to exert condition, that they mould cmb 
the natural ftrength of the iflandagainft the 
common enemy. 

In little mure than a month, he took the 
field with a powerful army, but interior to 
the Dunes, and though he gained feveral 
victories, and entered into treaties with 
them to leave the country } yet no terms 
could be kept with them, for they broke 
through treaties as often ai they h*a an op. 
portunity of making an attack by furprife, 
and new fwarms coming over to re- in force 
their countrymen, his troops were difcou- 
rjped and abandoned him; he was therefore 
obliged ro difguife h:mfcif like a peafanr, 
and to live in obf* ur ty for fume months, 
in (he 04. age of a Airshed ; a-ier which 
he lortiri d himself in a morals in the Ifland 
of A'helney in Somcrfctfhire. At length, 
nw'.v ng intelligence that O.Jun Earl of Dt- 
vciift.i: u had gained fome advantages over 



prife in the midft of a feftival, u 
which they had intoxicated the 
gained a complete victory. 

He now formed a 010ft politic 
convert the remainder into iui 
which view he gave them perm; 



tianity. Cuiheien, the furvivifl 
his principal officers readily ftcce 
fer and were baptiied, the comi 
followed their example, and i 
arr.ity was CJncluded in the yea 
theren and the remains of his ■ 
quietly into Northumberland t 
alter tni> event. 

This mild pulley, fays the A 
feemed the beft chat could be put 
circumuances. The favage ma 
pirates mi t ht be fattened by the 
jgriculture and the influence < 
tVy might become the dcl'endei 
were they had fixed a fcttlcment, 
naturally love and refpeel a beo 
narcb, who hid m-de them lenl 
valour anJ his retourcei, 

(To bg ttnt'wui in mr m 



10$ 

THE CLOTHES-PRESS. 

AN AFFECTING STORY. 

+ Letter Jr*k * Lad? m her fravetsy to her Friend In London.) 
6#WA» Brnfek, Feb. ao, 1780. 

triage aae lately tfetn cele* tion to the proof, and being convinced 

iadifttUs neighbourhood with of her fidelity and prudence, I at laft 

pomp and Ceremony filited to placed mv entire confidence in her, and 

*f off the family* and the fin- confultea her on my jieareft and dear- 

ftnasftances that preceded it. eft concerns. Her good difpofition in- 

f had beta for fix years the fpircd her with fitch gratitude in re- 

t - Wai tin g-maid to the Conntefs turn, that I was quite charmed with 

' de J l ■■ $ who has no other her conduct. 
bat an only fon, whom to oar My fon having finiflied his ftudies, 

Ee, ike nas jtift married td but being ftill a minor, lived at home 

omtn. The countefs is a with me, till he mould be of age to 

at firft r epu tati on in Flanders, take pofleifion of his eftate. I was not 

•lid uadei (landing, prudence, at all furprifed to obferve, that he 

■ ■ w e nt 1 aad Jh* is likewife looked upon my woman as a perfon 

I far farmottnting all idle pre- whofe condition made her beneath his 

af which this marriage is a notice. I even remarked that he could 

Having the honour to not hear the commendations of this 



life ia the •family of a near re- charming girl, without appearing to 

9 whom (he communicated the be difgufted 3 and he often oppofed the 

this -affair, I (hall endeavour opinions of thoie who did jufttce to 

it yon in the words of this hot merit, taking care, however, not 

MMfHefs* from- a letter me fcrtt to deviate from the refpecl: due to me. 

ttris accafion* from whidh I Without penetrating further into the 

a) permitted to make the ne- rfaufe of thefe emotions, I attributed 

tttacU. them folely to jealoufy, on feeing the 

\t now fix years fince I took girl fo highly carefTed and beloved by 

ly Leonora into my for vice. me. Every mark of efteem I bellowed 

hef this name, btcaufe I am on her, in my eves feemed to alarm 

!>orty to mention her parental the fufpicions of my fon. I own it 

fee was ban* a gentlewoman; gave me fome concern; but I flattered 

fleft an orphan, at a tender myfelf that this envious difpofition 

wkaott fortune, I deter- -would wear off as he grew older, and 

tot of regard to the father and that the little portion I propofcd to 

With whom I was well ac- -give her at my death, would clear up 
9 to take care of ber educa- his doubts. I therefore reiblvcd to a»k 
kCCJMdiagly I brought her up his opinion concerning the difpofition 
Id the date of life tor which I I had made her in my will ; but while 
her; and I refolved, if (he an- I entertained this idea, I was luddeniy 
my expe&ations, to leave her alarmed by the melancholy, mufing 
: at my death, to enable her to temper to which Leonora abandoned 
ependent of the world. You heritlf: all her vivacity, her afliduitv, 
aland I took care to inftil into and her unwearied attention to pleale 
ler mind, the ftrideft notions me, gave \\.\y to indolence and dejee- 
e and honour, and I had the tion. This alteration gave me great 
"a to find that her inclinations pain, and (he continued in this iitiu- 
aded with my inftruclions. She tion all laft year, when at length I de- 
ter the levity nor diftraclion, termincd to difcover the cauVc of it. 

to young perfoos of her age, The folitude in which me lived, ap- 

Id I difcover the leaft tincture pearcd to me conformable to her tufte ; 

nal vanity. I admired her I was not at all furprifed at her avoid- 

and (he aioae feemed ignorant in£ company j but it puzzled me tx- 

larms. I often put her difcre- c.Hivdiy to find, that (he now ihunr.cd 

'. Ma^i March 1779, O me 



io6 



THE CLOTHES-PRESS. 



me as much at poflible, and always re- 
tired to her chamber, the moment flie 
had performed the ufual functions of 
her place. It was told me, that (he 
always carefully took the key out of 
the door, and fliut herfelf in. I ral- 
lied her upon this in a friendly man- 
ner, and (he anfwered me with her 
ufual mildncfs, that the only did it to 
read, without interruption, the books 
I had lent her. I (till did not fufpeft 
any mydeiy in this behaviour, but 
without being able to account for the 
motive of my cuiioftty, I determined 
to watch her every time (he retired to 
her chamber. A favourable opportu- 
nity at laft prefented itfelf, about eight 
days fince : (he not only left the key in. 
the door, but it ftood a little open. 
Upon this I concealed myftlf, where I 
could unobferved difcover what (he was 
going to do: (lie had not left me two 
minutes, when I faw her run with great 
precipitation to a cUtbes-prefs, from 
which (he took out one of the prettied 
children I ever beheld, and gave it the 
bread, without its making the leaft at- 
tempt to cry— the neatneis of the drefs 
of this little innocent— the Angularity 
of a circumftance of this nature, and 
the ideas which crowded into my mind, 
threw me into fuch a condensation, 
that I am amazed to think I had the 
ftrength to enter the chamber. Nothing 
but the ftrong attachment I had to the 
girl could have conquered the indigna- 
tion that poflefled me. The indant (he 
faw me, (he fainted at my feet, and 
di farmed my rage. I fpared no pains 
to recover her fer.fes j at length (he 
opened her fine eyes, only to died tor- 
rents of tears, while (he embraced my 
feet, and her confufion ftifled her 
words. Her fituation was truly af- 
fecting, didreis heightened her beauty, 
and I am not a (named to fay, her at- 
titude foftened the bittcrr.efs of the re- 
proaches I propofed to make her. Yet 
itill in v:t notion I entertained that (he 
had dili. ^.oured luidlf by fomc low 
intrigue, I did not ipare her, liist con- 
cluded wi.h afiuring h-.r, that 1 would 
do every thing in my power to repair 
Iki reputation, if uVj would confefs 
which of my pc« p!c it was to whom 
(lit: \\\l\ abandoned herfeli : on this her 
tears icdo'iblcd. A fuddrn emotion 
took polIL-lFicn of my lcul, and I em- 
braced the child, without knowing 
v h}-, when the mother uking courage 



by this inftance of my fend 
out, It is all over, madam] 
confefs the whole.— The 
flows in the veins of my de 
noble to be difowned. It 
fruit of a bafe connexion 
own blood, madam, anc 
your fon, is its father. B 
what manner?— —For m 
months he made ufe of en 
duce me, but neither oatl 
nor even pronaifes of mat 
prevail, when having furpj 
day in a profound deep, 
plifhed by violence, what 1 
to his follicitations, I can 
to you my defpair j but i 
that I made the count fwa 
the honour of a gentlem 
would never make any fori 
on my virtue. He hat ke 
I mutt do him that juftice 
never ceafed his importuni 
which I could find no t 
threatening to inform you > 
viour. 

Would you believe it, i 
conduct changed the exec 
had fworn to me, into exti 
and I only difcovered die 
his fentiments when I pi 
late, that my difliononr we 



pleted by a living 
could I do! refolved at i 
conceal my fituation— I pr 
thing for my lying-jn, at 
with what care I always i 
when you feemed to look ; 
tively : in fine, I determhi 
my life rather than acpol 
tion. Happily every tail 
to my wi flies j my fon was 
middle of the night % I dn 
accudomed it to this cbtk 
heaven has favoured me fi 
never hat cried loud en 
heard fince its birth % at t 
he is ignorant of the coi 
his ramnefs. I had not th 
hear more (continued tbi 
but having drawn from h 
(ion that die had an indin 
fon, which (he only ftifli 
confideration of the differ 
dations, I enjoined her 
own i'ecrer, and I refolved 
to which I have juft put 
hand. One day, as I wai 
en the proper meafnres 1 
my lbu cutered the room 



AN AFFECTING STOHY. 



ley 



Jhtisfaaioo, and after 
an with his ufual refpeel, he 
that he had juft made an ac- 
ctwhhamoft agreeable lady, 
he did not doubt but her re- 
■avid readily confent'to hit 
; her, if it was agreeable to 
named this proposal with a 
ale, and deferring my anfwer 
roppoctunity, I left the apart - 
id went to vifit Leonora} to 
save ordert to conceal herfeJf 
set of my drefling-room, with 
.t aa Joon at dinner was over, 
she count to retire with me 
artsnent, and I pre ftrift or- 
-an one mould interrupt us. 
sjcaatioae thonder-ftruck our 
b who obeyed without henta- 
oacned the convcrfation by 
a several queftiont concerning 
and fortune of the lady he 
to marry, and the date of his 
Beviap anfwered me on tbefe 
laid him I was very well fa* 
at dafired to know if this was 
iclinatien he had entertained 
■ar-fta* At this queftion he 
greatly confided, and on my 
home, he confeued he had 
1 an idle paffion for a voung 



' — — — - - ■ — — - — * — - — 
re highly condemned it. To 
ied, by enquiring if the young 
a bale born, without fortune, 
ilia of merit. No, madam, 
sa, hex merit is far above her 
LJbcr virtue guite confounded 
sing but that could have 
the moft violent love, into 

BOB* 

ay ion, refumed I, does the 
a Young girl induce you to 
Are thefe the fruits of the 
I have given you 1 Where 
itiments of integrity and ho- 
tve taken fo much pains to 
1 Am I to coniider you as 
Gmtative of your honoured 
bjla you entertain thefe fenti- 
Bac let us proceed a little far- 
adaft on a relatipn of all the 
iceaattendingyour firft amour, 
ae peremptory, he with much 
t corroborated Leonora's ac- 
tfcie fecret trania&ion, adding 
aanftancee which her delicacy 
nkd, and in particolar, that 
iacd admittance to her cham- 



ber by means of a falfe key*' After 
having made me this ample confeiRon, 
of his crime, he added, that his un- 
happy paflion had not been attended 
with any bad confequences to the ob- 

I'ecl of it, and therefore he thought 
limfelf at full liberty to purfue his 
new inclinations, requiring only my 
confent to complete his happinefs. 

I continued the conversation, by af- 
furing him, that his happinefs was the 
fame as my own } but that, in order to 
make it permanent, it was neceflary to 
lay the- foundation in virtue and ho* 
nour. Do you owe nothing, faid I, 
to the injured beauty on whom you 
committed a violence, which the moft 
abandoned of men rauft reflect on with 
horror ! Are you Aire that no confe* 
quences have attended your indifcreet 
raihnefs ? Have you ever informed 
yourfelf how this matter (lands ? If, 
after your marriage with the lady you 
propofe to me, you (hould difcover 
your error, will you not become a prey 
to the moll cruel remorfo? I had 
fcarce uttered thefe words, when I 
made a private fignal for Leonora to 
enter with the child } and prefenting it 
to him— 'behold, fir, faid I, the preJent 
_ I (hall make to your new miftrefs. 
tout a year fince, which he' Surprifed and confounded, my fon 
r I had not discovered, for I could not fupport this unexpected 

ftroke, but fellfenfelefs to the ground, 
while the poor Leonora, whofe tender- 
nefs could no longer be reftrained, lew 
to his afliftance, and conjured me to 
fpare my fon all further reproaches ; 
at the fame time deuiing my permiffion 
to leave my houfe, and to retire to 
fome diftant province, where (he would 
fupport her child by her own induftry. 
But as (he was on the point of leaving 
the room, the count came to himlcU, 
and was a convert to the united in- 
fluence of love and virtue. I was hard- 
ly under the neceflity of explaining to 
him my lenbments, fo readily did he 
concur with my defign j and by con- 
forming to marry Leonora, he took the 
only effectual way to repair an affront, 
which, as I told him, if any other man 
had committed, by violating the honour 
of a girl (o dear to me, I mould have 
callcdupqn him to have avenged. 

I Vnow you will coniider many parts 
of this hiftory as wearing the air of 
a romance $ but this wjlj not take from 
it the authenticity of a well known 
fa£t. Youx tadwallarfers, and fome 
O a of 






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V . VV *'*#•» • -t */•• :W-'<i'. • *-*>» 
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&•-'**. A •+ W 1i?k *** •*, *% K^- 
fl *f '■■•«•» *• w v»f- '•"♦, >"^ *& 

• «•-,;/ 4',*W f«f # kt Wit »**i *-*£*T 
■fir. #••',•,, ff'^m ■*«*//» Wliu^.f*'^: Vi'/fat 

\u** > «vAf ?*in ^f.'l itdt'.'jl'^j* in itt 

• x/i-iitt i/i*rf ♦<•♦*, -<ii'l ';ffn tKrrriblt 
fei,*l »U»m»4»J», l^f u« it'/f bt uudtr- 
U*0if\, m **itti*wtf t many of fhe Mc- 

|lU% ill' llMfHtlll IwJlf Ift /«|KlMr of, 10 

iMi'Wifin iIj'ik mII i lit* y at r a, mothy 
t,,,w>\ iA unfiitfftaiiiiftl iurttit, whicn 
»vny mrni, who would know to p.o- 
¥• in, HMiM f jj ft know how to diflin- 

liiiiiM ii« mriily iuiiir-.il, nml f to the 
Imiifitii nl Hiii* nuiiiip Im it nit(|r<| f ili at 
•lii-lii tfi» nil ill ih« in |u(l, Inwful, and 
ImiiI in inn |(iiihI, Wn ice rvcry part 

• •I ili»> iiiiiiMii-il < i*n ( ion, fhiirrm of 
tlit-ii nil wilt, miiiimoirul I'ltator'* 
fiiiKiiitil liiMiiny t poflrflril of ihrm at 
«%•.•)! m mnltlvr* | wp know by thi« 
fmr Mil, thtf iliry iic ini|il«iitr«l in 
li« hv fur Miik#r, Nml mo not the off- 



r« at. 



i i>-4r-ffa 




it nl 



•ju.ir - « : ^-«« * Jrir^&^t is. rr 

fa- rarwrS m»vt -orf i.rf ■» ■. : :r ''in 
•n ■ -. •-« -ji^.i /»•?!!. ttii X3ri^2.ir jss* 
/"■■ *- 'I'm* it.*^ -''. je l m»b *» t*.. 
»•- vi^> »r» -w\- m tjcK v*& T>atzy bw 
v\ »-tsc fcraw vir ^ensi :ibct 

;r. .- i affiles 5 rMe ar 
boo-/i: f wi«b©-j # misB, 
fcj**i C'afvfon. 

fcr*ry m»r. wb 
Wftrmrhf fwuifit of 
allofcd, it bapp^-y ««. ,„ »^w.^ b , 
rrery man who givct hbnitlt up to 
fh« tyranny of the pafioni himfclf has 
t*iftt\ t \: poor in the midft of plenty 
ari'i mifcrahle in f he mM# of the means 
of rale. The want* of nature are fup- 
pltV'l with eafe ; it is thofe we make 
ourfeltet that give alj the trouble we 
are at to attain happinef* j it is thefe 
for which a man muft labour; the 
means of gratifying thefe he muft feek 
for by Tea and land, in war and mur- 
fher j for thefe it is that he betrays 
himlclf and others, and vfes means; 
that, were they known, mutt make him 
for ever infamous and wretched. 

It is in this fenfe that Coneupifeenee 
Is iuftly faid to be the root of every 
evil 1 the moft equitable event that at- 
tends it, is what we fee in the fre- 
nuent in fiances of thofe, who, while 
tney leek to glut themfelvet with an 

abun- 



fcis 

nature hasj 



sstf A* on TBfi Passions. tog 



i of the goods of fortune, 
nifee thorns of nature. A 
not fte that whilr he is find- 
out of feeding his appetites 
Btmoft delicacies, thole very 
ire loft $ nor is there one man 
afiuid, who, in the circum- 
F Biogenet, when Alexander 
im pieferments and honours, 
nre remembered that he kept 
fun -thine. 

neat aggravator of our defn es 
Hnfive phrntom hope 5 a falfe 
on gives them birth, a falfe 
m of events that cannot, or 
eaft in all probability will not, 
aifes and enflaines the kindled 
l to a ftate over which our 
iaibn knows no command, no 
nrernment. We lofc the very 
bc earth beneath our feet, and 
i imagination on the unfuf- 
louds, dream waking of fuch 
» only dreams can mow us. 
e farce lafts, the rubjecl never 
long as our hopes endure, 
fays bafelefs fahrick, fo long 
►firej alfo live with them, and 
i with wants more heavily la- 
though ideal, than all the real 
nature, for wife ends, entails 

d fancy knows no medium ; 
votaries ride in air, or they 
eath the bottom of the lea. 
fooncr, when its whole game 
leaves the man who thus hud 
it, than the profpcA changes, 
ikes its turn to reign, remorle 
air deftroy the very ends of 
uid while he indulges the tor- 
ejj, in the opinion that he (hall 
Dels what be defires j he lofes 
mfurc which nature gave him 
k Hope mounts on wings too 
r thought or confideiation j 
I flower paced, it (lays to ru- 
ff every accident, and takes in 
ngravating circumftancej and 
of a man's felf the nunifliment 
wn folly; it robs him of the 
rjimpfe of reafon, and, in its 
ack, turns him into the tefty 
ho, when he has loft one play- 
tirows all the reft into the fire. 
soft deftructlve ^aflBcms of our 
fcve all their rife from the fame 
a vitiated' imagination : that 
s, which, by way of pre-emi- 
Kirthcramnof the world to 



call fajfhn, is evivently of this origin, 
and owes to this every ill effeft that it 

Sroduces. Reafon has no longer a. 
nre in the government of the paftion- 
ate man, when the moft trivial objeft 
offers it felf to his fury; we arc wholly 
put out of ourfelves the moment we 
admit it, and, by fee king the means to 
revenge a trivial mifcluef, we draw" 
upon uurfelres others of the moft heavy 
kind, as loon as wc give up to it. 

The infinite force of this mafter 
paifion is eafily fecr. in its effeft ; it 
abforbs things great, magnificent, and 
magnanimous, not concjiving this in- 
difputable truth, that the principal mo- 
tive to it, the great original caufc of 
it, is weaknefs and poverty of fpirit. 
Who are of ail others the moft paf- 
lionate ? Women, children, dec rep id 
old men, and people in lick beds r Is 
it a greatiiefs, or a lownefs of fpirit, 
that adminifters to it in thefe in- 
ftances r 

Nature has been better to us than we 
arc awn re, even in the difpofal of our 
moft mifchicvous pafiions : wc fee Ihe 
has given this moft fatal one in its ef- • 
fcfts, into the hands of thole who can 
do the leaft hann with it. 

The man deceives himfelf, who thinks 
there is courage where puffion is re- 
prcHcd, or turned out of its courfe, by 
any trivial accident. Violent emo- 
tions of this kiiid arc like the efforts of 
old men and irfaurs, who run when 
they Ihould only walk, and arc fure 
of nothing but to ftumble. 

Every thing that ftirs up the fifty 
of this paflion, where there arc the 
feeds of it j nor is there any turn of 
mind that does not adminifter a thou- 
fand occalions to it. 

The lofs of a farthing, or even the 
omiffion of gaining fuch a fum, will 
throw the covetous potfe/Tor of a mil- 
lion into all the tranfports of this 
childifh fury: the moft unmeaning 
glance of a wife's eye towards a male 
object, fetb all the blood on fire in the 
jealous huiband j and an inordinate 
felf- love gives occnfion to the utmoft 
heigh ths of palTion on every trivial dif- 
refpeft. 

The love of trifles is another grand 
fource of paflion 5 the min who grows 
fond of his dog, introduces him to his 
bed, his table, and his company ; he 
defpifes the wifeft man of his acquain- 
tance, who does not ice all the beau- 

tics 



ttt 



ESSAY ON THE PASSIONS.' 



tics and good qualities he does in him ; 
and could venture his own neck, by 
/tabbing his brother, if he chanced to 
tread upon the toe of his favourite. 

Curiofity alio has proved, to many 
an hone it man, a very fatal origin of 
this paffion : the love of afking ques- 
tions hurries him on to what he has no 
concern in ; the lcaftevafion in the an- 
fwer throws him into a rage ; and, if 
any body has friendship enough for 
him, to put him in mind thht he is im- 
pertinent, his blood alone can make 
atonement for the imaginary indignity. 

Where one pcrfon however lias fal- 
len into this vice from any of theic mo- 
tives, athoufand have been vi Aims to it 
from another mifchievous folly, creduli- 
ty \ an ovcr-readinels of believing every 
thing that comes to our ears, is the 
fourcc of infinite mi/lakes and difordcr. 
Every incident worth hearing is brought 
to us, not in its true and naked (late, 
but adorned or vitiated by the fancv or 
the paftions of the perfon who delivers 
it. There is fcarce any accident which 
a cunning pcrfon cannot relate, fo as 
to turn it to his own advantage ; nor 
any thing in which two people are 
concerned, that is not told at ltaft two 
ways, which are as oupofite as light 
and darknefs. Which ever fide the 
ilory firft chances to preient itfelf on 
to the credulous man, it has his alfcnt, 
in gratitude for the news; and after 
Jie has eftablifhed it to himfelf in this 
light, jt mud remain juft luch forever 
with him ; obftinacy will make it al- 
ways retain its place in his judgement, 
and he will quarrel with all the world 
for cen luring that judgement. 

Thefe are the lources of this un- 
lucky, this moft troublefome paffion, 
both to its pofleflbr and to the world j 
and thefe we fee are all founded on our 
vices or our follies. A vitiated ima- 
gination is the proximate caufe, and 
he who is wife enough to wi(h to avoid 
it, if he have not philofophy enough 
to attempt it radically, by improving 
and regulating the imagination, may 
always keep out of fc rapes, by avoid- 
ing thefe its occafional caufes. 

One would think every perfon of 
fenfe would avoid it, were it only from 
the ill light it lets a man in. It was 
judicioufly obfrrved of Seneca, that he 
did not know whether it were a more 
deteftuhle, or deformed paffion . What 
v/e'jid one thick of a man whom one 



fees in all the deplorable fyn 
the heavieft of difeafes, the mi 
madnefs, with the face red 
formed, the eyes fiery, and fb 
it were, out of the head, the Jc 
and furious, the ear deaf, tli 
foaming, the heart panting, 
difordcred, the veins fweficd 
tongue ftammering, the teeth 
together, the voice loud an 
the fpcech inarticulate, and t 
body thrown into all the di. 
the moft raging fever, beatii 
every cne in his way, and 
murther the friend who woulc 
his doing what he ought to ft 
the thought of having intendc 

Paffion, when carried to t 
Icnce, has fomctimes done j 
itfelf i the raging madman hi 
vedel, and peri (Led in a few n 
or flopped fome of the neceflai 
functions, and died a raartyj 
more leifure. 

If we fhuddcr at the ravage' 
makes in the body, what muft 
gine is the irate of that nobler 
loul, in the fame inftant? Pi 
the firft ftroke, drives off re 
judgement, iubftituting itfelf 
their place; it is no foonei 
where they fhould reign, ths 
nets, fire, and finoke, extern 
fclves on every fide, and nti 
only prol'pecl. Man, in the 1 
paffion, is a mere machine, an 
a very forry one. 

If the apparatus and mere 
paffion are thus odious and d\ 
there yet remains foraewhat i 
more horrible in the effects of i 
fir ft aft of paffion throws us < 
tice, and we always find that 
flamed, and rendered infinite 
violent by a juft oppofitio*, 
the confcioulhefs a man has 
little reafon he has to be angry, 
a man has made the firft fafie 1 
given way to paffion upon aj 
occafion, the friendly office c* 
him rcafons why he mould not 
gry, incenfes him on a doubl 
and he becomes as angry at tt 
innocence, as he was before at 
fancy he had taken offence at. 

It is a lamentable confident! 
even virtue itfelf cannot prefer*) 
from the very worft effects of I 
fion on him. Pifo, a man * 
been long revered for many 



f - 



ESSAY ON THE PASSIONS. 



xrf 



t perioB to death 
no to Bun to deferve it } 
of the nobleft of bit co- 
enquiring farther into cir- 
ftmnd the man innocent, 
& him. Pifo*s virtue, on 
afion, would have figna- 
r its aflent j bat here the 



in got the better of the 
bftinacy in his own opi- 
engeance for their having 
judgement, in reverfing 
transported him to that 
• t that he found meant to 
! accnlcd falfely, and faw 

d, though he knew them 
xent, but actually fuffer- 
ofe of virtue. 

i fo difficult as to know 
with people in a paflion; 
I direction, that when one 
s other mould be cool ; 
s conduct it not without 
tencies, and thofe fome- 
: moft mifchievous kind, 
a frfw** 9 * man is worfc, 

e, than the moft favage 
waged brute , fince it is 
loved either by defence or pentance. 
, by filenceor by patience, 



but finds new means of rage in every 
thing that is meant to afluage it • 

The injuftice of this paflion is evi- 
dent, in that it will always be both 
judge and party, and in that it requires 
all the world to take part with it, and 
becomes the mortal enemy of every 
one whofe rcafon bids him think dif- 
ferently from its di&atcs ; and its ab- 
lblute blindnefs to all fenfe appears 
glaringly, in the total neglect of 
its own interefts. It hurries the man 
ponefleJ by it into every mifchief that 
he would ftiun in his cooler moments, 
nay, into that very ftatt which he 
would with for, as the punishment of 
the objeft of its fur}'. It often de- 
ftioys itfelf, while it is fatal to its ene- 
my; and we every day fee inftances in 
which it purfues the deltru&ion of the 
perfon who has raifed it. 

A rational creature ought to avoid 
every thing that he will be forry for 
polfeffmg, and therefore of all other 
things, to avoid paflion ; fince nothing 
was ever a more -folemn truth, than 
that apothegm of Pythagoras, that 
the end of pajjion is the beginning ofrc- 



)R THE LONDON MAGAZINE. 
TO THE EDITOR. 



appointed by government 
4th of February laft, and 
t devotion obierved only 
hat -given rile to the fol- 
ding reflexions, 
r of no fmail concern to 

and religious few, to fee 
aon for rafting and prayer 
gofpeMight, and liberty, 
reat-Britain, favoured by 
unnumbered privileges, 
• fink into the lowed ftate 
eft for her abufe of them, 
s 1 wilt it avail fuch a vi- 
rate people as we are, to 
', ana pray that deferved 
nay not fall upon us, 
»ver no genuine marks of 
anceand a general refor- 
xd there is too much rea- 
tat fafts in the prefent day 
ie farces of, and that re- 
ft fubjeCl too method iftical 
w the genteel, fajhionable 



and polite part of the world to attend 
to or regard. 

How great the pity, that all who 
bear the Chriflian name, are not more 
zealous to deferve the appellation, and 
to adorn and recommend it by their 
pra&ice. 

As a nation, drenched (if I may fo 
fay) in iniquity, lenfuality and uifli- 
pation, as England now is, what el fe 
can we juftly expect at the hands of a 
fin-avenging God but diftiuction, and 
that i'peedily, except (like Nineveh) 
we mourn for and utterly for fake our 
evil courfes without delay : our fall- 
ings and prayers will be of no avail, 
if they are not followed by a returning 
to the Lord as univctfally, as we have 
revolted from him ; would to God, 
that king, prielts, and people may all 
join, as one man, heartily to counte- 
nance *utrt:(c, difcourape *vice 9 and 
promote as much as poliible the caufe 
and inu-itrft of I'/'/tf/godlincis through- 
out 



*ia FEMALE BftlTJtSH HgfcQjSM M&ck 



out the British realms, that peace may 
once more be within our wails ai plen- 
teoufhefs is within our palace s * 



On SOLITUDE ^RETIREMENT. 

Retire, and read thy Bible to be g»y, 
"There truths abound of fovereign aid to 
peace. Dr. Young. 

HOWEVER the good man may be 
obliged by the cares of bufinefs 
mud concerns of trade, to dwell in the 
inidft of the noifc and nonfenfe of the 
■uetropoUs, and to be feduloufly em- 
ployed from day to day in the purluit 
of a decent competence for hbnielf and 
family, yet he cannot but frequently 
pant after a period of leifure and re* 
tiremtitt, when he may, undifturbed. 
and free from the cares of trade and 
)Bierch*ndifce» or at, the poet defcribes 



Free from the buttle, care, and ftrife. 
Of thit &ort variegated life, 

jmjoy. the calm and improving plea- 
lores of Solitude and Reflexion, at a 
diftance from the hurry and confuCoa 
of a bufy town, the intruiions of com- 



pany, and the $rifc of tongues }— . yet, 
metlunks I hear, the good man fay, 
though my bufinefs requires me to live 
among the ions of induftry and the 
daughters of dilfipation, though the 
greateft part of my^ time is fpent in 
the laborious avocations of an active, 
tradefman, or the narrow confines of 
a retail (hop, yet I muft confefs myfelf 
pleafed with the expectation, and 
amufed with the tranquil profpSct of 
ere long retiring from the tumultuous 
abodes of the fmoky and crouded town, 
into the peaceful dwelling of a country 
retreat ; where, Like the weather-beaten! 
mariner, who having long been tofted 
about by the ftonns and tempefts of a 
troubled ocean rejoices on his arrival 
at the wi(hed-for port; he may look 
back with plealure on the dangers, 
difficulties, and temptations he has 
efcaped from, and enjoy the unenvied 
plealures of a contemplative life ; while 
he anticipates the happinefs of the 
faints above, in admiring the works of 
Nature, Providence^ and Grace, fwaU 
lowed up, as it were, in wonder, love, 
and praife. 

Ths JRvral Christian* 



■pa^avap 



FEMALE BRITISH HEROISM AND CONJUGAL AFFECTION J 

EXEMPLIFIED, 

In the mmorable Hi/fory of the Sufferings of Lady Harriet Aciland,- the Wife of 
Major Ackland, an Officer ferving under General B u rgo y ut, 

(From the GeneraTs State of the Expedition from Canada.) 

BESIDES the continuation of diffi- 
culties and general fatigue, this 
day (October the 8th, 1777) was re- 
markable for a circumttance of private 
diftrefs too peculiar and affecting to 
be omitted. 

The circumftance to which I allude, 
is Lady Harriet Ackland's pnflage 
through the enemy's army to attend 
her wounded huiband, then their pri- 
foner. 

The progrefs of this lady with the 
•army could hardly be thought abrupt- 
ly or fuperfluoufly introduced, were it 
only for the purpofe of authenticating 
a wonderful iiory. It would exhibit, 
if well delineated, an interetting pic- 
ture of the fpirit, the enterprise, and 
the dinVfs of romance, realized and 
regulated upon the chatte and fobcr 



principles of rational love and connu- 
bial duty*. 

* But I beg leave to obferve befides, 
that it has direct reference to my fub- 
jeet, to ihow what the luxuries were, 
with which (as the world has been 
taught to believe) the army was en- 
cumbered; what were the accommo- 
dations prepared for the two thoufand 
women that are gravely fuppofed, in 
the crofs examination, to have follow- 
ed the baggage. Ail idea fo prepof- 
terous, as well as falfe, would have 
been a fitter fubject for derifion than 
refutation, but that it was maliciouily 
intended ; not, I am confident, by the 
member who aflced the mieitions, but 
by the perfons who impofed upon him, 
to effect by prejudice what they de- 
fpaircd of effecting fay fact, 
r ' Khali; 



fo far unconnected with 
riiate bufinefs I was upon 
the line of evidence upon ihe 
> Saratoga) as to give it in 
n. It may well ftand by it- 

I venture to think that this 
pie of patience, 1 offering, and 

will be permitted to pafs 
:enfure or obloquy, 
tdy bad accompanied her huf- 



AND. CONJUGAL LOVE EXEMPLIFIED. 1 13 

however, confider part of but not without the major being ft- 

vcrely burneu in his face. Everything 
they had in the tent with them w.i', 
con fumed. 

This accident happened a little time 
before the palling of the Huron's Ri- 
ver; it neither altered the relblution 
nor cheerful nefs of Lady Harriet j and 
me continued her progreis u partaker 
of the fatigues of the advanced euros* 
The next call upon her fortitude wa9 
Canada in the beginning of of a different nature and more diltrels- 
1776. In the courfe of that ful, as of longer lui pence. On the 
(he had traverfed a vaft fpace march of the 19th of September, the 
j in different extremities of grenadiers being liable to action every 
nd with difficulties that an minute, Ihe had been directed by the 
traveller will not eafily con- major to follow the rear of the artillery 
ittend in a poor hut at Cham- and baggage, which was not expo fed. 
hirfband, upon his fick bed. At the lime the aft ion began, (he found 
opening of the campaign of herlelf near a fmall uninhabited hut, 
retrained from offering where (he alighted. When it was 

found the action became general and 
bloody, the iurgeons of the hofpital 
took pofteifion of the fame place, as 
the molt convenient for the mil care of 
the wounded. 

Thus was this lady in hearing of 
one continued fire of cannon and mul- 
quctry for four hours together, with 
the prclumption, from the poft of her 
hulband, who was at the head of the 
grenadiers, that he was in the mole 
expofed part of the action. She had 
three female companions with her, the 
Baronefs of Keidefel, and the wives of 
two Britirti officers, Major Harnage 
and Lieutenant Kevntll. But in the 
event their prefence ferved but little 
for comfort. Major Uarnage was 
foon brought to the iurgeons vei'y bad- 
ly wounded 5 and a little time after, 
intelligence was brought that Lieute- 
nant Keynell was (hot dead. Imagi- 
nation will want no helps tc figure the 
ftate of the whole groupe. 

From the date of lh.it action to the 
7th of October, Lady Harriet with her 
ufual 1'crenity ticod prepaecl for new 
trials, and it was her lot that their 
feverity incicakd with their numbers. 
She was again expefed to the hearing 
the whole action, and at la It received 
the (hock of her individual misfortune, 
mixed with the infjhi^ence of the ge- 
neral calamity : the troops were cic- 
feated, and Major Acklsr.d, del'perate- 
ly wi'imdeJ, was a prilor.er. 

The diy of the 8th was parted by 
Lady Harriet and her omipuni .us* jn 
common anxiety 3 nut a ::nt or Jheil 

i* itilldi!l£ 



1 (hare the fatigue and hazard 
before Ticonderago, by the 
nj unctions of her hulband. 
. after the conqueft of that 
was badly wounded, and me 
be Lake Cbamplain, to join 

n as he recovered, Lady Har- 
eeded to follow his fortunes 
the campaign, and at Fort 
or at the next camp (lie ac- 
wo- wheel tumbril, which had 
ftractcd by the artificers of the 
(bmething fiinilar to the car- 
d for the mail upon the great 

England. Major Ackland 
led the Britifli Grenadiers, 
nc attached to General Fra- 
tt, and confequcntlv were aU 
r moft advanced part of the 
Their fit uat ions were often ib 
I no perfon flept out of their 

In one of thefe fituarions, a 
which the Major and Lady 
we a deep, fuddenly took Arc. 
fly ferjeant of the grenadiers, 
it hazard of fuffocation drag- 
toe fir ft perfon he caught hold 
roved to be the major. It 
that in the fame inltant, (he 
iknowing what (he did, and 
not perfectly awake, providen- 
ide her efcape, by creeping u n- 
walls of the back partM>f the 
iae firft object lhc law upon 
▼try of her fenfes, was the 
a the other fide, and in the 
bat again in the fire, in learch 

The ferjeant again laved him, 
». Mac, March 17 So. 



H4 



ANECDOTE OF KING WILLIAM III. March 



ftanding, except what belonged to the 
hofpital j their refuge was among the 
wounded and dying. When the army 
was upon the point of moving after 
the halt defcribed j I received a letter 
from Lady Harriet fubmitting to my 
decifion a propofal (and expre fling an 
earn eft folicitude to execute it,, if not 
interfering with my defigns) of paffing 
to the camp of the enemy, and re- 
queuing General Gates's permiilion to 
attend, her hufband. 

Though I was ready to believe (for 
I had experienced) that patience and 
fortitude in a fnpreme degree were to 
be found as well as every other virtue 
under the moft tender forms, I was 
aftoni/hed at this propofal. After fo 
long an agitation of the fpirits, ex- 
haufted not only for want of reft but 
absolutely for want of food, drenched 
in rains for twelve hours together, that 
a woman mould be capable of fuch an 
undertaking -as delivering berfelf to the 
enemy, probably in the night, and 
uncertain what band me might fall 
into firft, to me appeared an effort 
above human nature. The affiftance 
I could afford to give was (mall in- 
deed. I had not even a cup of win e- 
*b offer her $ but I was told ike had 
found from fame fortunate hand, a 
ISttle rum and fome dirty water. All 
I could furnifh her with was an open 
boat and a few lines written upon dir- 
ty and wet paper to General Gates, re- 
commending her to his protection. 

Mr. Brudeneil, the chaplain to the 
artillery, readily undertook to accom- 



pany her, and with one female Ser- 
vant and the major's valet de chambre, 
fhe rowed down the river to meet the 
enemy. But her diftreffes were not yet 
to end. The night was advanced be- 
fore the boat reached the enemy's out- 
pofts, and the centinel would not let 
it pafs, nor even come on more. In 
vain Mr. Brudeneil offered the flag of 
truce, and reprefented the (late of the 
extraordinary pafTenger. The guard, 
apprehenfive of treachery and puncti- 
lious to their orders, threatened to tire 
into the boat if it ftirred before day- 
light. Her anxiety and fufferings were 
thus protracted through feven or eight 
dark and cold hours j and her reflex- 
ions upon that firft reception could not 
give her very encouraging ideas of the 
treatment fhe was afterwards to expccl. 
But it is due to juftice at the dole of 
this adventure to fay, that me was re- 
ceived and accommodated by General 
Gates with all the humanity and re- 
flect that her rank, her merits, and her 
fortunes deferved. 

Let fuch as are affefted by thefe cir- 
cumftances of alarm, hardfhip, and 
danger, recollect that the fubjecfc of 
them was a woman, of the moft ten- 
der and delicate frame, of the gentleft 
manners, habituated to all the loft ele- 
gancies and refined en joy men is that 
attend high birth and fortune; and 
far advanced in a ftate in which the 
tender cares, always due to the fex, 
become indifpenfibly necefiary. Her 
mind alone was formed for fuch trials* 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZINE. 
SIR, 



OBSERVING in your Magazine 
for January lair, that the author 
of Marfhal Berwick's memoirs has 
added one more to the many calumnies 
htcly forged and published to diminifh 
the glorious character of our immortal 
deliverer King William III. by charg- 
ing him with the want of perfonal 
bravery, I requeft you will record the 
following anecdote, which appeared in 
print not long fince, as it not only 
merits prciervation, but exhibits un- 
queftion:ibIe evidence of King Wil- 
liam's valour. I am, Sir, 

Your humble fcrvant, 
Ctmhntfec, Mar, ?, A* Old Whig. 



THE captain of a refit 1 now in the 
river, lately from Stockholm, fays, 
that while he was in that city he was 
introduced to an Englishman, named 
Mortimer, who was in years of age: 
be enjoyed all his faculties, and could 
walk feveral -miles a day* He inform- 
ed the captain that he was born in 
London, that his father was one of 
the yeomen to Charles II.— -that he faw 
Lord Ruffe] fuflfer in Lincoln's- Inn- 
Fields } was preient at the trial of Col. 
Algernon Sydney ; and heard the in* 
famous Jrfferies fay, when the prifoner 
appeared, " there was little occaiion 
to call iu evidvnee, for that Sydney was 

pom 



SELECT MEMOIRS. 



aitor.** Mr. Mortimer wag 
M law, but preferring a mili- 
be joined the Duke of Mon- 
'ho gave him a com million, 
it at the battle of Sedgraore. 
e Duke's party were routed, 

I to London, and went from 
Holland, where he foon pro- 
mnmiflion, and was in that 

II he came over with the 
Orange, who foon after pro- 
■ to a company; he was 
monarch all the time he was 
d, and was within twenty 
iim when he was wounded by 

ball in the right moulder, 
keda. He fays the ball hav- 
;razed the bank of the river, 
rhyig flant upon the King's 
Ider, took out a piece of his 
the (kin and flefh, and broke 
of an officer's piftol. That 
lingfby came running up to 
i and clapped his handker- 
tkc wound 5 but his majcfty 

notice of it, and kept on his 
ng, " there was no neceflity 



u 5 



to drefs it at prefent ; the ball mould 
have come nearer." Mr. Mortimer 
was in all King William's wars, as 
well as along with the Duke of Marl* 
borough during the reign of Queen 
Anne, where he was made a Lieute- 
nant-Colonel. On her death, he was 
thinking of retiring, having made a 
con fide r able fortune, but was advifed 
by another officer to go into thePolilh 
icrvice ; they both did fo, and got re- 
giments, where, after flaying a few 
years, they left it for the Swedifh, in 
which he has ever fince lived, and has 
a handfome pennon from that govern- 
ment, betides an ample foi tune of hit 
own. He told the captain he left a 
brother in London, and that he has a 
natural ion now in the Pruflian ler* 
vice, to whom be has aifigned over all 
his fortune ; his fon, he laid, was fifty- 
four years of age, had a large family, 
and he was thinking of going to pa/ 
him a vifit, and perhaps remain there. 
•—He was very kind to the captain, 
and gave him a number of curious 
anecdotes. 



SELECT LIVES ^ND MEMOIRS. 

A1N1NG MEMOIRS OF THE LATE CELEBRATED LORD B ATHURST, 
THE GREAT FRIEND OF SWIFT AND POPE. 

rm tbtftCQud Volume of Blographia Britannica, jufl publijbfd.) 

N Bathurft, Earl Bathurft, a ledge which were calculated to make 
leman of ditto nguifhed abili- him appear wjth great advantage in 
tc prefent century, was born the world, as a fenator and a ftatel'man. 
tes's-fquare, Wcftminfter, on Being thus accompli (he J, he was early 
lay of November in the year called out to the icrvice of his country. 
is father was Sir Benjamin In 1705, when he was but juft come 

of age, he was chofen repreientative 
for the borough of Cirenccfter in Glou- 
ccftcWhire, which borough he ferved 
with integrity and reputation, during 
two parliaments. Though he entered 
fo young into the Houle of Commons, 
it is faid that he particularly diftin- 
guifhed himfelf in the ft niggles and 
debates relative to the union between 
the two kingdoms, and that he firmly 
fuppor ted a meal'urc which was 16 well 
calculated to ftrcngthen the vigour of 
fail of highly increafing, if government by uniting its force. It 
t then firft acquire, that elc- is further afl cited, that though he was 

contented to act a lubordinaic charac- 
ter in the oppofition, planned t»y Mr, 
Harley and Mi. bt. John, his intimate 
friends, to lap the credit of the Duke 
of Marlborough and his adherents, he 
P a WA* 



>f Pauleys Perry, Northamp 
and his mother, Frances, was 
of Sir Allen Apdcy of Ap- 
cuTex, Knight. After having 
ash a proper courfe of gram- 
xnicmiioii, he was entered, 
sen vears of age, in Trinity 
Oxford, of which his uncle 
a ted Dean Bathurft, was pre- 
From the directions, exam- 
inee uragement of fo eminent 
e a fcholir, Mr. Bathurft 



tafte which accompanied him 
11 his future life. Nor were 
1 confined merely to fubjc&s 
1 literature, he applied him- 
rUt to theft part* of know- 



n6 MEMOIRS OF LORD BATHURST. 

tv.is of infinite fcrvice to his party by Oxford from the poll of Lord 9 ! 

arraioiiirf' with fpirit and eloquence Treaiurcr, when it was dciigned 

t!:o conduct of the General and the put the Trcafury iftto coinminu 

I. -ill of (rodolphin. We have not, Lord Bathurft, among others,. 

isiiwevtr, 1 wn able to meet with any thought of, upon that occafion. Bl 

true of the iju.-t.ches delivered by him it is probable that his lordlhip, wl 

or. tiu-ii. intcref'ing occafians. But as had hitherto declined receiving ai 

tin- hillui its of the parliamentary pro- place of profit from the crown, wool 

reeding in the reiscn of Queen Anne, not accept of a precarious cm ploy me 

.'sre nmriik-ihly defe&ive in their ac- in fo critical a fituation of pub lick, af- 

ct .■■i: ! ?s of the puhlick fpeakers of that fairs. Upon the acceilion of Km 

period, it cannot certainly be inferred, George I. when Lord Bat hurft's poW 

fr--'ii tin ir iiUr.ce with refpeft to Mr. tical friends were in difgrace, and^ 

L.:!.iMir, t!:>t ;;i did not exert himlclf fame of them expo fed to the profecutioat 

iii 'h.. in rr.-i-v ;i!>:ive defcribed- His of t;-overnnn:i.t f his attachment to then 

z . i for I'.'s p«.!irI»T.l principle? did not contained him and unchangeable. As? 

nudiririr i:ft"::Me to the merit of he was one of thofe who believed tha£> 

thuK- \v!.-i wiic it' cppofite fcntiinents. the proceedings agiinll them were fe-i 

IL- i ■*.:-.int:: ; p.i , d, in paitieular, an hi#h verc and vindidive, he expreffed, wtf^ 

ar.-l i;iv;;r : . ihL* pc.-rional regard for Lord aie toid, with indignation and tktn] 

S "vms; .--.n \ when that gi rat man was quence, his disapprobation of thole-* 

di.«:ud(.f h.* ' flicc, hi; behaved with proceedings; and he obferved that the? 1 

fuch t. r.deirujs and delicacy towards kin;.; of a faction was only ihf fore- j 

hi::i that he prcferved his lord (hip's reign of half his fuhjects. Though ; 

Htee-m and friendfhip. It is obfervable, none of the fpecches made by him at 

and ir, a t i\;i"oi Air. Bathurlt's having this period are recorded, we find, from 

r.lul fn'uv conviction, and not from his uniting in the proteiis again ft the * 

i'l'.rill' d views, that, amidft the nu- afts of the attainder of Lord Boling* 

mnoiis chr.n^.'s which were made after broke and the Duke of Ormond that 

t\:i diiVoIu.K);; of the whig minilhy,« he was zealous in the defence of hit 

he accepted of ro place from govern- noble friends. It is fcarcely neceflary 

r.cnr. Confid'i in^ his abilities, his to add, that he oppofed the profecu- . 

ai-livity, and hij. intimate connexions tion of the Earl or Oxford, and that 

v ith tfte principd tories, it is highly he joined in the unanimous acquittal 

pr.b.ibl'-, th ..i he: might, if he had of that eminent ftitefman. Wlien the 

rhotim it, havt been raifed to f»me famous feptennial aft was brought in- 

ad'Mnta^i'cu; and honourable poll. His to the Houfe of Peers, Lord Bathurft 

rncir, however, did not go unrevvard- upon the fecond reading of it (April 

<*.'!, though n-»t in a lucrative way ; the 14th, 1716) voted again ft its being 

fi.-r in the tenth vear of Queen Anne's committed; and in conjunction with 

r'i.ru, lur majeitv was pieafed, by let- thirty members of that houfe, entered, 

Ui\, patent, dutej the till of Decern- his reafons for difTe n ting from a bill, 

r*?r, 171 1, to odvance him to the die- which, for the fake of avoiding fome 

n:?y of a p?ir of Great- Britain, by the prefent difficulties and dangers, made 

/ti!( ;;ni tub- of Lord Bathurft, Baron a great and permanent breach in the* 

i'.itl nrft of Ivittfelden, in the county Englifh conftitution of government, 

of BuitVrd. 1 his was at that memo- The fir It inftance we meet with, in the 

» '.b!e p.ru-iJ, in which the adminiftra- common accounts of the tranfaftions 

T'-i!«,to (v.i.iir a majority in the Upper of the times, of his fpeaking in the 

II.*.: f. , hroii^iit twelve new lords into parliamentary debates, occurs with re- 

th.»* Sb'iilt mi tine day. But whatever gard to the bill for puni thing mutiny 

h.u:m lie the views of government, it and delation. This was on the lift 

r -.not l »c dmiif! thai the antiquity and of February 1717-181 and from that 

Jty.'.-.r- o! Mr. Bathuift's family, the ptnod, for the fpace of five and twenty 

l.i» : *r r,vi.(: of his father, his own years, he took an a olive and diftin* 

»-o: ■■ »i .■■•!■• #«, and his eminent tilcnts, guifhed part in every important mat- 

"tr»: % rtd i.::n a proper objeel for the ter which came before the upper houfe | 

I* , ':.- and he was one of the mod eminent 

]. .*.- ronrinlf.n whi- h prevailed at leaders in that houfe, of the warm, 

. .j tiir: iii-wal of the Karl of vi^oioug, and perfevering oppofitioa, 

4. which 



• c 



MEMOIRS OF LORD BATHURST. 



"7 



it carried on againft the mea- 
nt court, and efpccially againft 
st Walpolc's adminiftration. 
sf the molt remarkable occa- 
n which he diftinguifhed him- 
are fclected for the informa- 
entertainment of our readers, 
rill be found with ample notes 
ftrations in the complete life 
lobleman given in the work 
ich wc have extracted them. 
whole proceedings againft Dr. 
y, Lord Bathurrl was a xea- 
Kate for that ingenious and 
d prelate} and on the third 
of the bill (May 15th, 1723) 
line pains and penalties on the 
liftinguilhed himfcifin a very 
nary manner. His lord (hip 
ice of the ungracious dittinc- 
t were fixed on the members 
wife of Peers, who differed in 
from thofc who happened to 
majority^ and obferved, that 
art, as he had nothing in view 
h and juftice, the good of his 
the honour of that houfe, and 
large of his own conic i en ce, 
i freely fpeak his thoughts, 
landing all difcouragemeuis. 
Id not, he faid, complain of 
er arts that had been ufed of 
ender lbme perfons obnoxious, 
kr pretence of their being lo, 
ing their letters about their 
domeftick affairs; for thcie 
evances he could calily bear : 
a he faw things go lo far as 
mn a perfon of the high eft dig- 
he church, in fuch an unprc- 
manner, and without any le- 
lence, he thought it his duty 
e a proceeding fo unjuft and 
liable in itfelf, and jo dange- 
I difinal in its confcqucnces. 
purpofc, he begged leave to 
• lord mips a ftory, he had from 
officers of undoubted credit, 
ted in Flanders, in the late 
A Frenchman, it feems, had 
a machine, which would not 
1 more men at once than any 
ife v but alfo di table for ever 
i that mould he wounded by 
with the hopes of a great re- 
e applied to one of the mjnif- 
hid hik project before the 
J, but that monarch, con fide r- 
fi> defti uftive an engine might 
turned againft his own men, 



did not think proper to encourage it j 
whereupon the inventor came over to 
England, and offered his fervice to 
fome of our generals, who like wife re- 
jected the propolal with indignation/* 
The ufe and application of this ftory, 
added Lord Bathurft, is very obvious : 
for if this way of proceeding be ad- 
mitted, it will certainly prove a very 
dangerous engine. No man's life, li- 
berty, or property will be fafe : and if 
thole who were in the adminiftration 
fome years ago, and who had as great 
a fhare in the affections of the people 
as any that came a her them, had made 
ufe of fuch a political machine, fome 
of thofe noble perfons, who now ap- 
pear fuch follicitous promoters of this 
bill, would not he in a capacity to 
ferve his majefty at this time. 

His lordfhip further faid, that if fuch 
extraordinary proceed ings went on, he 
faw nothing remaining for him, and 
others to do, but to retire to their 
country houfes, and there, if poflible, 
quietly enjoy their ell ates, within their 
own families, lince the lead conefpon- 
dence, the leaft intercepted letter might 
be made criminal. In fupport of this 
reafoning, he quoted a pafTage from 
Cardinal de Retz's memoirs, relating 
to that wicked politician Cardinal Ma- 
' zarine, who boalted, *« that if he had 
but two lines of a man's wiiting, with 
a few circumtlances atteltcd by wit- 
neflls, he would cut oft" his head when 
he pleated." His lordlhip alfo fevcrely 
animadverted on the majority of the 
bench of bifhops, turning himfelf 
towards which, he faid, that he could 
hardly account for the inveterate ha- 
tred and malice fome perfons bore the 
learned and ingenious Biihop of Ro- 
cheller, unlefs it were, that they were 
intoxicated with the infatuation of 
fome of the wild Indians, who fondly 
believe that they inherit not only the 
fpoils, but even the abilities of any 
great enemy they kill. 

On a motion for reducing the forces, 
on the fecond reading of the mutiny 
billon the 16th of March, 1737-8, his 
lordfhip flood up with great eloquence 
and fpirit, againft a large Handing 
army, and in favour of a national mi- 
litia. Among other things, he parti- 
cularly urged the importance of all 
men in the kingdom, or at leaft all 
freeholders, farmers, ard fubftantial 
merchants and tradefmen, providing 

xYttuv 



ll* 



MEMOIRS OF LORD BATHURST. 



them fr! vet with arms, and breeding to the prefent king, the 
t':w;n!e!ves up to military difcipline. Wales; and he continue 
«' It is, faid his lord /hip, in my opi- that capacity to the deatl 
r.ion, not at all impofiible to make it the. Second. At hit prefe 
c.5 infamous for a man to be unpro- accetiion to the throne, hi 
viJ.'.l with arms, or unacquainted with nued in the lift of privy 
m<liiary difcipline, a* it is now for a but on account of his grea 
£i-mlcman to get the character of a clincd any employment. . 
notorious coward, nor would this in- confidcration of his emim 
t -rnipt or diminitii the labour and in- 
duitry of any man in the kingdom, 
for even the molt induflrious might 
u\.\kc themfelves thoroughly acquainted 
with the nfc of arms, and of military 
<!i lap ;ine, if they would hut i paid one 
halt' of that time in military exerciies, 
which they now throw away in idle 
:md (Ruminate, or ex pen live and cri- 
minal diverfions; and this method of gene polity of his temper w 
jailing away our ieifure hours might rent from a palfagein one 
cafilybe introduced even among the ~ 

vulg.ir, if our courtiers and men in 
authority mould once begin to make 
this their practice, urfd that practice 
fnould be followed as it certainly would 
hv all the nobility and gentry in the 
kingdom.*" 

This advice of Lord Bathurft wc 
hive il-c-.i carried into execution in al- 
moll ail parts of the kingdom, in the 
eor.i.'l of the years 177S, and 17795 

ar.J the military ardour of all ranks of may be paid, as long asai 
people items to he daily increafsng; ' be paid; and when the 
10 tis.it the nation in a fhort time, will 
he able to defend ulUf without a ttand- 



had a penfion on the Irifhi 
of two thouiand pounds 
his lord (hip's abilities an 
in pub lick life, gained hi 
even of .his political oppoi 
private life, his human it] 
volcnce excited the atfeftioi 
were honoured with his m 
acquaintance. The amis 



to Dr. Swift. " I have a 
1 iament many years, and 
found that I could do a 
have therefore entered v 
fcheme of life, and am <k 
look after my own affairs 
am now in a fmall farm- hi 
by mire ; and my chief bi 
take care that my agents d< 
upon my tenants. I am 
them all good bargains, tl 



ing ansiy. 

Wi« now advert to the private cir- 
c-jni'.tances of Lord Bathurft's life. 

C. the 6th of July, 1704, he mar- 
ried (Catherine, daughter and heir to 
b'w Peter Apflcy. By this lady, who 
hence appears to have been his lord- 
ih'ip* coulin german, he had iflTuc four 
fiiii* and five daughtcis. When the 
l'M< Frederick Prince of Wales was at 
Jiith in 173*, he did Lord Bathutii 
ti:c iionour of paying him a vifit for 
ionic days at his leat near Cirencefter, 
during which time his Royal Highnels 
was Heated with a magnificence and 
hoijj<:nliry which gave him infinite fa- 
ti«f;.o\ion. On the 13th of July, i7+*» 
his lord/hip was fworn, at Kenfington, 
one of the Privy Council, and ap- 
pointed Captain of his Majelty't Band 
<>i Guitlcmcii-Pcniioners. Tiiis office 
he iLii^ntd in 1744, from which time 



that there is no money, tin 
fellows, and will bring i 
corn and cattle I want. 1 * 

To his other virtues L< 
added all the good breec 
nefs, and elegance of focial 
No perfon otrank perhaps 
ter how to unite, Otium or. 
The improvements he mad 
feat at Cirencefter were wi 
fortune, and mowed the 
his tafte. In this refpeel 
paid him a fine complimea 

Who then (hall grace, or who 

foil r 
Who plants like Bttburft, or « 

It is remarkable, that h 
beautiful and noble plant 
begun by him when he hail 
fortieth year, and he had 
not only of living to fee th< 
of perfection, but of prefer 
degree of health and vigou 
to which few advance, as < 



he v.ms in no publick employment till 

t!u* vMi'1757, when, upon the change of to enj»y the delightful fee 

niiiiiicry, he was conititutcd treasurer be laid to have created. 



MEMOIRS OF LORD BATHURST. 



rierftood the right applica- 
nt fortune, it well expref- 
:cellent poet already quo- 
spiftle addrefled by him to 
4t on the life of riches. 

rsjue riches, with the art 
», and the virtue to impart, 
tor ambiltouOv parfued, 
Both 9 not ratrd by fervuode ; 
rtuoe by a joft ezpence, 
<nomy, magnificence, 
ir, charity; with plenty, health, 
i Batharft! yit unfpoilM by 

[more 
•arc, between th* extrcmci to 
aatarc, or of mean fclf-lorc, 

rarft's wit, tafte, and learn- 



XI0 



up to me one day as I was at the Pi in-* 
cefg of Wales's court. ' I want to 
know you, Mr. Stcrr.e, but ir is fit 
you mould know alio who it is that 
withes this pleat u:v. You have heard 
of an old Lord Bathorfl, of whom your 
Popes and Swifts have fun? and fpoken 
fo much, I have lived my Sic with ge- 
niuses of that caft, but have fumved 
them, and defpairing ever to find their 
equals, it is fume years fmce I have 
cleared my accounts, and fhut up my 
books with thoughts of never opening 
them again. But you have kindled a 
defirc in mc of opening them once more 
before I die, which now I do ; fo go 
home and dine with me. 1 This no- 
to leek the acquaintance of bleman, I fay, is a prodigy, for at 
nius. He was intimately eighty- five he has all the jmmiptnefs 
rith the great perfons of or a man of thirty, a dilpoiition to be 
rho adorned the beginning pleafcd, and a power to pleafe beyond 

whatever I knew. Added to which, a 

man of learning, courtcfy, and feel- 
In** »• 

Lord Bathurft prefcrved, to the clofe 
of his life, his natural cheerfulr.efs 
and vivacity; and was always accefli- 
ble, hofpitable, and beneficent. He 
delighted latterly in rural aniullrnents, 
and enjoyed with philofophical calm- 
nefs the made of the lofty trees he had 
hhnfclf planted. Till within a month 
of his death, he conftantly rode out on 
horfeback two hours in the morning, 
and drank his bottle of wine after din- 
ner. He ufed jocofely to declare, that 
he never could think of adopting Dr. 
Cadugan's rcgiir.cn, as Dr. Cheyne had 
affured him, fifty years before, that he 
hips confined to perfons of would not live feven years longer un- 
irties or profeflions. Mr. refs he abridged himfelf of his wine. 
diflcn ting, clergyman of Ci- In 1771, his lord (hip was advanced to 

the dignity of Earl Bathurft. He lived 
to fee his eh! eft iiirvivir.g fon tcvrral 
years Lord Chancellor of Great- Bri- 
tain, and promoted to the p cu^e by 
the title of B.iron Apflcy. The death 
of Earl Bathurlt happened :»f:cr a few 
day iflr.i-lV, at his il.it niT«r (Jirencelter, 
in thw* nii'.tty fi*ii yrar ot \\:i age, ?nd 
on the i6rh of fccpfcmh' r, 1/75. On 
the a lit of September hi-i l'.irdfhip was 
buried with <'nc fiiimji luvoiirs, at 
the parish '.l.ii!«.!i <i CiurndL:- in the 
fame vault wi;h !j:>!iily : a iiiorrnnvnt 
has fincc b;-*n c<l ; .«\1 to thiir memo- 
ry, en width is t!.. followisi^- 
tion : 



it century. Bifliop Atter- 
^riend, Mr. Congreve, Sir 
ugh, Dr. Swift, Mr. Prior, 

Mr. Addifon, Mr. Pope, 
not, Mr. Gay, and others, 
hit friendship, and were 
ih correfpondence. And, 
m the few letters of his 

been pnblKhed, in one or 
[lections, it appears tint his 
nee was a real honour and 

thofe by whom it was en- 
1 faid to have have been a 
lis lordflrip, never to write 
di but when he was in good 
b the laft moments of his 

delighted with the conver- 
nen of abilities ; nor were 



rho was a gentleman of con- 
arning and tafte, and who 
1 die <fccorum of his ch.i- 
iberility of fentiments and 
ind a fprightly and amiable 
V honoured with Lord Ba- 
ftknlar regard. The late 
•ry Mr. Sterne gave a very 
account of the attention 
paid to him by his lord- 
■"bis n obit man, fays he, is 
end of mine. He was al- 
■rottctor of men of wit and 
it had thofe of the lafl cen- 
t at his table. The manner 
lis notice began of me, was 
is it was politn. U« came 



lufw lip- 



Near 



120 HISTORICAL ANECDOTES. March 

Near this. Place are depofited the Remains of 
ALLEN EARL BATHURST, and CATHERINE LADY BATIIURST. 

In the legifiativc and judicial | Catherine his con fort, by her milder 
departments of the great council of the I virtues, added lultre to his grunt 

nation, * 

He ferved his country 69 years with 

honour, ability, and diligence 



Judgment and taftc directed his learning, 

Humanity tempered hit wit, 

Benevolence guided his n&ions : 

He died regretted by mod, and praiicd 

by ali, 
the 16th of September 1775, aged 91 . 



qualities ; ' 
Her domeftick ceconomy extended his 

liberality. 

Her judicious charity, his munificence. 

Her prudent government of her family, 

his hofpitality. 

She received the reward of her 

exemplary life 

the 8th day of June 1768, aged 79. 



Married July the 6th, 1704. 

His Lord/hip was fuccccded in title and eftate, by Lord Apfley, then Loid 
Chancellor of England, and now Henry Earl Bathurli. 



HISTORICAL ANECDOTES. 



WHEN Mor/Jrur de Ferfol was 
amhuflador from Louis the 
Fourteenth at the Ottoman Porte, he 
either was mid or acted like a mad- 
man, which induced one of his do- 
fnefticks, for fear of being chaliifcd in 
the Turkifh manner for a very fmall 
fault, to make his efcape, and to travel 
with a miflionary who was going into 
dim Tartary. After his arrival he 
left the monk, and rambling about, 
took fhelter, at hfi, with the famous Mir. 
za, who was chief »>f a hoi d of Tar- 
tais, with whom he remained many 
months, and having acquired the lan- 
guage, entertained him like a true 
Frenchman with the magnificence that 
was every wheie to be ken in his own 
country, and the extreme milery that 
reigned in Tartary. The Mirza irniled 
at his difcourics, which the Frenchman 
took for the higheft approbation. The 
Mirza being at lait grown weary of 
him, brought him to a place that was 
within two d:i).« journey of Csffa, 
where having pitched his tent, he or- 
ders I the Frenchman to attend him. 

After regaling i.im plentifully, and 
treating him with coffee, he ipoke to 
him thus : «« Stranger, our manners 
are lb unlike, that thou art, no doubt, 
as much ti; cd if me, as I am with 
thcu. I found thee almoft naked, now 
thou art well clothed. I gave thee a 
horfc and arms, keep thtm, and re- 
turn, if thou wilt, to thru paradife of 
MrjKh thou talkdt fa much. There, 



it Jecius, the people are reftlefs and 
uneafy, which thou haft never feen me. 
Take thefe (giving him a bag with a 
hundred double piftoles) which the 
Franks call riches, and which I ac- 
count iigns of poverty, as they i'ervc 
only to purchafc what are the real ne- 
ceharies of life, and which, as I have, 
thel'e without them, are ulelefs to me. 
Return, I fay, and report to thy coun- 
trymen, that health, home, and kappi* 
atj j, flowing from hard* fare with con- 
tent, are all that the Tartars eitccm." 
Was this man a barbarian ? or are not 
thefc fudicient proofs, that the minds 
of all men bear luffkienMy the fiamp 
of their Maker ? A leilbn worth re- 
membering, as it will teach us huma- 
nity, and humility *t the fame time. 



Anecdote of Admiral Rowley. 

ABOUT the year 1754, Mr. Row. 
ley, then firft lieutenant of the Gof- 
port, under Commodore Saunders, be- 
ing in the Bav of Cadiz, went to fte 
the launch of a fliip at his Catholic k 
Majefty's arfenal at the Caraccas, and 
requeuing of Mr. Mullans, the prin- 
cipal builder, leave to goon board the 
Pkanix man of war, was refufed : the 
fpiritcd tar fmiled, obferving, thai the 
denial was of little confluence, as if 
he lived, he mould be fure to fee the 
fliip one day of other at Portfimutb. — 
The Phoenix is one of the mips lately 
taken from the Spaniards.; 

PARLIA- 




Ill 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

BUgj ifth* Pncudimgs tfthe frefent Stjfcm of Parliament, begun and 
tf wcjhninfer, •» Thurfday the %&b Day */' November, 1779. &*i*g 



CflET Sefim if the F§urtmntb Parliament of Great-Britain. 
{fimUinmed from $*r loft Magazine, page 74.) 

HOUSE OP COMMONS. 



Xfaanep, Jsnmaryx^ 

ley the Commons ant purfuant to 
iedjc«rament, when Love) Staa- 
. complained to tht Houfe of the 
* of the Duke of Bolton to tht 

■ fee tht County of Southampton, 
letter* to Avert! freeholder*, to 

■ to vote for Mr. Clarke, in op- 
9b Richard Worflcy ) and mooed 
■ghiat lurald be referred 10 the 
of privileges, which wai agreed 
complaint was evidently calco- 

ntcrbalaocethat of Mr. Wilkea, 
Dokeof Cbaados, fox the fame 
1 hi rapport of the other candi- 

tiiercforc, Mr* ■ Stanhope pro- 
iho fane committees at one and 
me, mould proceed upon both the 
S hot Mr. Donning very ably 
eUaresce; Mr. Stanhope com- 
phe interference of the Doha of 
rat a private peer} Mr. Wilkes 

of the Doko of Cbnndos, not 
.feer, bat m 1 lervant of the 
Bfloyiog the iafloence of the 
£• ejaaltty of Lord Lieatenant of 

feo carry an clofBom in favour of 

candiontt} he therefore defired 
ho csmfidtrtd omiaaiy and feoa- 

Ptwaefiftas, ftpi eoiy a* 
it of the committee to whom Mr. 
•wmlaint era* referred againft the 
haadns, %iatevrering at thejat 
IfomomiHj waa brought op and 
amah it appeared, that of seven 

XthoDokc to different free- 
id teas acfcnowledccd by the 
nWm thoy were addrefled to have 
id by the pott; and the commit* 
a\ cfeatcft evidence, end on the 
lie aaaaal rtfolution, or Standi og 
Beam of the 16th of NnxwUer— 
, That Itasca Brydfes, Duke of 
■d Lord ueutcnant of the coon* 
Ity of a breach of tho priv ilegea 
(0, hy interfering with the free- 
Mag members of parliament at 
ear a member for the county 



9 he did, to recall the 
iejr old good hjimoiir and cool- 
imoficanon, by reminding geatle- 
fsailar refutations had been made 
tme% bat had always been turned 

It* They had kaopened p the 



times of two of the greatest men that ere* 
lived, who were honoured and revered after 
their deaths, and to this day, by the nation. 
Thefe were, the Duke of Newcaftlc, and 
Laid Chatham. When the Duke of New 
cafUe was Fir ft Lord of the Treafury, and 
Lord- Lieutenant of the county of Suffer, 
complaint was made to the Houfe of hie 
i nterferlng at an election in favour of Mr. 
Pitt, afterwards Lord Chatham. It was 
notorious that he had canvaffcd the whole 
borough; that he had given (he ufual bribe, 
a good dinner, to the freeeholders in Mr. 
Pitt's inteicSt, and had gone amongft them, 
enquiring after their wives, their mothers 
and grandmother! ; but no improper influ- 
ence was made ufe of that cou'd be con- 
strued into a breach of the privileges of the 
Ho ufe of Commons; and, on a division, the 
rcfolution to refer the complaint '0 the com- 
mittee of privilege!, was rejected by a very 
great majority. 

Another cafe happened when Mr. Pitt 
was Secretary of State. Complaint was made 
of aarivata letter written to a friend, by a 
UwCEicutenant, folliciting his interest in 
rapport of a particular candidate ; but Mr. 
Pitt treated it with great ridicule in the 
Houfe, and the matter drooped. 

His Lordmip profeSTed himfclf an enemy 
to every real infriogment of the privileges of 
the Houfe 5 but not considering the letters 
written by thcDoke of Chandos in that light, 
he moved that the further consideration of 
the report mould be postponed to that day 
four months. 

Mr, WilUi rofe to oppofe that motion, 
and to give hit reafons for moving that the 
Houfe would go into the report inStantly. He 
faid, he had taken op the matter upon broad 
patriotic principles, in fupport of the dignity 
of the Houfe, and of their own fUnding 
orders and rcfbluiioni, which, when founded 
in wifdom and juftice, ought to be maintained. 
He made a distinction between the private 
letters of a private peer in parliament, and 
the public applications of a Lord-Lieutenant 
of a county. The nrft be would not have 
thought worthy of complaint, bot the fecond 
he considered as a grofs violation of the pri- 
vilege* of the Houfe. He was very forry to 
hear that Lord Chatham had flighted a 
matter of fuch importance 5 but though he 
had the greateft feneration for his memory, 
in his opinion his lordmip did not always 
firmly fuppvjt the rights of the people. 



1*2 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



Mr. Wtlket juftly obferved, that t Lord 
Lieutenant is t map of great influence in 
county, and, ai a fervent of the crown, 
his influence is the minifterial influ- 
ence of the crown, which is daily in- 
creasing. He ajked, as the law had guarded 
again ft the interference of officers of the 
revenue under the ftritteft penalties why the 
Houfe fhould not more ftriclly gu.nd again ft 
the (rcstelt influence f a Lord-Lieutenant. 
He did not believe that in doing his duty 
upon this occafion he had departed from his 
ui'ual good-humour or coolncff, but he 
thought the complaint fo juftly founded and 
fo clearly proved, that the Houfe ought to 
fupport its own privileges and refolu lions, by 
agreeing inftantly with the rcpoit of the 
committee. 

On a diviiion, Earl Nugent's motion for 
poftponing the report, was carried, by 87 
votes againft 30. 

luefJsy, February 8. 

S'v Cecrge Savillc called the attention of 
the members to a matter of the I aft impor- 
tance. In former leffions, he had, he faid, 
a number cf petitions to prefent in behalf 
of individuals, but this feflion he had a 
petition of a (u greater magnitude to bring 
up. It was a petition from the freeholders 
of the county of York, containing great and 
heavy complaints of a publick nature. The 
honourable baronet remarked that this was, 
perhaps, the firft county in Great- Britain, 
and that it could not be poflible for iqch a 
county to apply to the Houfe without engag- 
ing their mod ferious confederation* He was, 
he faid, fully appri fed of the odium which 
the tools of government were conftantly en- 
deavouring to throw upon all petitions for a 
redrefs of public grievances. The petition from 
the county did not originate with low or fac- 
tious people. He held a paper in his hand* 
which contained the names of the gen- 
tlemen who called the county meeting. Were 
they, or any cf them* factious men, or thofe 
who could be accufed of bad or finifter views ? 
On the contrary, were they not amongft the 
moft amiable and refpe&able characters to be 
met with ? If they were not, would any one 
get up and fay, which of them wainotadn- 
attd by the heft and poreft of principles'? 
The committee appointed at the county- 
meeting, to carry into execution their reso- 
lutions refpeeting the petition, wai alfocom- 
pofed of men the moft independent and the 
snoft difintcrcfted the prefent Age could pro- 
duce. 

Sir Geerge then ftated the contents of the 
petition being f».r a general reform in the ex- 
penditure of publick money by (hiking off 
unmerited pen/ions, finecure places, and ex- 
orbitant friaries. This was furcly what all 
parlies ought to agree to. It was called for 
en conflituiional grounds, by more than 

Soco pcifon?, who had vo'vitarHy signed 
le pci;Lon. But the other Jide of the 



Houfe (looking towards the Trcara- 
would probably cry opt, and aflc, a 
in Hamlet, *' it there » vfftutt in 1 
To this, he faid, a more anfwer 
given ; which was, that there w§ 
*« ht the gaV.ed jade wince, and tt 
den go wm/," is another oxprcffii 
fame play, 

Ths meeting at York, he Jai 
exceed 7ooor8coin number, but 
ventuce to -ffirm that they poll 
property than all now within th 
the Houfe held together. As to t 
stfelf, he could not inform the Hoc 
fuhferibers to it came and put t! 
whh mufqueti on their Jhooldcrv 1 
their hands, but he believed they 
mined that the fervants of the cr 
not go on in the way they had. * 
fenflble not only that immenfe fi 
ney were necdlefaly and extra*; 
plied, bnt expended for very bad 
roui ends. They were no longer 
in the dark, nor from fpeakingoo 
li/hm-n 5 but were refolved upon ; 
the fource of that corruption wbi 
into and dammed up every cone 
lick virtue. He therefore exhon 
ble lord in the blue ribbon (U 
and his friends who fat round nil 
maturely of the matter. That 1 
the Houfe would be ram enoogl 
negative upon his motion for 1 
the petition, he did not believe 
Aire no one would dare to sW it j 
he have the minifterial fide of the 
a moment think of playing any ' 
it, after it mould be recdfelf 1 
them to treat the petition with 1 
due to it, and to avoid swj aWl a 
it ; for 9000 freeholders were De- 
fied with, or put afide by enty m 
All flate fubterfuge, tradc-nti on 
previous queftions, the hadbsev 
famous manoeuvres of a ccJiM 
tion, would be of no avail in tne 
(lance. The people of England 
longer be denied the jurHce doe ID 

With regard to the manner in 
petition was to be difpofed et\ he 
would be beft to hare it laid « 
awhile for the members to pen 
hoped in God that they would 
whether the Houfe mould order 
the table or under the table, 1 
folvcd it ibould have hit whole 
in t ere ft in Parliament. 

The Speaker then pot the' 1 
bringing up the petition, which 
moufly agreed to, and Sir George i 
prefentcd it to the Houfe. 

The petition being read, ! 
sgsin ft 1 ted his opinion, that if 
advifeable to have it on the ' 
time, before any motion was dedv 
•a honourable friend of hit (I 



fit in die Home to treat every 
ccordmg lo itt merit, without 
■ydi«g the opiaions fpread out 
■nit* 8 -! whit popular prejudices 
the fobjeel ; and he trailed fuch 
adoA weald be obferred when 
delivered from the county of 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. r n 

fjftpef A, iaMy ■atoretolay ing, as he meant, to propofe fuch new 
aWe» When this ijueftion, at Utt* at were thereby rendered frecef- 
Bhioorablr Gentleman exprcfled iary. 

s% It being of a nature to con- Mr. Ft* replied to Lord North opon thia 
i Ae waver of the petition, though lift headj he wat furprifed to hear fuch 
ike had been held between the language from the noble lord, who had ap- 
«U be difpolcd of, it would be plauded the IriA parliament for refufing the 
rfj Jean what proceeding mould fupplies for the publlclc fervicci* After fo 
M the petition— He therefore ntrngnanimout a minifter had applauded the 
h mould be ordered to lie on the Houfe of Common • in Ireland, for fufpend- 
perufal of the members. ing the grants for fervicea tt>ted till a rcdrefa 

t* faid, the worthy Baronet had of certain poblick grievances mould be ob* 
to apologise for introducing the tained, he wasaftonifhed he mould get up and 
m had been the fubjett of hit cenfure the very lame proceedings here. He ar- 
waa the doty of every member raigned, in the moft fevcre and poignant 
nd for the Houfe to receive, any terms the behaviour of thofe in power, who 
censing the righta or intereft of have the audacity to libel and afpeife every 
; much liti waa there caufe to man who has figned any of the petition! 
j threat or menace to the mem* now circulating throughout England, and 
urn the conduct they mould ob- commended, in the higheft ftj-ain of pane* 
lie petition after it (hould be gyrick, the worthy baronet's obfervation. 
It was the duty of every gen- that though nine thoufand people had figned 

the Yorkshire petition, they were neither 
provided with mufquets nor ftaves • A re* 
drefs of our publick grievances was to be 
effected by constitutional methods. All the 
publick meetings already held for that pur- 
pofe had been conducted in a peaceable man- 
ner ; and he was fure that by peaceable and 
under thi ronfirimtinn ~f constitutional meant a full and ample re- 
formation was to be effected. What the 
he wit aftonimed that the ho- honourable baronet therefore meant, when 
mtt/*mU c*B Mpen bim to aittid he laid that difquietude and danger would 
fl*f*/nr, aa it was certainly the probably enfue mould the petition be difre* 
.by which the foundation of the garded, wat, that in that cafe the publick 
i to_be *rrrnj ,> r l into end pro- Would no longer hold any faith with their 

reprefentatives, which wat a danger every 
member of the Houfe ought to dread, at fatal 
to his confequence. 

In his opinion, the reprefentatives were to 
fearch out the difpofition of their constitu- 
ents, end to follow their wiJhcs. When he 
faid this he fpoke only as to Ugijlativt mat- 
ters, and not judicial ones; in the former 
cafe, the Houfe were to give into the opinion 
of the people, but in the latter they were to 
be guided by their own judgement. The 
noble lord had faid the petitioners were mif- 
led. For hit part, he was clear to the con* 
h a mart ffuin, as it might be trary. The two objects of the petition were, 
f freat national difquietude and firft, to efftW m reform in tbt expenditure of 

tbt publick money, and in the fecond place, 
to redact tbt frejent undue influence of the 
crown. With regard to the meaning of the 
petitioners, he would take upon him to fay 
that they by no means meant that any taxea 
(hould be raifed till their petition mould be 
attended to. They could not fend their pe- 
titions to parliament till after the ten mil- 
lions had been voted, and then they pray 
na more to he added, which the that nothing farther may be done till a re- 
pledged for aa onprovided for, by drefs of publick abtifes takes place, that is, 
he left femoo.His lordfliip,there- not before the Houfe (hall refolve upon re- 
Opinioa, that he mould not re- lieving them at prayed for, or until matcera 
*r of the pctititfl, '■ plotted- for that purpoic naJl V* 



i* The hooosrable genttenun, 
■ bringing before tha Houfe a 
Ueenduct in the fenrants of the 
leptraating, at the fame time > 
Into the troth of it, had effec- 
at the charge itfelf. (Hit lord- 
t called to order, aa having mif- 
hoth the words and the mean- 
taiga Seville?, who now in ex- 
wbat he had faid, re-aflerted, 
sen wiming to avoid an enquiry, 
very thing he urged \ he had, 
Gal the noble lord to take care 



tg nnetoftood, Lord North ob- 
tbongh he wafcwilling to go in- 
atlen of the petition, he mould 
ftlf at liberty to move for cer- 
itboet being thought to fly at 
;c of the prayer of it. To ex- 
t 9 the- Houfe had already voted 
of money, and there were about 



Q»» 



put tn tram. 



Ai 



i 



ilf PARLIAMENTARY HI St OR Y. * 

Afl to the noble, lord's atiftaltiagthe wot- thererreen, irWtti laeweHaa if f 

thy baronet, in thinking he wished to da- larim or other afiewnacee andmftti 

cline going into aa enquiry, it waa extreme- appear to be aitraitaablc } that tl 

ly natural for him, for the noble lord had may be applied to Men the puftat i 

afleciatcd the idea of enquiry aad defeat to- expenditure, and to enable utia 

gather, aad could not in any cafe disjoint the prefent war againft the Houfe of 

than. Hence, when the worthy baronet bon, with that decifion and vigour 

wiihed for an enquiry, the noble lord in- can alone refult from national seal, 

ftintly miftook, that he wifted to ism* the dencc, and unanimity." 

proportion of the petition, becaufe all en- Lord Shelhmme rofe to explain hii 

quiries on his JUU the Houfe, were fure to intention! to the Houfe in thia I 

end in damnation. The honourable gentle- Hii lordflklp faid,he mould include th 

man reminded the noble lord (Lord North) in one refolutioa of the Hoofs, maki 

how often they (the minority) had been ac- a fmall alteration fuggeftcd by a nobi 

cufrd of fdnflbncfi. Alluding to Solomon, during the recefi, which waa to k 

«« You, faid Mr. Fox, fay %ve are the cor- the concluding part refpe&ing the l 

rupted, and we in return fay jo* are the cor- on the war againft the Houfe of B 

rupted. Now is the time to put the difpute and ending the resolution then, Tl 

to an end. JVe cry out aloud and petition fame may be applied to the pubfiok 

you for a reform of the public k expenditure— cies of the (late, 

we beg and pray you to do this— now let the His lord ft] ip went over the Outfiaai 

world fee w^o is the parent of corruption.** former fpeech, and obferved, that f 

The cry of bear him I bear him ! here broke had fir ft offered the propofition to fist 

out into a torrent of appianfe j after which, he every one of their lordfhipa had had 

proceeded with entreating the minificr to take portunity of feeing in the dtrJaeant i 

the taflc in hand. " It is, faid he, what it fo of the kingdom the ncceJEty af 1 

little expected from you, and what your beft fome mode of acenomy, that ana/ 

friends fo little think you capable of, that laying further burthens on the mm 

your doing it would give the publick a plea- quiet their minds in this time arena 

Jure indeed, wipe away all your errors, and diftrefs. He took notice of the « 

render your name immortal m the annali of fupported the principle! on which I 

hiftery." tioners have aaed, and adfUui the 

The petition waa ordered to lie on the mips not to delay the effcdbal iej 

Cable. their juft complainta* 

ifcfr. Charles Turner brought up a petition Hii lord&ip declared, that he wl 

from the city of York ; Mr. Burke one from partial to hit own ptopofitinaa aa 

Briftol ; and Sir William Howe one from abandon them, if any better or mar 

Nottingham, tioui method of eftablimjac pablicfc 

my, and of fairly accounting far th* 

*^ ditnre of the publick money, ceald b 



HOUSE OF LORD1 ed outage knew that 

»*» r* 8. — SS £&12m\£A 

THE Houfe was very full, and exceeding- ceaded to infpect and report the £aai 

)y crouded below the bar s at a little after publick accounts to niifiinaiar far 

four o'clock, the order of the day was read, years in the reigns of King Wllfl 

which was to take into confederation the Queen Anne, and finer* bat oat 

foilowiog motion made by the Earl of Shd- years 3 if this method aVuvhl ha pral 

burne before Chriftaaa t the refolution now moved tar, it 

•« Ordered, That the Lords be fummoaed have hit concurrence f hat after havi 

for Tuefday the 2th of February next, to this, he hoped no man weald can 

take into confederation a motion, That a any paltry, palliative aneafere, aaan 

committee be appointed, ctafim'ng of anem- culated to ward off hh ptOpo6tie«*j 

ben of both Houfes, poflelTiDg neither em- deceive parliament and toa najfla i 

ployment nor pennon, to examine without Hit lordmip, we apprehend, aUai 

dehy into the publick expenditure* and the fcheme of Lord North I* AM to ha I 

mode ©f accounting for the fame; more par- tion, of laying an addttaaaal us af 

tiwu'arly into the manner of making all ion- per crnt. on all falariti aad fflnV 

tra&i, and at the fame tine to take into under the crown. 

ronfideratlon what favings can be made con- He next proceeded to rrate tht ani 

fiA< nt with publick dignity, iuftice, and era- the unfunded debt, end of tht leant 

titudc, byan abolition of old ornew created af- for 'he present year, which would 

£res,orrevcrfions of ovkes,the duties of which new taxes 3 and aa oiir fbeceffer, by 

have cither ceafed j or fhall on enquiry prove in- ing the balance of power more aaeai 

adequate tc the factor other amolumentfariflng thrown the prefpt& of peace at a 

* d 



|f FA » LI AMXNTARY HISTORY.; f*J 

f» lwwH> ni» ftftablw. tt A* tan, to ft atylm . 

W| OOO tftwJf Of COVjrfo 00 SOrOso M With the BMk ©f nwgtxnd 1 

i swrtfcet eecnauet en the fneple, and to sfenlm ondefcrved penu'ons. 



hwwenld be totally unable to bear. This done, he vowed to God hit intrn- 
Ifenjmd, that all the refburces end tJon was to retire into the country, end very 
ftsmYsrtothcmjjhtof by the sninif- &ldom.even to rifit Loadon. Bat till the 
nfiul, not one of the new taxes minttterial influence, which ftruck at the 
snweced any thing near the tans root of the conftitution, by a fyftcm of cor- 
itethnitro at. roptioo, venality, and profonen, it deftroy* 

eeaVip (aid, that the great objeft he ed, he knew he could not retire in peace; 
view, and all the lords who acta! tor no man would be (afe in any corner of 
a, had been nrifrepreientod si an at* the kingdom. 

a the power of the crown, and an The Earl #/ Coventry fecoiided the motion, 
m on the form of government. To and gave a melancholy account of the (hoa- 
rs matter on, he dcfirel their lord- don of affairs in the counties where bis ef- 
ibcr ant ho was always an tates lie | the landlord! csnnot get their 

that soonfe for the prerogative rents, the farmers cannot get a proper price 
of che crown) thii he would for their commodities, and are unable to pay 

j hot it is the Influence of the their taxes | from whence, sod the fenfis 
tang from the vaft number of offices of the people exprcflcd in their petitions, 
r the fyftom of funding and tana- he concluded, that it would be highly proper 
I which moil increafc (o long as for the Houfe to come to the rcioiatioa 
nm contin u es, that hath brought moved bv Lord Shdburne. 
try into the ftatc of profufion and The t§wl §f CetrRJU only objected to the 
or csxsipsalned of. His Igrdmip dif- mode, and thought it rather an impeach* 
so difference stttv/ecn regal power, ment of the honour of oerfons holding offices 
■iniCcrial iaflnenee 'of the crown, under the crown to exclude them from being 
n hnmonroos description of the pro- of the committee. Thii idea was adopted 
ho pwblack snoney in only one fin- by feveral other lerdi, and was by feme ceav 
iso land-tan* fidcred as a very high affirontt they re&nted 

wood what n number of hands it the imputation that they were not at liberty 
rwnghj who hoi pcrquifitcs for col- to promote the welfare of the nation by n 
tg for ansUdng it, for telling it, for plan of oxononsy, as well as any lord out of 
t np in a chm% for Ifloing it out office. 

or paying H to the army, navy, dec. Ltd Sitmm once more exprrfled hit 
lot dee unoomajsj he nacntisned the cerneft wish to fee feme plan of oubUek esto* 
nting -places whore it femained (bote nomy eftsbHflicd lor the benefit of the ne» 
.the hands of different perfbns for tien j but, he (aid, ho law fo many objec- 
ill» Upon the whole, he made it tions to the motion before the Houfe, that 
appear, that many of thefe offices are he muft nectjflarily put his negative upon it* 
and that the pobfick money might The firft part of the motion was unprece- 
and and t a pe n eed on a plan of ojco- dented, informal, and calculated to sow di- 
nt would be n very great laving to vifions between the two Houles of Parka* 
an. end an am p l e refource to prevent ment, which of all things ought to be avoid* 
sn on the people. ed at this time. 

refpecx to the affumption of the Lord, Stndwic^ Ltd BUJkr—rl, and 
I. addition to the Civil Lit granted UrdhUnsfieU, all took the (ame grows, 
prjeffy a lew yean Ante, if that was which we mention here to avoid repetition, 
a ntneer ftcp, be understood it would If, fays l*rd Sttrmmt, the coshnahteo 
nnsnly within one ad of parliament, proposed could be formed continent with the 
of he propoicd in a few days by a privileges of both Honfes, how will it bo 
ft* of great ahihxlu in the other poffiblc to make men of different political 
ho mould therefore only trouble the principles agree upon the merits of ihofc 
rfth his ideas concerning the ether perfons whom the Gate has rewarded for 
mas in the rtfolution to be moved, publico fenricci f Suppose fuch a committee 
nt of have all grants of monies, and had fin upon the merits of Sir Robert Wal- 
nsftnrca brought within a As of par- pole and Mr. Poksney, Would not very dif* 
; In order to prevent the vail rams fercnt ideas have been ftartcd ms to the do- 
ordtnaries drawn for upon govern- gree of merit of each, by their friends and 
md not accounted for to parliament, opponents? Yes, we are to abolim pennons, 
as nil contrasts to the heft bidder, and retrench falsries, si far as it can be done 
i favourites of mioiftcrs might have confident with jnftice and gratitude; hot it 
Mir power to make inunenfe fortunes would be contrary to every principle of equal 
pnolick cxpence. To reduce the Jufticeto take this method of deciding on 
; of riBces far collecting, audjtiiig, «erir» It would only occanon fcimoata ail 



IIUIori&sptMdMntri all 
ce&s, and laid they were very w 
hoped we mould hob hear of aere, 
larly that Gibraltar wat relieved a bat 
we muft have ftill greater fuccencs hesoflt 
fhould be able to bring the enemy to 
terms of peace. Hia lordAip was 
to adopt any mode of economy, bit : 
motion, becaufe it was totally unpad 
tary. 

Lord Ftrtefcut faid a few words, to 
prefs hia opinion that the noble lem 
driven Admiral Kepoel and Lord 
from the fervice by ill ufage. 

The Marqu'u §f Rockiagbam JoxVAedj 
own proceedings, and faid, the meeting 
York had been voluntary ; that he had 
fought it, but it had been more reff 
than many people imagined. The ten 
atTembled had landed property in the cosnef ] 

ni, anfl i 



ia6 PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

over the kingdom, and inertaft thofe nni- 
mofitiei which prevail too much already, and 
which our enemies are acquainted with.— 
He wiflied at this time, fuch methods as the 
petitions had not been taken, efpecially as 
it appeared that they are not thefenfe of the 
nation, for as many people of rink and 
property had difapproved as had approved of 
them. It was thefe proceedings, and not our 
fucceffes, that rendered peace impracticable 
at prefent; for our enemies knowing our di- 
visions, and that one jar: of the people con - 
fidered themfclves as ruined, would offer no 
terms that England could in honour accept. 

Tie Ma> quit of Cacr mar then, fon to the 
Duke of Leeds, and lately the queen's cham- 
berlain, declared, that he approved the 
Yorkshire petition, and had fent an order for 
his name to be fignsd to it j but he did not 
think it becoming his dignity to attend the 
county meeting while he held a domeftick 
office at court : though he was defired to at* 
tend to oppofe as well as to approve the pe- 
tition, he had denied the applications of both 
parties, and thinking it inconfilknt with his 
situation at court to give the. vote his con - 
fcience dicl -ted in favour of Lord Shelburne*s 
motion, he had rrfignedhis office. 

He approved the plan recommended in the 
motion ; but be could not approve the refo- 
lution taken at the county meetings for 
forming tommitter* of correspondence and 
allocutions, becaufe he thought abufes might 
aiife from fuch ii.ftitutions. His lordfhip 
mentioned, that in the morning he had re- 
ceived notice that his commiffion of Lord- 
Lieutenant of the Eaft Riding of Yorkshire 
was taken from him. He did not attribute thia 
to all the members of the cabinet; fome of 
them he knew to be worthy, able men | but 
they were led away by the indolence of fome, 
and the ignominy of others. But this he would 
fay, that the natian fuffeied by fome eminent 
men in the fervice refufing to ferve the pub- 
lick, while a noble Lord was at the head of 
che naval department. As to the laft affront 
put upon him, he laughed at their folly, felt 
the infult, and reprobated their conduft. 

Lo>d Cbtficrfidd warmly efpoufed the 
caufc of adminiftration, attacked the mo- 
tion and petitions as factious, and fixing the 
charge of having driven men from the fervice 
as aimed atLqrdSandwich : he alfo undertook 
his lordfhip'i defence. 

Lcrd Sandwich flood up next, and defied 
the marquis to piove that any man had given 
it as a reafon that he would net ferve becaufe 
he preflded at the head of the Admiralty. 
He afked if men of the fir ft abilities were 
not now aclually employed in the navy, and 
if he had ever refufed the fervice, or the 
promotion of any nun of abilities according 
to hii nrk ? O.ic great officer had indeed 
retired, but he haJ g:\en other reafons of 
Giflike to other pcrUns, himfolf perhaps 
among the rcfl, but n«t alone. 



^^^^J 



to the amount of 8cooo#l. per annnnsj 
in the city of York alone 9000 perfesw 
figned the petition } he reminded their I 
flaps that York was the first city that fems\ 
an afibciation in 1745 f * or tnc defeneaof Iheaf 
kin^ and country againft the Pretender, and 
was now to form an atTociatton to skfetxl 
their king and country againft a psinkionl 
fyftemof corrupt influence, which he hoi-: 
obferved coming on many yean ago, andhal . 
o' poled in the cabinet. He did not know 
the Earl of Bute, but he knew it to be Ml , 
fyftem, and that all who prefomed to Of- 
pofe it were to be turned out of office* 

Lord HUlJborouvb waa very warm aganft 
the motion ; be laid if he had not known 
the candour and abilities of the noble lent 
who made it, he (hould have considered it at 
a firing of libels, and so fortified with inan>_ 
mountable objections, that it aunt hare bean 
intended to make the majority of thai lento 
put a negative upon it ; which negative wos 
to be the ground for a pompons proteft to hi 
printed, and re-ecchoed back to the connry 
aftbeiations, in order to foment Jifcoemtnt* 
and to force Parliament into the meafiircfl of 
the petitioners. 

The leaders of thefe affimationa, he sahV 
would go to the brink of rebellion, their in- 
clinations perhaps led them farther, bat k 
was not quite fo fafe. After mowing thesn- 
pra&iability of the motion, hia lordlhip tsie^ 
he hoped fome proper method of obuininf 
the fame end would (ban be prepofed to Par. 
liament. 

The Duket of Graft* and M&btBtrtyk* 
in favour of the motion, and in rapport nf 
thereditude of the conduct of the petitio- 
ners. His Grace and the Duke of Rich- 
mond both declared that the hereditary emo- 
luments they enjoy by grants to a nret m ra 
from the crown they are ready to facrific*. 
when the example is once fet, to the 
points of public k oeconomy, and of fcndi 
ing Parliament independent* 

Lord Sandwich having obferved that thi 

vent* 






4 



i 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. t vf 

sojerhy of protcftert againft the thetto been fo properly attended to u to pro- 

obtoko of Mancbcftcr wat fc- cure fuch fufficient force, confequently the 

protcttrt of Hiurirrgdan&ire, ifland was left cxpofrd to the dcfigm of the 
la hie lordfhipN influence, and enemy; and praying the interpolation of 
nfinl for mtjoritiet to protest, parliament to provide fur the r/fety of the 
'•/ JtirJsjsfM, in along fpeech, ifland, and of the trade to and f om it. 

sry objection that had been made Lord George Gcmaine obftrvrd, that this 

B and to the petitions. He de- petition wjs not the fenfe of the whole body 

tion might be amended, byleav- of the planters and merchants interefted in 

rordt '< both Houfei of Parlia- the Ifland of Jamaica, *s the title of the pc- 

appointing only % committee of tition implied; but on the contrary, a ma- 

\ and he went over every argu- Jarity of perfont of great chaufter and pro- 

1 ofod on former occafions, con* p*»ty, falling within th.it defer ipt ion, were 
late of the nation and the nc- of opinion that adminifl ration had done 
r meafure. every thing confifteut with their duty for 
utfali replied, and agreed to the defence of the place, and the protection 
that had been faid in favour of of its trace. His lordihip informed the 
af economy) but he faid there Houfe, that for many months pad, there 
ihin remedies, without involving had been a larger military force on the ifland. 
an in difpgte. than at any former period before a declara- 
nt, commit a fraud in thedifpofal tion of war with Spain; and a naval arma- 
ck money, the king represented ment adequate to the purpofe of protecting 

and he might be called to ac- the trade by fea. On this ground therefore 

sy law* He remembered when he feemed to think that the petition did not 

'ney-general, he had profecuted merit the attention of the Hoofe. After a 

roailcr for taking five percent, fliort converfation, which we do not enter 

mm fornimed to the army in the into, becaufe the fame fubjecl was afterwards 

ift, and he was obliged to refund, more amply debated in the Houfe of Lords, 

lb profecuted a colonel of a re- the petition was brought up, and ordered to 

Antigua, who received the pay be laid on the table. 

Jung of a complete regiment, Friday, Feb. it. 

had 400 men defective, and he Mr. Burke made his celebrated fpeech, 

im refund the money into the introductory to his motion, for leave to bring 

• Hit lordihip waa of opinion in " A bill for the better regulation of hit 

da ought to begin in the other majesty's civil efUbliihments, and of certain 

then it would come up regular publick offices; for the limitation of pen- 

of a bill. fions, and the fuppreflion of fun dry ufeiefs, 

Jarre* replied, and feveral other expenfive, and inconvenient places ; and for 

te fpokc. applying the monies fared thereby to the 

aft one the Hoafc divided, when pub'.ick fervice." The (peech being fine* 

ed published by the honourable member, it will 

— m—m 50? be found noticed under the department of 

— — 5 J 55 our Review of New Publications for this 
ante «— — » 8i? month; it will therefore be fufficient to 

_ —. 20 J 10 mention in this place, that Lord North be- 

■ flowed the higheft encomiums on the fpeaker, 

againft the motion — 46 end did not oppofe the bringing in of the 

retcft was entered on the journals b.li; which met with no obftruction till it 

r day againft this deciAon, figned came into a committee of the whole Houfe 

re of the lords, who voted in the after the fecond reading. Its progrefa then, 

tot we do not in fort it, becaufe and the debates on the feveral enacting 

I fabftancc of it is contained in daubs, as they were taken up in their pro* 

nta advanced on that fide of the per order, the reader will find in the con- 

the debate* tin u a tion ct our Parliamentary Hiftory. 

m—^—m^mmJmmm—*- Monday, Feb. 14. 

* ~* Cir George Savi/e gave notice that the 

>U1E OF COMMONS. next day, he mould move for leave to bring 

ThnjJay, Feb. 10. jn a"biW to abolifh certain penfions and fine- 

nsr, qJQaJfcr for Liverpool, pro- /cure offices, which motion he had deferred 
ajtion from tm planters, mjr*., tiij Mr. Burke-'* plan of reform was laid be- 

iart, aiia^^crr/Tntcrefted in the fore the Hoofe, to fee if it interfered with 

9miic^£Sinff9iih thai appkV U.J- finding a did not, he should now purfuc 
I beca^ matte to i^rhspeM-tV it as aTr ttfdltioa to that excellent plan. 

bWfor 1 ArBcieniland farce end " ~foUutl Barri next drew the attention of 

oM| for %% Mtfotaionloflhat the,* Jiooie ; after being laviih of his praifes 

ft*^f'4tt.|kartiiej sW nit hi- to ill traqorgblc friend |dr, Bu*ke, be pro- 



•#*.,. .«.-£2 1~*.Z~: 






7 '* .' (! fc fc '■ 

■: r ?, 



7.-.L LJStJ.'i MAGAZINE. 
M--&. FA 4, , 7 je. 
■ .. iA,-.|:-.i* j W^-.s" =■ js*, uJ lari- 
-.i:c":i S i-i ciiri^Hti for L»n- 
'*"/»„ Ah: iJ fe*i£&i. Tike tsoooi lower 
i.tS s.-s tS'jth=i ue fti^ about 7' pa ft 
*». *//•!(-' M./, Ajrf 1 i>th, >■ 'ft 1 (.■clock, aad die wiJ kare the ftir 
mi... I;, if ■> unnii '!•«/, tS» ir.v.r, ly.ic 1 little to the fight hand of her 
>laf>U t lt*t 'pflfc". f"'/f.'I rf. i;;i.i'-.-I- u»;*r limb, at j' afttr 5 o'clock, iji. 
. Ih» fi.uilwin It ml i.l I.iI.m, wbbfc pi rent time. 

Briftol. 



J/'/ .-..*, ,*««** f-. '" -ST. ;■■ 
\MAK: '.MM.? 



ri.i «i i^'ty I ?» i*' is" 

km- <i ) ■ 4! I » jo « 




"9 



m* 



i Impartial Review of New Publications. 



RTICLE XII. 
TBI A Britannic* ; or, the L'vvct 
nuB eminent Perfots* who i'Jve 
i Great-Britain and Ire/and from 
fret to the prtfent Timet, Col- 
tit befi Autboritia, printed and 

and di^efted in the Manner of 
Hiforical and Critical DiShnary. 
hion, vfitb Correflioni, Enlarge- 
iom Jtddithn of new Lives. By 

>/i, D. D. f.R. o'. and S. A. 

fjtamce of the Rev. Jofepb Tew 

K and it ber Cent levari. Volume 

Folio, xl. in. 6d. Rivington, 

ice. 

Review of New Publications for 
of Aaguft, 177S. Vol. XLVII. 
catered into a more ample dif- 
Jie firft volume of this elaborate 
rompilation, than h generally to 
I in a Magazine. Having taken 
with the article, it affords fome 

|o find that due attention hai 

the hinti thrown out for the 
at of the work. The fecond vj- 
juft made its appearance with 
ittgel derived from GUI' review of 
rhii being the cafe, it would have 
iAonour to the chief editor, if, 
ui paving the tribute of gratitude 
ncroua friends, he had included 
of the London Magazine, a work 
paired erUblifhed reputation above 

1 before the fiift edition of the 
Britannica vu pub lifted. What- 
be hia opinion, we prefume to 
the recommendation of any worlc, 
periodical compilation has fume 

influence with the publick. 
ratulate the learned world on the 

of the affiftance of Mr. Towers, 
1 who has eminently diftinguiflied 
a biographer } if he had any prin- 

in compiling the firft volume, 
advife the pioprictori to print a 
age, lolely for* the purpofe of in- 
name; at all events we are glad 
. Kippii has taken the hint, and 

ftandt forth the oflennble fole 
ch an immenfe undertaking. 
rther fatifa&ion is given in the 

the prefect volume, concerning 
I writers of the Biographia Bri- 
rbe articles marked R, which in 
t to the flrft volume, Dr. Kippii 
9} to Mr. Oldye, we are now told, 
ftp by the Rev. Mr. Hinton, a 
,who lived in R ed • Lion -fqu are. 
mi H 9 were drawn up by Mr. 
egham of TookVcoutt, Curfkor- 
hUfj* Much J7S0. 



flreet ; and thofe which have the letter O 
annexed to them! were compofed by Mr. 
Harris of Dub in. 

Eight pages of Corrigenda and Addenda to 
the firft volume, a-c prefixed to this, ihey 
contain flioit additions t<, or amendments 
of fever* 1 lives ; it is im^oilible Id bcilow 
too great applaufe on this p!an, for it is not 
only fati? factory, but equitable, a; it will 
prevent the purchafers of the preterit edition 
b.-ing und^r tne neceflity of recurring to any 
future ;di:i:m tJ fuppy the defects in their 
own. Derides it can on!y be afler the publi- 
cation of a volume, that errors or deficien- 
cies can be difcovcred by :•"»<■ it-irncd or in* 
genious, and communic.n ' ih" editors. 
Wc aie lorry however to oi. ■■.■••■ u life 
of Adam Anderlbn 1. .- cor. rrr >ai v:iter 
fo ftrwngly rccommencr-* in rur !• •*»*: re- 
view is not to be found in their _ ndj 9 
perhaps it will be given in tlu fti^j. ■. nent, 
which we are informed will be ru.v-.i-:y to 
complete the defign. It is now luggefted 
that the work nuy be completed in nine 
volumes exclufive of the fupplement. Al- 
phabetical table: to the lives in the two vo- 
lumes a:e now liktwife prefixed, with dif- 
tincl marks, agreeable to our advice, to 
point out the new lives, and the additions 
made to the others. 

The following are the new lives in the 
fecond volume. Ltd Bithurft, from which 
we have fclefted the mo ft interefting parti- 
cular*. Better Andrew, mctaphyucian and 
natural philofopher. Beale Mary, painter* 
Benibn George, divine. Bifhop fierkilcy. 
Burners Juliana, a learned lady. Berriaun 
William, divine, Bertheau Charles, divine. 
Birch Thomas, hiftorical and biographical 
writer. BUckmore Sir Richard, phyficun 
and poet. Blackwell Thoous, critical and 
historical writer. Blake John Bradley, bo- 
tanic. Booth H.'nry, Earl of Warrington, 
a diftinguiflied fenator. Borlafs William, 
antiquary and natural hiftorian. Bott Tho- 
mas, divine. Bi.yer William, leirned prin- 
ter. Br?yd Marie Alexander, Litin poet, 
fc.yle Joiin, Earl of Cork and Query, po- 
lite writer. Boyle Jofcph, divine. Boy:'z 
Samuel, poetical writer. Branny Jamc?, 
afl:onoinci. Bray Sir Reginald, rtalcfma.i. 
B-i'.dlcy Jamef, mechanic): and enjinjer. 
Brou^hton Hugh, divine. Browne Willum, 
poet. Browne Simon, divine. Bio-.vne 
Ifaac Hawkins, poet. Biowne John, vari- 
ous writer. Buchanan Oeoig:, poet and 
hiftorian. Budgell Euftace, ^lifcelianeoui 
writer. 

Moft of thefe are indsed capital lives a .id 

fuch as the learned will wiih to be familiarly 

R acquainted 



»3* 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



March 



acquainted with ; but it it with reluctance 
we mention, that otheri are omitted which 
deferred a placed. We with Dr. Kippis and 
Mr. Toweri would attend more dofely to 
their title page in future. They prof eft to 
give the molt eminent men (in every (ration 
of human life) how then was it poffible to 
give the life of .Admiral Blake, and net think 
of the gallant Admiral Bofcaxutw, who in our 
own times lived *nd died an honour to his 
country. It is a mortifying circumftance to 
wait many years to find fuch omiffions fup- 
plied in a fuppletnent. It really puts one in 
mind of a biographical dictionary in 12 vols. 
Svo. to which there was a fupplement, 
and in it " the life of Alexander the 
Great/' 

The additions to the old lives in this vo- 
lume are very large and valuable ; however, 
we are obliged to clofe this article with a 
cenfure of negligence of (tile j if the editors 
happen to read our extract from the life of 
lord Bath ut ft, they will fee that we have 
been obliged to correct it to make common 
fenfe of fome pafTages, though 7 the life has 
the fignalure K annexed, for Dr. Kippis. 

XIII. Rvjpa, »r a complete Account of all 
the Nations xvbicb compofe thai Empire* 2 
Vols. Svo. Cadell. 

THIS is a (ketch well executed, but by no 
means a complete account of the countries 
defcribed, which could not poffibly be con- 
fined within two octavo volumes. No left 
than forty-four diffident countries fubrnitted 
to the Ruffian empire are pointed out to the 
notice of the curious reader, all inhibited by 
people, diftinct from each other in their 
perfons, drefs, manners, and cuftom*. 

The writer, in a copious introduction, has 
given a fatisfa&ory general defcription of 
Siberia ; but he is miftaken in averting " that 
mil other relations of this country, in our 
language, are not only exceedingly vague and 
confufed, but fo erroneous in many eftential 
particulars, at to be but of doubtful authority 
in all.** Surely he muft have fnrgotton the 
tranflation from the celebrated Abbe D'Aufte- 
roche's travels to Siberia ; in which a 
more ample account is given of the inhabi- 
tants, than his own. The geographical de- 
scription* of the fcveral countries are more 
accurate in the prefent performance than in 
any before published : its chief merit lies 
in the execution of this d ; fficult talk. Si- 
beria, we are informed, comprehends the 
whole tract of land, the dominion of the 
Ruffians, from the Ouralian mountains to 
the Pen(hinean fea and the Eaftern ocean, 
on one fids •; and on the other, from the 
frocen fea *o*thr frontiers of the Mandihours, 
Mongoul?, &j4nv?cs, and JCirguanfi Kofaci". 
Siberia, fince it became a Ruffian province, 
is tolerably well peopled by the Ruffians, 
who have founded therein towns, tortrefles, 
and villages, of various proportion*. It 






neverthelefs prefents but a void and defert 
view 5 fince by its extent it is capable of fup- 
porting feveral millions more than ic ar pre- 
fent contains. The climate is cold, bui the 
air ppre and wholefome ; and its inhabiunta, 
in all probability, would live to an extreme 
old age, if they were not fo much adicted 
to an immoderate ufe of intoxicating liquors. 
This country produces rye, oats, and barley, 
almoft to the 60th degree of northern latitude. 
Cjbbjges, radifhes, and turnips, thrive 
here tolerably well ; but fcarcely any other 
greens. Ail experiments to bring fruit-trees 
to bear have hitherto been in vain. In thia 
cur Tory manner does our author give a flight 
account of each of the nations of this great 
northern empire. The people of Finnifh 
origin and the Tartars are the moft numerous 
of the Ruffian empire. They live in huta 
in the form of tents, the carcafe of the hut 
is compotcd of poles fluck in the ground, and 
bent at top in fuch a manner as to compofe a 
vault almoft round. A hut is about four or 
five fathom in diameter, and not much above 
one in height, They cover them according 
to the feafon, and the means of the polTelfor : 
fome with briars, bark of birch, and linen ; 
other with turf, coarfe cloth, or felt, or the 
old fkins of rein deer. The door is of fc'.r, 
made like two curtains, which open afundcr. 
A little place furrounded with ftones is made 
in the middle of the hut for the fire, over 
which a chain is fufpended to hang the kettle 
upon. Round the fire they lay boughs of 
fir, which they cover with (kins, felt, &c. 
They are not able to ftand upright in theie 
huts, but conftantly fit upon their heels 
round the fre. At night they lie down 
quite naked ; and to feparate the apartments 
they place upright flicks at fmall di fiances. 
In winter they put their naked* feet into a 
fur bag. It is to be lamented that of the 
great number of nations here defcribed, the 
major part are nill fo immerfed in barbarifm, 
that little fatisfaction can arife, from reading 
their hiftoiy. Paganifm is ftill the religion 
of m.tny, and they have neither letters nor 
writing, nor any other mode of instruction. 
" If an Oftiak is ordered to make oath, 
concerning any mJlter in litigation before 
the public tribuna', he is made to ftand upon 
a bearfkin, with a hatchet by his fide, and 
a bit of bread io his band, and he muft pro- 
nounce thefe words : May the bear devour 
me, may the hatchet knock me on the head j 
may the bread choke me, if what I fay is 
not true.** They fometimes alfo fwear upon 
their idols, and none of them are ever found 
to be perjured. The Tartar nations, we are 
informed, prefer the flefh of colts to all 
others for their food. To conclude thia 
article; there are three or four plates illuf- 
trating their huts, and fome of their cere- 
monies, and many cixcumftances concerning 
their marriages, and othor domtftic cbftomt, 

afford 




REVIEW 

entertainment to tattle the 
■ itcommendation. 

• Tee Bifwy of the poRtitalCouuec- 
ww*« England ami Ireland, from the 
tfstnry &, f the prefent Tme, 410. 
Coieti. 

aether's intention, expreflVd in part 

III advertisement, will convey the beft 

ef this waivable piece of hiftory. It 

that foch a performance would at 

gratify cnrioTtty, by prefenting a detail 

11 of the moft Angular national connec- 

whkh history hat to communicate : a 

which haa been mifreprefented 

critics* and hat not been fully elu- 

by the historians of either kingdom. 

the chief object of the author was to 

the publication ufe/ul, at a period 

the amir of Ireland deeply engages the 

of the legiflative bodies of both 

and when important commerical 

ought be extended to that ifland." 

fry, if a juft arraogement of impor* 

1Mb (little known before) elegant Ian- 

and Ibid impartiality, lay claim to the 

* Mr, this hiftory will want no further 

We will not anticipate the pleafure 

of hiftory will pofleit in the peru- 

it Feynings AB % which it it faid, the 

wiae to hare repealed, hat been the 

of much eohverfation, we flull bor- 

ear aether's explanation of it, for the 

ion of our reader!. 

the Seventh, after the foppreflion of 
SfannelTi rebellion, fent over Sir 
Foyning, at the head of a thoofand 
to ad in the double capacity, of a le- 
afed lieutenant. He convened a par- 
l at Dublin, A. D. 1495. and applied 
to the reformation of the ftate, by 

m inch lawt at might moft effectually 

jplwJoV that tod. Two great purpofes were 
Cawlawi to be accomplished : to fecure the 
teem dependence of the nobles on the crown, 
waf Of* protect the commoni again ft ex- 
emJon* and violence. All the ftatutes of 
Vefhfog have one or other of thefe objects 
aW view. Bat the moft memorable of all the 
f^sjkxea, anode in this parliament, it that 
eJiich aaaa been fince itt formation dif- 
Bejaiahed by the name of Poyning't Act. It 
aauja that s u At the request then of the 
1 of Ireland, it vu ordained, enact - 
1 cftabliihed, that no parliament be 
in the faid land, but at fuch feafons 
■a the king's lieutenant and council there do 
•'the king, under the great feal of that 
the caufes and coufideratiom, and all 
na to them feemeth mould pafs in 
parliament; and fuch caufei and 
, and acts, affirmed by the 
council, to be good and expedient 
That land \ and hit liccnfe thereupon, as 
ejrll in affirmation of the faid caufes and act?, 
arte fmmmm the parliament undsr hit great 

Ji - 



OF BOOKS. 131 

feal of England had and obtained, that done, 
a parliament to be holden after the form re* 
hearfed, and any parliament held contrary to 
it to be deemed void.** 

XV. Experiments and Observations made 
with the Viexo ef improving the Art of com- 
piling and applying calcareous Cements ; and 
0/ preparing f^uick Lime. Theory of thefe 
Arts \ ar.d Specification of the Author s cheap 
and durable Cement for Building, Insraflation, 
or Stuccoing, and artificial Stone, By B. Hig- 
gins, M. D. 870. 5s. Cade 11. 

THE ingenious Dr. Higgini having turned 
hit thoughts to the improvement of mortar 
for buildings, as a fubject of great import* 
ance in a country where the weather is fo 
variable, and the mortar commonly ufed fo 
bad, that the timbers of houfes laft longer 
than the walls, exhibits a ferles of experi- 
ments for attaining a double cement to pre- 
fcrve ufeful and expenfive buildings from 
mouldering away fo loon as they formerly 
have done. He afferts that he has now dif- 
covered a cement equal, if not fuperior, to 
that ufed by the ancient Roman?, which hat 
preferred their acquedufts, and the moft ex- 
po fed ftructures fifteen hundred or two thoo- 
fand years. Having obtained a patent for 
thit cement, be gives the materials of hit 
composition, in abftract from the patent it- 
felfj and he directs the reader to a number 
of houfes, in and about London, that have 
been ftuccoed with this new cement, under 
the direction of Meflrs Wyat, architects and 
builders. Time alone can furniu an oppor- 
tunity to decide upon the merits of this 
cement in point of duration \ in the mean 
time, the publication is to be confidered at 
very ufeful,, becaufe every common brick- 
layer may improve the mortar he makes ufe 
of in building, if fclfifhnefs, obftinacy, or 
lazinefs does m-t prevent him. 

XVI. The Speech of Edmund Burke, EJf, 
Member of Parliament for the City of Brifi'J, 
om prefenting to the Houfe of Commons, on the 
tub of February, 1780, a Plan for the bet- 
ter Security of the Independence of Parliament, 
and the eeconomical Reformation of the Civil 
and other EJIablijhmtnts. 2«. DodUcy, 

THE title 01 this celebrated fpeech fuffi- 
ciently denotes the rmin object of it ; but it 
is tot-illy impofiible to form any equitable 
judgement of a pLn (o ex ten five and compre- 
hend ve without reading and maturely weigh- 
ing every part. We would therefore advile 
thofe who can be fo fortunate to obtain the 
bill that was brought in upon the plan, and 
printed for the ufe of the members, to 
bind it up with the fpeech : the fprech lerv- 
ing as an illuAralion of t\zry claufe of the 
bill. 

The language of thr fpeech U a* admirab'e 
as the phn, the ftrength of uncomrro 1 ge- 
nius is vifible in both ; but we really ap- 
prehend the whole p'an tc be totally im- 

K % cra&cable, 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 

i the kingdom could be ctfi of Dr. Er.field't Spcaktf, 

o the preeife filuation it wn in it onlj rttommfndad by every pi 

tnecommencoment of the reignof J.mciII. of the Englifh linguaje in En 

with rclfca to ilt civil ef] abliflimcnt. The reoutE, but u 



131 

practicable. 



debt contracted for the accompli fli men' 
the revolution introduced the funding fyflen 
and wiih it > variety of officer which bn 
coniinucd inereafing wiih thefe fundi >n 
the titei appropriated la piy the annuel it 
tereR : thefe orBcei undoubtedly created 1 
undu- influence in favour of the id mini On 
(ion for the tint being j and unlefi a (en en I 
fubferiptinn of property, foflicient 10 pay off 
the national debt, could tike pi"", great 
put of the plan mud fill 10 the ground ; 
my, we miy venture to affirm that in the 
pre lent (i tuition of the public revenue, nei- 
ther the Muquii of Rockingham, the Duke 
of Grafton, the Earl of Shelborne, or any 
other man, could be mintflcr three month, 
without the fiippcrl derived from that in- 
fluente which 11 wanted 10 bt deftroyed. 
The plan baing however a mrfl excellent one 
for 1 nation unincumbered with fetti, *ill 
be handed down topofierityj and u feme 

lions and : he richei and fpoil* of plundered 
India, become the public property j 01 wben 
we get f oilrflion of the minei of Pern and 
Mtiico, then it miyr be tarried into emu. 



'eftminiler, and mull of the oth 
Ichooll of the kingdom. To bring 
thet cuftly on <be fame plan, onl 
the title, and malting a few altct 
the body of the performance, mat 
woif; ia fuch > piece of literary pi 
hardly to be paralleled in the prefe 



"ill jutliiy our 1 



ruf.l of il, 
itb Enfield'., 
ranging througl 
furely Mr. Scott might bivc made 
lume from the heft Enjlilh luihorl, 
Meeting iimt.lt ill the fame piece] 
be found in Enfield'i Spraker. Ji 
which for ib.. ye two tbirdi of hh - 
he had no oecaOon to recur to the 
bt hid only to mark them flora £ 
the Edinbuigh printer. 

made, and hit reifonl for it an 
demning. He hit not elided hia l< 
cnidjng to their rpetiei [it nm 
da-flit, Ac.) facta a difpofition bein 



1 affirm that C 



lea of pointing out to « 
diflinctioo. of compofittoi 

XVU, Ltjfini in Elctttin, erMlJa&amn thereby enabling young pupili to, 

tit,,, i* Pta/t nnd l'„jt, Mtfitd f,un 1L1 knowledge Of the different fpeeiea 01 

ttji Alton, for tb, fira/kl «/ fV/"" »f l»» «<*>= ™" Bood that, all the | 

Teft.tKilttlmp'rvwtofrnutb, i*r,U- and efl'ayl in our language pat tefet 

tug and fitting. Sj William Scan, Tiaibtr in you had ifted a youih, before tbit 

Edinburgh, tame, ji. Longman. tion, even after quitting a diffica. 

If Mr, Scott', compilation hid been eon- what parti of iaWrr ere didltgat, 

fined to biiown country, we Should have dtUit, what fad-trie, and what ba, 

bid no objection to it. It wa> printed at rative r Though he might bait kno 

Edinburgh, and might theie have pi fled for of theft diftinflioni, 11 dialogue for 

ameritoiioui publication] butwhen we fee it tiken feparately: yet purging the 

pub lifted in London, we cannot p.fi over through, yno would frequently bati 

that ungeneront condud in living writer., him confounding the one with tr 

and ihn felfiibneli which piompti any one Upon the whole, wc mod beg |ca> 

to undermine tbe found.tion of another'i commend the Speaker, in prefer! 

of Elocution are pub- 1 eider 1 on toil fide the Tweed. 






.1 ho 



POETICAL ESSAYS. 




With ttncled bowi and arrowi keen, 


A COMPARISON. 


Thty conquer 'd far ind niai, 




Briron. viM.,iiou- ibtn wrre ften. 


|N ancient time, eid father Care, 


While fltv'ry fhtd 1 tear. 


1 W.uld wrinklt 11 hii brow, 
1 hen Briuio'. fun. ali bcroeiweiet 
Hew ihing'd are all thingi nuw ! 


With ftmrly tuien and ncrtnai arm, 

Thr»g.«-d.h=boflil.fwld. 
No forcr (omliis'd coold them alaaa*, 




Uacuftom'd Hill to yield. 


Phf qupu'd pnoht, and pewder'd hair, 


But now we're either drotoor Jed, 



totritkt ESSAYS. 

To the Memory 
o F 



And whatever I prove 
To Apollo and Jove, 
•Til Mercury reigna at ay heart. 



*ft 



IBB WALLI5, 
■wing finifiVd btrjbort day, 
art the Htth (srt Frevidac* had 

efligVdher, 
i, jut to make her Mff*Mr*wct 
•a thiajfegf •/*«*£> 
ttdrcw and fell afletp, 

Dec 189 I77 8 » . 
I * years and 7 month!. 

i «c mourn thy quick remote 
wsjrlook thy fain, 
a all the ilia w* prove 
tfiBs, trills f*i* f 

irer reigns, and vide Difmay, 
% Jmitmumt shall defcend. 
Hit will win their mortal day, 
fcemd as quick an end! 

LITE AIRS m tit Wuow or 

DsLtai* 
SIRBNADE. 
SS awake 1 unveil your eyes, 
llawaofdh 00 inacc yawning t 
dpHc fed arifa, 
Apollo dawning* 

, awo* at love*! alarm*, 
p flonibara scorning* 
■at yowr doxies arias, 

hold 'tit awning I 

Ur, have at year heart* ! 
1*8 torch ii flaming z 
lets bit pointed darts, 
anil the rogoc la aiming. 

hvi of beatty blows, 
rfweeta ait palling; 
m with the virgin rofc, 
1 prevent ka falling. 



it* Ivy, boaod with viaef, 
fcteoely partes; 
maa 1 oor tcmplea twines* 
perkleainooxgUfltt. 

we we to do with fleep, 
who ne'er knew ibrrow ? 
■ne> and dance, and leap, 
pre yen tall good-morrow. 

1 I It IV. Loeaanut. 
an* drink> bed end beard, 
fee yoor'i at e word, 
batever the houfc can fupply $ 
a ftp at the nod 
efcarming a god, 
wUMof, to happy aa I ? 

r day at yoar ferine 

av honoari divine 

» atoOW f fice ef vowirtf. 



Bat and drink, laugh and fine* 

Iftake the merry belli ring, 
Your hoftefi will fcorn to fay nos 

For you need not be told, 

That the proverb of old 
jay a, *ttt m*tj that makes the mangi, 

AIR XVI. Mercuriui. 

Neaprtitsn BalUd. 

Two gods, to pafi an hour or fo, 
From heay'n to earth defended* 

To fee how matter! went below, 
And if the world wai mended. 

They found religion wai a mafic* 

Unwary fooii to cozen ; 
And reformation a worfe taic, 

Than Herculea'i doaen. 

They look'd for honefty— 'twas fcaree ; 

Each man berogu'd his neighbour; 
They fearch'd for friendmip— 'iwaa a farce, 

They did but lofe their labour* 

The fairer fez wai next their care, 
They found them free and witty) 

They afle'd for chaftity— 'twas rare, 
And feldom fuch were pretty. 

The god of thieves bad left the fkiet> 

At call of many a Alitor ; 
But found bis pupili grown fo wife, 

That they out-trick'd their tutor* 

80 back they bore tbefe tiding! fad, 
To Jove's high hall afcending J 

Conviric'd, when thing! are grown fo badi 
They are not worth the mending* 



One of tb* new BALLADS fet t$ Mufick 1$ 
Mr. Linliy. 

SONG XI. 

frlHINK not, my love, when fecrit griff 

I Preys on my faddea'd heaxt f 
Think not I wifli a mean relief, , 

Or would with forrow part* 

Dearly I ptiae the fight 6ncere 
That my true fondneis prove, 

Kor could 1 bear to check the tear 
That flows from haplefs love. 

Alas \ tho' docmM to hope in vain 

The joys that love requite, 
Yet will 1 cherifo all its pain 

With fad, bat dear delight. 

This treaforM grief, this lovM defpejr, 

My lot for ever be ; 
But, deareft ! may the pangs 1 bear 

J^e nev:r knsvrn to thee ! 

A SONNET 



7 



«♦ 



MONTHLY CftRONOLOGER. 

A SONNET. 



l^arctl 



Imitated from the Spanifh of D. NTandel de 

Velafco. 

(Vide Appendix fTwifsUTraveh into Spain.) 

IF thou would'ft wi(h to ape a lord, 
Intemperate be and haughty *• 
In fee retain each wrinlclsd bawd) 
Have tafte for all that's naughty* 

To tinfel'd coxcombs, pert and tain, 

Be ever wond'rous civil : 
But if appear* an honeft man, 

Avoid him as the Devil. 

In carriage ride when thou might'ft walk, 
Thy hand withhold from giving j 

With titled courtie? s feem to talk, 
As that befpeaks high living. 

And if a favour's afle'd of thee, 
Be fure to look behind ye j — 

But borrow from each friend you fee, 
Nor after let him find ye. 

With earneft care your money wafte 

In bauble* of the bon ton ; 
To your fair wife alone be chafte, 

But kind to.ev'ry wanton. 

Demand, ne'er pay, 'gainft truth award, 
Thy heinous vices ma/k aU 1 

If then thou'rt not a mighty lord, 
Thou'lt prove an arrant rafcal. 

J. D. 



ANACREONTICK 'SONG. 
By the late R. Tom lis son, 

vTpO Anacreon, in Heaven, where he fat 
1 in full glee, 

A few font of Harmony fent a petition, 
That he their infpircr and patron would be, 
When this anfwer arriv'd from the jolly 
old Grecian : 

" Voice, fiddle, and flute, no longer be mate, 
'< I'll lend y,ou my name, and infpire you to 
boot ; [en twine, 

*« And befidei, I'll inflrucl you, like me, to 
f< The myrtle of Venus with Bacchot's 



The newt thro* Olympus immediately flew. 

When old Thunder pretended to give him- 

felf axrt : \xo purfue, 

« If thefe mortals are fufferM their fchemes 

« The devil a goddefs will ftay above 

flairs. 

'« Hark i already they cry, in tranfports of 

" Away— to the fons of Anacreon we'll fly, 
" And there with good fellows we'll learn 
to entwine, [vine. 

« The myrtle of Venus with Bacchus'a 

« The yellow. hairM god, and hit nine fully 

maid?, [flee ; 

" From Helicon's banks will incontinent 

'< Idalia will boaft but of tenantlefs fhades, 

«« And the biforked hill a mere defert 

will be. 

«' My thunder, no fear on't, fhall foon do 
its errant, [I warrant j 

« And dam'me, 1*11 fwinge the ringleaders 

" I'll trim the young dogs for thus daring to 
twine, [vine.** 

" The myrtle of Venus with B*cchus'a 

Apollo got up, andcry'd, "Pr'ythee, ne'er 

quarrel, [below, 

" Good king of the godf, with my votVies 

ft Your thunder it ufclcfs," then fhowing 

hit laurel, 

Cry'J, " Sic cvitabiU fu/men, you know. 



vine. 



" Then over each head my laurel 1 T J1 fpread, 
11 So my fons from your crackers no mifchief 

fhall dread, [twine, 

<< Whilft fnug in their club-room they jovially 
«« The myrtle of Venus with Bacchus'* 

vine. 

Next Momus got op with his rifible phyz, 
And fwore with Apollo he'd chearfully 
join 5 
<* The full tide of harmony ftill fhall be his, 
" But the fong, and the catch, and the 
laugh (hall be mine." 

« Then Jove be not jeakras of thefe honeft 

fellows." [now tell as, 

Cry'd Jove " We relent, fincethe truth you 

" And fwear by old Styx that they long 

fhall entwine, [vine.'* 

• c The myrtle of Venus with Bacchu&'s 



THE MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



LONDON. 

front the London Gazette Extrairdi~ 

nary. 
Admiralty -Office, Feb, 28, 1780. 
Sf %H Tfc APTAIN Edward Thompfon, 

W VK of his Ma J cftv ' $ A 'P Hyaena, 

3 C (j arrived early this . morning 
r^ jFfij trim Gibraltar, with dtfpatch- 

Vfi HF% W c * * r0m Admiral Sir George 
»-*. .*-** Brydge? Rodney, of which the 
fallowing arc cojici and cxt:a£ts : 



Sandwich , Gibraltar-Bay, Jan. 27, 1780. 
[Duplicate, the original cf vAicb is not arm 

rivedA 
SIR,. 
IT is with the high eft fatisfaclion I can 
congratulate their lordftSsps on a fignal vic- 
tory obtained by his Majtfty'f Ibipt under 
my command, over the Spanish Iqmdron, 
commanded by Don Juan Langara, wherein 
the Spanifh admiral and the gwateft patt of 
his I'quaslron were either taken or deft roved. 

Having 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 13$ 



rati wanted intelligence of a 
on, laid to confift of fourteen 
Sac, craifiog off Cape St. Vin- 
c aotice to ill the captains, upon 
dang tie faid Cape, to prepare 
and having patted it on the 16th 
niag with the whole convoy at 
• the Cape then bearing north 
ee> the Bedford made the fignal 
a fleet in the S. £• quarter 5 I 
y Bade a fignal for the line of 
ceft, and bore down opon them ; 
that could be well effefted, 1 
ha enemy were endeavouring to 
t of battle a-head opon the ftar- 
5 and ai thed-y was far advanced, 
iag to delay the action, at two 
auled down the fignal for the line 
hrcaft, and made the fignal for a 
de, to engage ai the ihips came 
oa, and to take the lee -gage in 
tfcveat the enemy's retreat into 



P. M. perceiving the headmoft 
tear the enemy, 1 made the ge- 

to eugagc and dole ; in a few 
e four headmoft ihips began the 
tch wai returned with great briik- 
« enemy* At 40 minutes pa ft 
the enemy's line of battle ihips 
iith a dreadful captation $ every 
feed. At fix P. M. one of the 
pa ftrockt The adion and pur- 
est with a conftant fire till two 
be morning, at which time the 
a* headmoft of all the enemy's 
if flruck to the Sandwich, alter 
« broadfidc, and all firing having 
adc the fignal and brought- to. 
ithex daring the night was at 

Umpeftuom, with a great fca, 
ercd it difficult to take polTeflion 
t the priloaera of thofe mips that 
ercd to hia majefty's arms. It 
rcry bad weather the next day, 
Royal George, Piiace George, 
and feveral other ihips were in 
r, and under the necefliiy of 
to avoid the rhoalt off St. Lucar, 
yget into deep water till the next 
then, having joined the convoy, 
Cape Spartel, I difpatched two 
Tangier, to acquaint his majefty's 

our facccft, that Great-Britain 
njftrela of the Streigbts, and de- 
to hasten a fupply of freih pro- 
ne garriion. At funfet we en- 
t. 

last behaviour of the admirals, 
■cert, and men, I had the ho- 
atnaad, wat remarkably confpi- 
f Itemed actuated with the fame 

Mtc anxiously eager to exert 
with the otmbft seal to ferve hit 
d to humble to pride of hu eac- 



I may venture to affirm, though the ene- 
my made a gallant defence, that had the 
weather proved but even moderate, or had 
the action happened in the day, not one of 
their fquadron had efciped. 

I have the honour to be, with gre.it re* 
gard, Sir, 

Your moil obedient and 

moft humble fervant, 
Geo. Brydgzi Rodney. 

Philip Stephens, Efu. 
A Lift ofrbt Spantjh fleet under e'eettmmani 
of Don Juan de Lanrara* 

Phoenix. Dun Juan de Langara, admiral, 
Don Francifco Meigarefo, c.ipl/:n, 80 guns, 
700 men, taken and brought into Gibraltar* 

San Auguftin. Don Vizente Dor, com- 
mander, 70 gun*, 600 men, eicaped. 

San Genaru. Don Felix Terada, com- 
mander, 70 guns, €20 men, eicaped. 

San Jjfto. Don Jcief, commander, 70 
guns, 6co men, cupped, very much oa« 
mJged. 

San Lorenzo. Don Juan de Araoz, com- 
mander, 70 guns, 600 men, eicaped, very 
much damaged. 

San Julian. Marques dc Medina, Com- 
irur.der, 70 gun«, 600 men, taken, the offi- 
cers ihif'ted, and a lieutenant with 70 Teamen 
put on board, afterwards went on more* 

San Eugenio. Den Antonio Dumonte, 
commander, 70 guns, 600 men, taken, the 
officers ft i teed, but driven oa fhore on the 
bieakers, and loft. 

Monarca. Don Antonio Oyarvide, com- 
mander, 70 guns 600 men, taken and 
brought into Gibraltar. 

Princeffa. Dun Manuel de Leon, com- 
mands, 70 guns, 600 men, taken and 
brought into Gibraltar. 

Diligence. Don Antonio Abornoz, com- 
mander, 70 guns, 6co men, tak.n, aud 
brought into Gibraltar. 

Sin Domingo. Don Ignacio Mendezabel, 
commander, 70 guns, 600 men, blown up 
in action. 

St. Gurud'<e. Don Anibal CafToni, com* 
mander, 26 gum, 250 men, eicaped. 

St. Rofalia. Don Antonio Ortega, com* 
mander, 28 guns, 250 men, eicaped. 

G. B. Rodney* 

Return cf the Killed and Wounded* &c, 

Piincc George, 1 killed, 3 wounded. Bed- 
ford, 3 killed, 9 wounded. Aj-x, 6 wound- 
ed j iore-toji-maft ihot away, four guni dif- 
mounted. Defence, 10 killed, 21 wounded j 
mails and yards mu<.h damaged. Edgar, 6 
killed, 20 wounded. Cumberland, x wound- 
ed. InvicciLlc, 3 killed, 4 wounded. Mo- 
narch, 3 killed, 26 wounded j fore- top -maft 
ihot away. Terrible, 6 killed, 12 wounded) 
main-lop-gal!ant-maft ihot a Wi> .—Total, 32 
killed, X02 wounded. 

Return of officers killed. Lieut. Chaxlei 
Henry Strachan, Mariner, Edgar. 

Return 



i 3 t MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



Return of officers wounded. Lieutenant 
Forreft, Ajax, fince dead. Lieut. Forbes, 
Edgar. Matter of the Terrible. 

G. B. Rodnit. 

ExtraR of a Letter from Sir George Brydget 
Rodney to Mr, Stephens* dated on board the 
Sandwicb> Gibraltar- Bay, Jan. 28, 1780. 
SINCE my letter of yefterday, giving their 
lordfhips an account of the action v*hh the 
enemy** fquadron, and my entering the gut 
with the fleet and convoy at fun-fet on the 
l8lh, I mult defire you will plcafe to ac- 
quaint thrm, that having no perfon on board 
the Sandwich acquainted with the Bay of 
Gibraltar, I ordered Rear-Admiral Digby to 
lead in, and fent two frigates a-head to give 
notice to the garrifon of our approach. The 
weather proved very bad, and the current fo 
ilrong, that moil of the fleet were drove to 
the back of the rock. The Sandwich and 
many of the mips did not arrive in the Bay 
tiil ycfteiday. All the tranCporti aod vic- 
tuallers arc unloading, and every difpatch 
{hall be ufed to put his nujefty's further 
commands into execution. 

Ext rati of a Letter f rem Sir George Brydges 

Rodney to Mr, Stephens, dated Gibraltar- 

Bay, Feb* 4, 1 780. 

AS the wind c -ulinued to blow hard 
wefterly, 1 thought it forwarding his Majcl'- 
ty*8 fervke to make fure of the convr.y's ar- 
riving !'aic at Minorca, by fending three cop- 
per-bottom (hips of the iinc to fee them in 
Safety off that ifland, where J am fure th*y 
xnuft have arrive** before this time, as the 
wind has continued to blow hard weflerly 
ever fince they failed. 

Sandwich, Gibraltar- Bay, Feb, 7, 1780* 
S I R, 

1 Muft defire you will pleafe to acquaint 
their Jordfhips, that every attention poflible 
has been paid to the Spanifh admiral and his 
officers; they are all extremely defirous of 
returning to Spain upon their parole of ho- 
nour; but as I am informed that a great 
number of his majc(ly*s fubjecls are now pri- 
soners in Spain, I have declined giving them 
any aflurances till the Btitifh fubjecls are re- 
leafed j and having, received yefterday, by 
the Shrew/bury from Lifbon, a letter from 
his M ijefty'a conful-general in Portugal,' ac- 
quainting me, that he had releafed 616 Spa- 
nifh prifoners } and though frequent pro- 
mifes had been made, he had not as yet re- 
ceived one in return. This letter fiom Sir 
John Hort has confirmed me in the re fol vi- 
rion I had before taken, viz, not to re) cafe 
any prifonerf, but upon the Spaniards deli- 
vering up all the Britifh fubjefts at prefect 
in Spain, and then on ! y man for man. 

However gratifying or convenient it may 
prove to individual?, the great and general 
line of hoflility is never to be format; in 
vain we may conquer, if unconditional pro* 



mifory notes can forthwith 
into the enemy's hands, 1 
avail themfelvet of the Br! 
without making a jnft return 
Britifh feamen in their prifo 

The grrat anxiety of the 
and his officers to return it 
afTurances that my officer! ai 
had boarded their (hip*, and 
/hoie near Cadiz, flimild be 
ftored, as likowife all other 
having been delayed upon frii 
I fent thi< morning the note 
nour to incljfe for their lord 
the Spanifh admiral, and h 
but it will touch their In 
vince them that no delay ma 

1 flatter my lei f that I i 
lotdfh'ps approbation in mi 
reieafe 1000 good feamen, 11 
fiderable fervicc to their kil 

I am, Sir, with great rega 
Your moft obedient, 
and moft ham 
G 
Phil:p Stephens, Efq. 

Gibraltar, f 

ADMIRAL RODNEY ■ 
plimtms to Sig. Don Joan 4 
will have great plea fure in 
his defire relative to the rde 
friars belonging to Capochi 
the province of Cumana, if 
in the fleet. 

The Admiral, whofe indi 
alleviate the misfortunes of 1 
every refpeft and attention 
men who have done their in 
and country, is under the i 
forming Sig. Don Juan dc L 
release of himfelf and the 
entirely depends upon Spain's 
leafing all the Britim prifc 
power. An equal number < 
be returned for thofc fent by ) 

Humanity oblige! the A 
thofe prifoners who are nc 
may be received by the Span! 
this mail be the left time* on 
tikes place. 

DON Joan de Langara pre 
to bis excellency Admiral 1 
turns thanks for bis offer < 
three ecclefiaftickf, whofe 
mu'ial was transmitted to hit 

Heobferves what hit esc 
fprcling the Spanifli officei 
what relates to the fick, on 1 
can onlv inform his excelh 
cone before through Admn 
he h.'« written to Spain, 
what was imparted to him 
man, and believes he will v 
an anfwer, of "which he wi 
hit excellency. 



WOHtHLV CHRONOLOGER. i<& 



h*mmlm**m****b*- barkation the SpanUh < 
nptlltow Alealral Redney. tkat thcEnglift prifbnen 

M.6, Wlo. to St. Roch | chit ht ha 



Geojeral fcntaiotioe 

were on their w»y 

M.t» /fto. t» St. Roch $ chit he had received pofirivo 

Lmmfnm Sir Geeep Brydgtt orders from hit fovereign to treat them with 

ate Mmei ef Ssudmkb, dated the higheft refpcQ and attention ; that the 

leo» M. 17. I7tci. Court of Madrid were cruel? fenfible of the 

• Mcere fctufaftion to aflbre humanity and urbanity with which their 

1 Hut the floe Spaniel nam of efficcri and men had been treated j direA- 

« akipa m ever fwam 3 they are iag him and the viceroy of the provinces 

■y vajtaed, manned, and put in and all hit Catholick Majefty'e officers to 

■tie, end 1 will anrwer for them treat the EngliJh with the greateft civility 

r doty at Inglim men of war, and kindneft* 

eeaey give tkcm an opportunity. The Spaniffi admiral* after havio| fent 
% Fat. %%•' Toe Right Hon. me hit letter, acquainting me with hit ea> 
9 Governor of Gibraltar, in a treme ill ftate of health, and the danger- 
Earl of HilUborough, dated Janu- oat condition of hit woondi not then heal- 
, and received early tbii morn- ed 9 at like wife the general'! of the Spanina 
i acceont, that the additional army's letter to him of that morning, 
eeteler with Che feyeral floret of wherein he mentioned the ezpreft orders of 
men allien, and money, con. hit Catholick Maiefty relative to the treat- 
te fleet noder the command of ment and refipee* he wat to (how the BritUk 

George Brydgct Rodney, were officer! on hit receiving them at St. Roch, 

with all expedition ) by which and conducting them to Gibraltar, I 

prill he completely relieved, and thought it a moft proper time to add to 

pat is a ftate of perfect feenrity that generout treatment which had made fo 

amy* great an impreffion on the Court of Mad- 
rid and the Spani ft nation, by releafing the 

p«»ow GntKTTB Ixtka- Spanift admiral and the Spani (h o mcere 

oaoiiiARY. upon their parole of honour, figned by the 

^omtVyjfy C0et 9 MarebS, 17S0. admiral and all the Spanifc officer*. 

atfANT Ookee, of hit majefty't None of the common prifonert had been 

he Prince George, arrive** yef- rdearfd, but fuch at were wounded or ox- 

■ forenoon with difoatchci from tremely fick, for which receipt! were 

r Qeoipe Bridget Rodney, and given ; all the others, except 500, which, 

att'pigty to Mr. Stephens, of are left at Gibraltar to be exchanged lor 

o He wing are extradt 1 ' Britifli fubjecxt, are now on board the fleet 

1 Letter frem Sir Oeerp Brjdjgat on their paflage to England. 

Mr. StefSem, dated m beard the Extrs& if a Letter from Rear Admiral Dighy 

t at9eaJ(belfb efFa^arj^ijlQ. to Mr* Stefhtas, dated en boerd tb§ Prbte 

! te acqeaint their Jordfliipt, chat Geerrt, at Sea, the 2d of March, 1 7&0. 

1 intent I )cft the Bay of Gi« THEIR lordftipt will receive herewith 

ft hit maiejky'a fleet under my Sir George Rodney 1 • difpatches, with a 

e)ie Mattberoejth, Invincible, journal of the proceeding! of the fleet 
fc arrived the fame day, after Ence it hat been put under my command ; 
fie vietalttn and flore-mipt to by which they win fee, thet 1 failed from 
*VY their paflage to and from Gibraltar the 14th of February with Sir 
mevkad not anetwic)i'or hear* George Rodney, who kept me with biom 
tancniy'f eVipi cniifinz in thofe till the 1 8th vnftaut, when he made the 
*• eveninc, hit m^jdtfi fhip the fipnal for fepararinr,, end parted company 
J* ac in the Gut: after having immediately, leaving me with the corn- 
he convoy tod the money he mand of the fleet and Spanifh prif et, cx- 
trjth faftSnto the port of Me- cept fuch (hipa "as were ordered to proceed 
Jn« had remained two daya, and with him to the place of hit dcftination. 
!*4 to join the with the cover- Nothing material happened till the 23d, 
! iaeit oe reporta to me, that about one, when we fell in with a French 
■* that ifland wat in perfect (e- convoy* confiftiogof two 64 gun (hi pi, two 

large rtoxe fhipi arm/ tn Ft*t§, a frigate. 



4tpt wiH pieafe to obferve, b/ and about 13 Tail of veffelt bound to the 
ice between th* SpanUh Mauritius : they were fo much on their 



SpanUh Mauritius: they 

' general who command! the guard, that before we could fee (hem front 

KeJ before Gibraltar, and my- the deck, except one, and of that only the 

bad given orden for the cm- head cf her top- fall*, they made fail from ut t 

anf onleqr a>njara to take place the fignal for e general chafe was made 

open the Engliih prifbneri not immediately, and the Refolution had the 

'endup, good luck to come t?p with the Prothec, 

•wming of the Intcadfi cn« of 64 pun and 700 mep, about one o'*U* 
^0, i7to 9 9 » 



i3» 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



coavoys from Cork, and the 
Brifto), Liverpool, and Scotia 
with Admiral Rodney* Sevea 
the line were under the coma 
miral Hyde Parker when theli 
came away, at which time nos 
fels here mentioned had joine* 
they arrive he will have 30 Jai 
faid that the French have at 
number there, and that they u 
creaied to 40. 

On the 7th inftant ended Ch* 

tial at Portfmouth, when Cap 

tried for the lofs of hit majeft 

dent, wat difmifled the fervice 

Mono at, 20. 

On Saturday morning •boot 
a fire broke out at the houfe c 
cf Northumberland, at Charic 
began at the Eaft end of the 



in the morning, and took har without lof- fonr tinder Arbathnot, from 
ing a man. Sho it commanded by Monf. the Hector, from Rodney*! fi(t 
Chilot, who I find waa the commanding the convoy to the Weft Indie* 
ofrlcer of the expedition. The whole con- pid and Triumph, from Portfi 

voy are, on the king's account, laden with convoys, and two more finale 

warlike ftorca and troops; the Prothee and 

Ajax, both cf 64 guns, have money on 

board amounting to about iio,ocol. The 

Marlborough has taken a fnow with war- 
like Acres, and the Apollo, wbo paned 

company in chafe the morning we faw 

them, hasalfo taken one. The Invinci- 
ble, Dienfaifant, aird Triton have ;uft now 

joined with another fmall prize of the fame 

convoy ; the reft muft have bore away in 

the early part of the evening; there were 

fcveral hours that even the headmoft (hips 

did not lee any of them. 

^d March, Three e clock, 
WE have juft made Scilly $ I therefore 

difpatch the Apollo to Plymouth, to give 

their lcrdfhipt the earlictt intelligence of 

the arrival of the fquadron under my com- 
mand. 

Admiralty-Office, March 18, 1780. 

E > f .rcB cf a Letter from the Rirbt HonourabU fronting the ftreet,in a room 
Lard Longford, Cap; aim of bit Mtjtftyt vanta kept their liveries, and 01 
Skip the Alexander, to Mr, Stephens, dated two fervants lay in the next 
Spit lead, March 1 6, 1780. were roufed by the fire, what 

ON the iath inftant being to the weft- upon them, but they luckily 1 

ward of Scilly, we gave chafe to a large cape, though with the lots of 

irif ate in the South-Eaft quarter, and after From five o'clock in the anorai 

18 hours chafe got within half gun- (hot of was firft perceived, the fine n 

her ; at day-light in the morningof thei 3th till eight, when the flames wa 

/he hoifted French colours, and we fired got under, but by that time he 

cha£t guns at each other for about two the Eaft end to the Weft, the 

bco: 5. When wc had got nearly along- 

f.dr? her, my fore- 1 op -m aft, without being 

flrutk, or any part of (he rigging cut, and 

without wir.d, went over the fide : I found 

it q')i:c rotten. The Courageux continued 

the cl.jfc, and ahrut no'in, after firing a 

great number of ihot, came up with and 

took her. She proved the Monfieur priva- principal officers of his grice*l 

tecr, of Granville, of 40 gum, twelve and fuch as the fecretary, mafter< 

1.x pounders, and 362 men, commanded 

by Jean de Bochet. She had been eight 

da\s from L'Orient, and taken nothing. 

i>r:e is a very fine frigate, almoft new, 114 

feet on the gun deck, and I hope will be 

fuund (it for his majefty's fcrvicc. 
Tvxsday, 7. 
Yefterday a court of common- council wat 

htlii at Guildhall, at which a motion was 

mace by Mr, Deputy Lee key, and feconded 

by Mr. Hurfjrd, that the freedom of this 

citr be given to Admiral Rodney in a box 

value 100 guinea:, as a .taken of the grate- 
ful fenle (he Court entertain of the fignal 

lerviccs rendered by him to this country, in 

trr defe t o( the Spanifh fleet under Don lerton, member for Plympton, 

ji^.nLangara, Ac. which was agreed to. cretary to Lord Stormont, 1 

Friday, 20, Court of France. The letter' 

T'-iirccn fl.ips of the line have failed the common poft, had not be 

wi:h : n rhelafi three months to join the many mir.utets by hit lordlhip, 

*uet ci the Lcc^ird iHand fallen, r\y brcakfid, when * fee 04 d left 



party wall in the whole ranee 
The roof is deftreyed, ae are 1 
and fecond floors, at the formes 
flopped, the rooms on the grai 
ing moft of them arched with 
rooms in front, which hate bf 
were all of them allotted to t] 



How it happened it not yet 
grace got out of bed when th 
given, and waa prefent dense; 
time of iu raging. 

Thursday, ft*,. 
Yefterday morning, in cos 
what had paflcd the day bererc 
of Commons, and which U 
been further aggravated by 1 1 
his lord/hip, containing whel 
intended additionally to hav 
had he not been interrupted i 
of his fpeaking, a duel wei 
Hyde-Park, between the Hi] 
able the Earl of Shelburne, aj 



MONTHLY C 

famtdiitc aniwer to the firft. 
cioM afcd on thU occafien ad- 

inalification, the noble peer 
he ftouU be in Hyde- Park the 

||y u Five o'clock the two par- 
t Right Honourable the Earl of 
cine; attended by Lord Frederick 
■ bis second, and Mr. Fullerton, 

* of aUkacra*. The place of 
f chofen, the ground wu mea- 
led each party took hit ftaad at 
he.ee. Mr. Follerton fired firft, 
lb lordfhip, who in return dif- 
pM, one withoat effect. Mr. 
Mn fited a second time, when the 
a the upper part of hit lordfhip's 

Utrton, perceiring hit lordfhip 
kanccd towardeliim, celling him, 
v an opport u nity of explaining 
ad find in the Hoofc of Lords, 
nt rcplyed, he did not come 
ifea any explanations ; oa whk h 
miRtarned Mr. Follerton to his 
awLordShcJborne very gallantly 
pttal into the air, laying, Mr. 
mtfd not fuppofc that he mould 
» fist at him. 

Mi here inurpofing, put an end 
at, and Lord Shelburne walked 
rk Corner, where getting into a 
■ch, ke was carried home, andMr. 
((eat for, extraacd the ball, fo 
amp \t fnppofcd to be ont of dan- 
hall it (aid to have been luckily 
in progress, 07 feme pipers the 
fcUwiiicoa* pocket* 
Sat oa oat, ac.. 
■Vs mip Charon n anchored in 
no* the Onlf of Hondnrai, but 
["■oca, where me arrived the 
feember, with the Lowcftoffe, 
■" the i r two prises, rcgifter (hips ; 
■* with very bad weather, and 
«ta in the Onlf. The Omoa 
H ont amoogft the feamen fooa 
Jkel from thence, deftroyed aU 
■•Wcrewff and it was owing to 
! **aey got from the Spanish flave 

* they were enabled to reach 
^heoce 9 after a considerable 

•»ered a fnftcicat number of 

* esatry their mips to Jamaica* 
•*• by the Charon, that advice 
**fc Jamaica of the garrifoo at 

the porcupine's crew, being 
*ieJentlj attached by the Omoa 

* at tonight's time, from hav- 

1 a% far daty, t^ere did not ie- 
***«} that it waa determined 
Wmrti after burning all the 
■4 ether bwbHags that fire, would 
bin 1 jag every thing ont of the 
1 the prise mow Nymph, and 
«*M J>ki»| *f to goo* with 



HRONOLOGfiR. r& 

ftccl machines which could not beevtri* 
cated, the Porcupine fa. led with our garri* 
fon, and arrived fafe at Rattan. 

The Chamn ""^ntrtt vrim* of thr 
lofs of the Leviathan man of war ; il.r 
fprung a leak at Tea the 1 6th of February 
la ft, in a hard gale of wind, and by the 
continuation of had weather (he coulri not 
be preferved any longer than to the 37th*. 
when flie foundecd. The crew, with fornr 
provisions, and a few (hrcs, were with dill, 
ficulty favedp and except thofe taken on 
board the Charon, her people were distri- 
buted amongtt tbe different (hips in the 
convoy. 



Promotions. 

RALPH Bigland, Efq. darenceu* kmg 
ot arms, to be a principal king of 
English arms, and a rrinrip.il officer of arms 
of the noble order of the Garter, and affb 
thjt oiHcv* which i« commonly called Car- 
ter; and likewii^- the nj:ncGarter,with the 
ftile, liberties, pre-eminences, and emo- 
luments, belonging and anciently accuf- 
tomed to the laid clfice, vacant by the death 
of Thomas Bfcwne, F.fq. late Garter.— 
The Reverend Do: or George M ifon, con- 
firmed Bifliop of Sodor and Man, and con- 
fecrated a Bi/hop at Whitehall Chapel, by 
hii Grace the Archbiinvp of York. — John 
Doddington, £f<], to the office of fourth 
port culliipurfuirant of arms, in the room 
of Peter Toms, gentlemjn, deceafed -^ 
Peter Dore, Efq. Richmond herald, to the 
office of norrov king of arms, and prin- 
cipal herald of the North parts of Eng- 
land. 

Pnmotians m Ireland, 

The Right Reverend Doctor Jamei 
Hawkins, Bifhop of Dromcre, to the Bi- 
moprick of Raphoe.— William Bercsford, 
M. A* to the Bishoprick of Dromore. 



Makrxaoxs. 

Fti.Ty ICHARD Aubrey, Efq. yoengtflfc 
26. £V fon of Sir Thomas Aubrey, Bart. 
toMifa Digby, daughter of the late Ho- 
nourable Wriotbcrly Digby.— March 1. 
Thomas Grimftone, £fq. of Kiln wick, tb 
Mi fa F. Legard, daughter of the late Sir 
Digby Legard, Bart.— 15. The Reverent 
Mr. Griffiths, M. A. or Pembroke Coir 
lege, Oxford, to Mifi Browning of the 
fame place — 18. Benjamin Keen, Efq* 
fon of the Bifiiop of Ely, and Member of 
Parliament fox the town of Cambridge, 19 
Mifs Ruck, daughter of the late G. Ruck; 
Efq. of Swiacomb, in Oxfordshire.— lot 
Peregrine Courteney, Efq. to Lady Augbfts 
Glynn.— A few days fince, at the Caftle, 
Dublin, AftmarLowry Corroy, Efq; Knight 
*f the Shire ftr the county of Tyitj&e, te> 
3 2 the> 



t«0 MOWTHftY CHROHOfcGOERi March 

eke m|hlBon»M.fcU Ltd* Ha^HHehert, 

•Mr*, daughttr of tlit Earl af Badunt- 



W.CIR Anthony Cowper, Knight.— 
«6.0 »6. Lady Tankard, lady of Sir 
Thomii Tankard, But.— Mm a. Dr. 
ICut Schomberg. — 5. At Rapboe in Ire- 
land, iht Right Rntnnd Doflor John 
Ofwild, Biftop of Raphoe.-I. Right 
JHonouratle i.Bdy Molgrave,— Lord Ferlef- 
a* Aland*— ». Sir William Barlow, 
Kot.— 14. Mn. Guidon, Wife, of Je- 
feph Gnlllos, Efq. and fitter of (he Ole- 
ic ot Sir S. Stepney, Bart.— it. Copntcfa 
Dowager of Egllhiouu.— 19. Mifa Leti- 

^8**1111181*?, daoghtei Of the late Sir 
liam Beaurbamp PtoQai, Bart, ejr his 
fecond wife— Sir BenjamihT rumen, brew- 
er, of SoiulfieUa.- SO. The Reverend 
Doctor Richard Brown, canon of Cfcrift- 
Caurch-Collcg*, Olfotd, kiug'a pioleflbr 
of Hebrew, and Lord Almoner's profelTor 
of Arabic in that Univerfitj.— Sir Jofeph 
Tocnlinfon, Knt.— 11. Lady Sen iter fori, 
retiftof Sir William Sandcrlon, Bait, and 
ifterto the late Sir Henrt Cough, Bart.— 
34.. Tli t Right Honourable Lady Anne 
Sophia Eg erron, wifeof the Biftop of but 
Lu> 1 her ladjrtiip mi the daughter of 
Henry, lata Duke ef Kent, by the Lady 
Sophia Benlinck, daughtar of the Earl of 
Port tend — ij. The Reverend Doclor 
Crccnt, Deaa of Selijbiirr. 



■ ihiii, of Drnry.Lane, tr- Martin 

H-nty Foot, of the pirlA 01 Aivtdtfsn, la 1 

wnolflipltr. — , 

II. r-;<- in omiloa. of Bridge Street, St. 
JnTtohBtie, of Stouibndge) in woietfSt 
John Brown of the toWB of KlDgflon upoa Roll, 
Mli h if I J.ckfon, late or Or rail, in Laacalhlrt, 

« ilium Hut. attur ■imifBinaa, dealer, 
folia l.efoo. late ol Holiiu. (a Vwk.de.let. 
aeWM Hiim. ft Fottrf. Fidea, In It. Join, 
Ctwir rtir-f ..f BaUnpiall Street, Loaaoe, 
lamuet F.Miti. o» Blrmlogbani, edge-tool inilter 
notwrt rotter, of Wandlworth, In Jentr, aorr. 
. lobarr Wyaaejof Greenwich, la Kent, etllteo- 
J»n«» Pownall, of BiBcghill Jtttet, London, lacat 
Wiiiiim gum. now or late of it. Mirtta* Lane, 

CI. .- rr'-With't, of Cf.-drt mr-.rr. 

Joh= ch.niBer,,Bow or larcof Crtrnfirtd, InFlint- 

fh re, mrrrjunt. 
ThOtn.l Hughoifle y JUirr*r. of Holywell, I OF rut. 

f).lre. mercer, draper, and grocer 
Tr, D ,.,.»F.dl 1 n. oincwdlty, in yVcrttflerfblre. 

I :.: mtxluat '■ 

aamaei witu. ot rtartrtEti, Mntdanar. 
Ytamaa Mee.of UtrweMa sMcaarttte. dealer, 
John Huiir.li a(td join ASfcy. M fcrtien-iSiili. 

John Mndi, l.teof Piillwaart, batiow of tat 

56b 




street, fa the 



BANKRUPTS. 

y^NTHOMf abiBimrf 01,01 amraathim, mooey 
■"now. MM, ef M*nU(, ta aWUdtc, money. 

WUilaea AaaMarfter, af it. rtal, cavat Raided) 
MH taWortenefftlte, 

JaA. 'of triad 

^nti^lBt^elryrt^ere^.eoa^D^tnand 
*Lo?Tt Tiiid. of ftoid, la Somerfeulilre.' poeet 
, Keit, miller, job upattnuv.' ' 

^^JtTO\ajWrfi(aW '" ""*" "' 

Joferli HHnkW Via* street, coldbeih-Fleldi, 

ffigg. a%as&-. aaaai, 

■jane* Tritefaa, bf n. Mary le-Mrand, filTtr- 
tvjftuti Sttrniaa, of BViftil, rMoaller and vlat- 
jajpe.. Ballmer, late M tneCirgt OuuBben, U- 



COVHTKY N E W (. 
PtnJ*i.tb, Mm. 6. 
A RR1VED Admiral Digtrj witt, hf> 
X\, fledt Ihil morning, and aQ eCDtajpibtk 
al Spithead, with three SoewA men of 
war, and alio the PfntHa, a rWh «j 
pin (hip, and four trnfamta, bntnal to tbt 
Mauritiui. The siotStj an board the Pn>> 
thaewaito ptf the tmfpanti there.' The 
Ajai, a French 6f gnn uiny vn in eden- 
piny with the iboie, hot, hj tavoor of the 
Digbtrtfctped. Sir John Raft, with the Bi- 
enlaifant, and two Span! fc mtn of *rar, 
we 1 hear, are gone toPtimcatb. 

S-ijtil, flfar,iii. From ootid aolhoribr 
we ire informed, that fadiwai the fcartity 
and dearnela of provififtntbrrsre Sir George 
Rodney't jrrtril at' Gibraliar, that 'a 
Turkey fold for jl. 151.1 mfe il. 11a. H, 
* qnek il. i), a fowl ioi. M.ikinEvri u.trl, 
goati from Biibjry 3I. ja, mutton Ind park 
-41. per lb. In ft batter Ja. CI. an lb, aanaj 
«. etch,ind Id old low CM (ti rj-gnmen. 

trail, te*rtt *a. Oa Wa^adnaf the if 
f nlbnt, inoot mldnitht, a flfc broke aeit 
la 1 Mackfmith'imnrTat VMllteon, ifi Swf. 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER, 14, 



kofkecper, which confumed 
tfila ill their furniture in* 
rtl, eight horfa, 13 tows, 
es. Jir. Smith's family eori- 
rrlbni, not one of flrhorn hid 
: to pot *o. It was fuppoleo 4 
r fct oa fire. 



D. 



fee. Sept. 17. French floop St. Vincent's* 
Willi rum, Fugar, and coffee. 20. Spanifh; 
fchopner Seignora Socaua, with prOvifiona* 
21. Schooner Kfaiia Magdelcna, with 
fifh. 39. American brig fair, 120 tons, 
15 men, with ti^ and tobacco. 

OA. 4. French [loop liberty, with bot- 
tler, c. French floop Alexander, with 
rurh, lugar, and coffee. 7. French (loop 
La 9uperbe, with hale goods, wine, aim 
provifipns. 39. French Ship St. Jean, 
with fugar, coffee, an<i cotton. 21. French 
frigate Alcmene, 28 guns, ioo men. 29. 



iv* of the grateful fenfe the 
taint of the liberal psriiclpa- 
tMt kitrgdom of the trade of 



CAN INTELLIGENCE. 

Lou oow Gaietti. 
hy-Vffict, March 4, 1780. 

stobart Sutton, late com- 
' of hie niajefty , i fhip the 
tvto 1 on the ift inftant, from 
I Maude, with difpatches from 
al Hyde Parker to Mr. Ste- 
hich the following arc extract! 



I * I A N 

DajJfa, Maweki. 

hiving beta received here that 
pal aslant bad bean given in 

jo bill for the further extent of A Frenrn floop with nava i ftorcI> fcc# ao# 
Ireland, the Houfe of Com- A F renen <i oop w i lh fugar and coffce# a 
lay voted an addrefs to hit ma- An American floop with tf.bacco. &c. 

Dec. 1. French fhip Conquereur, with 
fundries, provifions, &c. 1. French Po- 

, - _. ... ... lacre Lovely Maria, with iundnes, ptovi- 

% and to allure hit majefty of fi 0QI g c . 

to loyalty of hit faithful Com- txtr\a rfa truer from Rear-Admiral Hyde 

Parktr to Mr. Stephens, dattd Prince/a 
Royal, Gros-JJlet-Bay, St. Lucia, Dec. 23, 
1779. 

CAPTAIN Sutton not having yet left 
the fquadron, gives me in opportunity to 

Vktrahy-Vfpct, March 4, 1780. add a fupplement to my letter cf the 9th 

m Robert Sutton, late com- inftant, and to defire you will inform their 

lore! /hips, that on the iSth inftant, between 
eight aad nine o'clock in the morning* the 
Prefton being between Martinfeo and St. 
Lucia, to windward, made the fignal for a 
fleet, which was no fooncr obferved oa 
board the Princtfs Royal, than a fignal wat 
thrown out for the fhipi under my com- 
mand to flip their cables, and chafe to 
windward. The captains were then af- 
fembled at a court-martial z and as the 
fhips were in a courfe of fitting, fomc lay 
on the beel, others had their fails unbent, 
and from all of them great numbers were 
employed onnSore in wooding and watering* 
Under thefe circumftances the alertnefs and 
difpatch with which the fhipa put to fee 
was furprinng even to me, who am no 
flranger to the activity and brifknefs of the 
Englifh officers and feimen. As the fqua- 
dron flood over for Port Royal, the ene- 
my's fhips were difcovtred to be a convoy* 
Before four in the afternoon nine or ten of 
them run themfelvet on fhore on the Ifhnd 
Martinico, and were fet on fire by our 
boats, either immediately or the next moth* 

/end a lift of prizes taken fince Ing. About the fame time 1 obferved the 

Boreas engaged with e French frigate in 
Port-Royal Bay, a French rear-admiral 
with two other 74 gun fhips, flipped their 
cables and bore down upon him, which 
obliged the Boreas to fhcer off. This dex- 
trous manojurrc faved their frigate* and 
fame of their merchant fbips, The French 
admiral hauled his wind in good time, and 
for the road. The fhips 



1 Utter from Rear- Admiral Hyde 
I Mr. Stephens, dated Princtfs 
fH'tJUt-Bafa St. Lucia, Dec. 9, 

•/ yobUh the Original is not yet 

rmtwrsT. J . 
to you of the 16 th of October, 
pa with »y arrival at Barba- 
the fquadron of hit Majefty *s 
nay command. 

bill of Oftober, the Actason and 
:*rae into Carlifle-Bay, with 
'. Frigate of 28 guns, command - 
n de Bonneval s fhc waa chafed 
ins, bat ftruck to the Profer- 
thc capture of this /nip I firft 
* certainty, that the Count 
■*• gone with all his fleet to 



f Prizes Ultn h his Majijh's 
m der my C*tmana\ Mnce my lap. 
*Bttft 30. French Flute Le 
BUnit ifo men» laden with 



Americah Ychooner Salty, 60 
£ meniwfth lumber. Sept. 
!■* 4 |cD°t^ er Kaney, 40 tons kept plying 

&» with am and timber. 16. ahead of the Princcfs Royal at this time 
fe, wfthiMjflaflr, aadcof. wen the CoAoueror, Albioa, fUfabeth, 
~ ' Vigilant; 



14* MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER 



Vigilanf, and Centurion, but the Conque- 
ror a-hcad and to windward of the reft. 
About five this fliip got within difiance of 
the French rear-admiral, who began the 
cannonade. The Aeadinefs and coolnefi 
with which on every tack, the Conqueror 
received the fire of thefe three (hips, 
and returned hit own, working his (hip 
with as much exaclnrfs as it he had been 
turning into Spitftead, and on every boaid 
gaining considerably on the eurmy, gave 
me infinite pleafure : the reft of the (kips 
fhoucJ no lef» eagcrnef* to get into aclion. 
Tc war's fun-fct the Albion had got well 
tip to fee on d the Conqueror, and the other 
fhips were in aclion, but as they had work- 
ed, not only within the danger of the 
fhoals of this Bay, but within the reach 
of the batteries from whence were fired 
both (hells and (hot, 1 called them off by 
the night fignal at a quarter before feven. 
It was with incxrrcffible concern 1 then 
heard that Capt. Walter Giiffith w*> killed 
by t'ie lad kroadfide. The fcrvice cannot 
lofe .1 t'Ctter man or a better officer. The 
Conqueror had three mtn killed and xi 
wounded : the damage done to the (hip is 
not very confiderable, nor I believe to any 
of the otner ftips, as 1 have had no report 
from them. They are cruifing under Com- 
xncdure Collingwood off the Point of Sa- 
lines. We have uken nine fail of this 
convoy which came from Marfeilles under 
the convoy of the Aurora about the middle 
oi OcIjjci ; I judge that, including the 
frigate, they were zri in number j four 
more had loft company, and are )ct ex* 
peeled, rather at St. Lucia than Martinico. 
All of the French (hii-s, except thofe who 
were engaged, were in the carcnagc, I be- 
lieve in ill condition, and many of their 
crews in the hof^ital. 

On the 20th, Handing with feven fhips 
over to St. Lucia, late in the evening, I 
received a letter from Sir Henry Calder, 
informing me three large (hips were feen 
that afternoon from the Morne, fleering to 
the northward, fuppofed to be part of M. 
!a Mot he Piquet*! (quadron returning from 
Orenada. As I judged this intelligence 
vrry probable, Rear- Admiral Rowley was 
immediately detached in the Suffolk) with 
the Vengeance, Magnificent, and Stirling 
Caftlc, in pu/fuit of them. 

P. S. I am well allured the Sphynx is 
uraken by the Proferpine, after a fmart 
aclion j but, as 1 have had no letteri fince 
that time from Commodore Hotham, I can- 
not give your lordfliips the particular?. 
Copy of a Letter from Rear-admiral Hyde 

Parker ' to Mr. Stephens, dated Princefs 

Rij.i/, G*oi-JJlet B.iy, St, Lucia, Jan, a, 

1 7 Sfi. 
S ! R, 

THE delay of the merchant (hip, in 
which Cif t. Sutton is embarked, furni flies 



me with the opportunity, i 
Rowley's return with the oca 
writing you a third letter, tr. 
inform their lordfliips of the fi 
cruife, which I do by tranGniti 
of his letter to me. 

I am, Sir, your mod obedien 

humble ( 
H 
Philip Stephens, Efq. 
ExtraR of a Letter from Rear~A 

let to Rear -Admiral Hyde P, 

Si.JT.Ik at Sea, tf Mount Foot 

j;*o. 
S I R, 

I Beg leave to acquaint you, 
fuance of your order of the i 
cember latt, 1 proceeded witj 
named in the margin* , in p* 
three (hips which you had incel 

On Tuel'day the 21ft, at e: 
three ftrar.gc fail being dilcovcr 
Suffolk's maft-ficari in the no 
ordered the fignal to be made f 
chafe, which being obeyed witJ 
ell alacrity, I had the fatiifacx 
to find we gained upon them ve 

On Wcdaefday the lid, it 
th-y hoifkd French colours, hi 
luulcd them down again : at ; 
ccmc well up with the chafe, w! 
now plainly perceive were Freac 
fir*d a (hot at them, which was r 
halt an hour pad fix the Mag 
changed fever a I (hot with one of 
which, after a chafr of 14. how 
pleafure to fee (Hike to her. Sk 
be La Blanche frigate, of 36 go 
men, commanded by Monsieur C 

At eleven La Fortune fri 
guns, and 2x7 men, commanded 
vlier Marigny, ftruck to the ! 
a chafe of 18 hours. The V. 
my lee quarter having come 1 
Blanche, took charge of her, at 
the prifoneri, &c. while the Si 
and Magnificent continued the c 
ward after the third (hip, whtd 
up with and took, after a chafe < 
on Thursday the 23d ult. at 
She proved to be La Ellis ol 
and 68 men, commanded by M< 
teneaux. 

From the information of thi 
longing to the frigates before ■ 
learn, that they left Sjvannav oa 
November lair, arrived at Cre 
of December, left that place 1 
rived at St. Vincent's the 15th, 
they failed the 19th, and were. 9 
fage to Martinique. 

On our paffjgc* ta latt 1$ dt 
I fell in with the French fcl 
Martinique to America, whrci 
by the SlirHng-Csftle. In I 
36 min. I alfo fell in with 



* Vf''<j l r tug*mK9 t ftUzr.if ;c*C> tad SttfK«l;CajU(i 



IONTHLY CHRONQLOGER; 

from Grenada, bound 



loop! 
sot ni 



sot having only Americana 
is detuned at prist by the 
t sSth the Vengeance alio 
»oer, laden with filh from 
nd to Martinique. The 
icxtnefs with which the 
, and fiumen obeyed the 
:afion, were inch at tome- 
mn fay in their favour 
eft Royal, J*n. z, 17S0. 
tea ay the bf madron Jinct my 
ti of tbt f/b «/'• 
Frigate Sphyox retaken, 
nch brig La Maria Jennets, 
Iry kinas of mmhandife. 
a Anonyne, 260 tons, with 
mcrchandifc. 18. French 
ne, with lundry kinds of 
[8. French brig Le Latare. 
Lc Concorde. 18. French 
ix Jean. 18. French /hip 

• 18. French (hip Le Jean 
rench (hip L' Amide, ail 
inda of merchandifc. 22. 
La Fortune, 1100 tons, 42 
i. 12. French frigate La 
as, 22s men. 23. French 
*8 gust, 68 men. 25. An 
lex, with melafies, gunpow- 
, Ire. »7» American Hoop 
(abella, 20 tons, ten men, 
- y cotton, indigo, Sec, 28* 
oner Volante, 15 torn, fix 

Office, March 11, 1780. 
mtet from Vic* Admiral Sir 
Commander in Chief of bis 
it at Jamaica to Mr, Stephens, 
Rayah January, 1780. 
f- November a coofiderablc 
It inveftcd St. Fernando de 
:ha tSth, the garrifon and 
Porcupine were fo reduced 
inl difordcr, which raged 
thai it became necenaryto 
art, after having fpiked the 
ufced the ammunition and 

font the SaliJbnry, tom- 
ain Inglit, brought in here 

• fhip of war, of 50 guns, 
Carlos, commanded by Don 
£avelletta,from Cadit, bound 
n with braft cannon, (hot, 
Mber military floret for the 
Inglit has mown good con* 
nine fjpjrit at well before as 
mj. Enctoftd is his letter giv- 
tf the action* 

T November laft, the Pene- 
ipanim Guarda Cofta, of 10 
icn, named the Hamota Ma- 



HS 

Salifbnry, off Port Royal, Jan. 1780. 
S J ft, 

ON the 1 2U1 of laft month, at day-break, 
being then off Port de Sail, in the Bay of 
Honduras, we faw two fail to the caftward, 
the one a large (hip, the other a (loop, to 
which we gate chafe, it being then light 
breeses. After different manoeuvres, and 
the (trange (hip making fume private fignala 
through the day, at fix in the evening wc 
got pretty near, when (he hoirted Spanish 
enfign and pendant. At half p«it fix we 
fired fome (hot, which we: c immediately re- 
turned; and continued doling, with a con- 
ftant fire on both fides, till paft eight o'clock, 
when her main- mart went overboard, and 
(he fumndercd. Her mizen-mait a lib went 
during the night. 

She proved to be theSt. Carlos, of 50 gons v 
38 twelve pounders, 16 of which are brafs, 
12 fix pounders, and 397 men, a private 
(hip of war, commanded by Don Juan Anto- 
nio Zavelletta,lfrom Cadiz, bound to Fort 
Omoa, having on board 12 twenty-four 
pounders brafs cannon, a quantity of (hot and 
(hells, 5000 (land of arms, ice. 
The Hoop made off in the night. 
In the action there were four men killed 
on board the Salifbury, and 14 wounded, 
five of whom died of their wounds ; Mr* 
Miller, the mafter, was much wounded, bar 
is in a fair way of recovery. 

The Salifbury fuffered much in her fails 
and rigging, which we immediately Jet 
about repairing; as alfo in putting the 
prise into as good a date of failing and deJ 
fence as circumrrances would admit of, un- 
der the command of Lieutenant Haynes, 
firft lieutenant of the Salifbury. 

Since that time we have been beating up 
for Jamaica, which we have attained with 
fome trouble 5 and have the pleafure to in- 
form you, that throughout this fervice hat 
been carried on with a proper and fpirited ex- 
ertion of both officers and (hip's company. I 
am, Sir, your mod obedient humble fenrant, 

Charlbs In a lis. 

Sir Ptter Parker, Knt, fire- Admiral of 
tlxBlue, CSV. 



(tell 

nun 



FOR FIG N AFFAIRS. 

A Letter from Berlin, dated February 20, 
fays, the inftruftions remitted by his 
majefty, our auguft fovcreign, to M.deCar- 
mea, the new chancellor, for prefcribing the 
OT inner in which juftice (hall in future be 
adminifrered, is worthy to be regarded as a 
mafter-piece of enquiry and wifdom ; they 
enjoin, among other regulations, that it is the 
duty of that fupreme adminiftrator of juf- 
tice, to be particularly acquainted with the 
manners ar.d character of all the officers Of 
juft:cewho arefubordina'e to him* Thi::Le 
hat taken pctTeffion of inferior tribunals (hall nr»t be prefixed ov-r 
fofhisjnajfftT, by judges who may havo telatioai wr.-fins; 

a the 



I4# MONTHLY CH HO NO LOG £ ft. Mkfcfc' 



*J» tat toftta to the mparior trffeult, 
•or the latter hare any of their crcatvrtt cjn- 
yJeyedasrabaltern jufticest, that the Chan* 
•cllor mall carefully obftrf e, that no foM- 
afoii engagements paft between then) tnat 
their votes be frequently collected : and to 
pay great attention whether certain mem- 
bers always vote in the fame Banner } and 
whether mere is the Icaft rcafoa to fnfpe& 
any ftccrct collufion, fcc. 

A letter from Peterfbourg informs us, that 
the Metropolitan of Cafta and the Greeks 
fettled in Crimea, luring in 1778 presented 
a petition to the emprefi to receive them 
under her protection as her fubje&t, her 
snajefty hta panted their rcqueft by a pa* 
tent, which is printed in the Ruffian and 
Greek languages, afligning them a diftrift 
on the borders of the fea at AfofF, where 
two towns are to be built, named Ekathe- 
rinoflaw and Mariaacple, where they will 
enjoy many privileges. 

The fame letter adds, that the emprefi, 
defirous of encouraging new difcoveries, has 
ordered ten mips to be equipped annually at 
Kamfchatilu, three of which are tog© to 
the new northern Archipelago* three to. 
wards America, ai many tq OchotJkoy, ind 
one to the Kuriie iflands. 

Upwards of 100 perrons employed in re- 
ceiving the revenues of the Roman (sate, and 
wV> have been acculcd of unfaithfully pcr- 



fcrming their doty to their sUflbrcpt dengr* 
tnents, heve beep Imprifoned in the fortrea) 
of this capital, and a commHBon it appoint**} 
to try them* 

A letter from Coblents in Germany men* 
dons the following particulars s in 24 hoars 
time we have had four mocks of earth- 

?iuakes. Wo have accounts from Boppard,a 
mall town in this electorate, that at half 
paft fix yefterday evening they felt a violent 
/hock of an earthquake, the direction 0/ 
which was from South to North J and ano- 
ther was felt at the fame place this morning 
between four and five o clock, but what ia 
mod extraordinary, on the 25th, the day be* 
fore the firft earthquake, feverai of the heal J 
watches and clocks (topped Mdenly, from 
pne o'clock till half paft four, and the fpringt 
of many of them were broken. 

It is faid that the Prince Bimop of Spirt 
and force other prelates having agreed to di* 
minim Lent in their ^ioccfet, wrote to the 
court of Rome for the Pope's confent, who 
anlwered them that they might do as they 
liked in that refpe£r, not withHan ding which 
thefe changes did not take place, as tie elec- 
tor of Mentt refufed to agree to it. 

The BtmOp 0/ Spire has alio pob limed, an 
or don nance, forbidding thcMendlcant Monk* 
from impofing on tne minds of the lower 
fort of people, from whom they contrived 
(0 eatort money on various pretences. 



«*B*PP 



Jl.T II. 



The Editor mthmvwUdgMs hmjetf greatly indebted* Pe*f PLC's fir hit ingenious 
latter, as wmU me fur mil pmjl fftmomrs. Mvmy ehmnmd «/ omummy Jtadt he fat m 
foot 9 u proemre proper documents for executing the pirn he reaouMmonds -, we dare 
mot fay mere, 1st m JbomU be take* mp by others j mt the mtikty mud importance of it 
mrefrikingly obvious* Hit mfifmmu will be highly efieemed 

It gives me great fntisfumum, to have mny'pmft of our publicut'tou affronted by 

F. R. t. 

Tie Queries by the Rural Cbrifiau, except one, mre msfoUow^ mud our ingt- 
niaau correfpanaentt are requeftedto cxercife their talents ufou themt 

Why does the fun appear to move round the earth, imftmd uf$ht earth (as it is 
in nmtmre) moving round the fiat t 

Why do feme far s twinkle, mmd others mot? 

Why moot what is culled the Hmrvejt mmn appear larger thorn the moon ut amy 
other turn* ? 

Which is the wiftfi mum— the moft religious, or the mof learned? 

^fue/hon hy mmnber correjpoudent. Of what materials, mud in what manner art 
pUytug-marhlrt made ? 

An Old Cnfomer is requefed to take notice, that the very great expence za 
General Index, and the experience of' bow very few were died for when the Lzji 
wat printed in 175s, render it impraSkmbk (9 (mmffu vM hit reuutf. 



1 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS > 

T O 

CORRESPONDENTS. 
*TH£ Potticd fanwrtfrm W. S. *rtiMl rttuvti, eU witi4W**ri* win* 



IE LONDON MAGAZINE : 



iMMtliMMBMlM 




GENTLEMAN'S Monthly Intelligencer. 



For APRIL, 1780. 



■if Lord C^i;r Germjine 




Debate, on SrC«W]i«A Motion 


■aebontiick, No. XXXI. 




a Lill of P, n !,o,„ an d Penfeincra i 




>S< 




n Queiin informer Mieazi 




1- On (he %n\ of Effingham*! Mo 








..',i'i' Of* ('■■..-.;,.,■ [,.. e 




On the Mi.quii cf Reekinghi 


V. on M9d«n Hi for, 






Re-en of Alfred concluded 




Dtb.tei in the Hiuff or Coi-min* 


Of Esw.nl the Elder 




j Acjoonmd Deoa:e un Sir Georfie &>1 


Ot Athrlflan 






>f France rcfomed 




On 'he Arm* Efli-na'ci 


In ion the Confrqaence of Lui 






it Ctremonica continued 


161 




Benidiflmni 


ibid. 




TheBleHir^ofEm 


161 


Vote of Think! to Admiral R 


Of Houfet, Shipt, fick A 


limlll, 


ney 

Th: Budget rptned i 


On Etorcifmt of Infect), Mo 


a, lie. 


On th: Commitment of 

Surke'iBi'l i 




,sl 


The Rift enacting. Claufe in 


- A Cuinefe Ant (dote 




Bill 


Stati Patiii 




KlVIIW or NtW PoiICATtOK 


hph Y.irke't lift Memorial 


the 


Of the Buutici of Rwilfl An 


a General 






■fat el ,hr E*preftof Rufiia 


168 


Phiiofoj.hicil Eriquiriei, by Hi 






Smith, M. D. il 


«M of a Pitrior. 




The Vatcrudbatiin't Bath Gutdt, ie. . 


— Of a Courtier 




Liit or New Books i 


UlltKIIITAIT HlJTO. 




Poetical Eiiah 


siniheHcuieof Commoni 


170 


Monthly Chunclocer 


Wirh the following 


imbtllifnWDU, ili. 


A flrikini Likcn.fi «f 


LOR P 


GEORGE OERMAINE, 








brieve ViewofthcNawBr. 


untitl 


A1BISMEAB, With the Hi LL« of Ta? L 



LONDON, printed foi R. Baldwin, at No. +7. in Paiei-no.ier-Ri 

lunar be had complete S«», Inm The Ycu 173a 10 the prtlenl Time, m 

tad lUtcbcd, 01 any Sitgli Volume to complete Sew. 



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^a^m^m^m 



THE 



ONDON MAGAZINE, 

FOR APRIL, 1780. 



wmt 



mammmm—m 




B ACCOUNT OF THE RIGHT HONOURABLE LORD 
GEORGE GERMAINE, &c. &c. *c. 

XWitb mm e*grm*d Portrait^ after a Drawing from the Lifi.) 

Lower Rhine to act againft the French. 
Inftructions under the king's fign ma- 
nual were I ike wile delivered Co his lord- 
fliip with his commiflion, directing him 
conftantly to carry into execution fuch. 
orders as he might receive from the 
faid Prince Ferdinand, or fuch, other 
perfon qs might hereafter be comman- 
der in chief ct his majefty's faid army. 
His lordlhip with all convenient ipeed 
repaired to Germany, and put himfelf 
St the head of the Britifh forces. Un- 
fortunately, in a (hort fpace of time, a 
coolnefs was -difcovered between the 
prince and Lord George, which ocean* - 
oned foine open hints that they would 
never agree. Attention mould have 
been paid to this circumftance as footi 
as it was made known to administration 
at home; instead of which he was con- 
tinued in the command, and on the 



I 



GEORGE SACKVILLE 
the youngeft fon of Li - 
one! Cranfidd Sack- 
Title, duke of Dorfet, 
(grand-father to the 
prefent duke) was born 
in the month of J anna- 
te, and by the courtefy of 
bore the title of Lord George 
He, till the death of Lady Betty 
meytowhofe cftate he fncceeded, 
it law, being, we believe, her 
fit nephew, according to whofe 
t tallied for and obtained an a£l 
anient to enable him to take and 
firname of Germaine. 
Ibrdmip was bred a foldier, and 
da firft campaign in Flanders, 
is late Royal Highncfs the Duke 
iberland in the war of 1744. 
ha breaking out of the rebel- 
Scotland in 1745, the Britifh 
were Aiddtnly lent for home, 
d George Sack ville, at that time 
t of hone, went with his troop 
be command of General Wade 
artb. From that period to the 
5*, we hare not been a We to 
any memoirs of his lordfhip 
of communication to the public ; 
inion of intereft with merit we 
id him enjoying the rank of 
nt-general, and foon after the 
' the late Duke of Marlborough, 
it commander in chief of tbe 
forces in Germany, his lord (hip 
Minted to that important com- 
The duke was carried off by a 
Ac head quarters of the army 
fter on tbe 10th of October, and 
sorge Sack vi He's commiflion to 
tna wan dated the 31ft of Oc- 
$f* -Thil cotnmiffion expreflly 
that he wai to a& under the 
id of Prince Ferdinand of 
ick, who was genentliffimo of 
federate*, army auembkd o* the 



firft day of Auguft 1759 tne tamoua 
battle ot Minden was fought, when an , 
incomplete victory was gained ovei the 
French army, and that it was net the 
moft complete that evtr was knov.-n, 
Prince Ferdinand afcribed to the roif- 
conduft of Lord George, in not o 1- ey- 
ing his orders to bring up the Britiih 
cavalry to fupport the intantry when, 
engaged with, and fevercly luffciingby, 
the enemy. 

On the ftrength of a private letter 
from Prince Ferdinand to lus Iare mi- 
jefty, his lordmip was difiuilled fro»;i 
all his military employments, and the 
clamours of the public running high 
againft him, upon his return heme, he 
publilhed a thort add re (5, wiitten in a 
mafterly ftyle, and clearly dw-monftrat- 
ing that he pofTeflTtd great literary ti- 
Icnti. At the fame time, that his lord- 
(hip requefted the public to lutptnd 
their judgement on his cafe, he was in- 
defatigable in his applications ibr a 
court-martial ; the lentence of that 
court* martial randertd him iucapabie 
T a of 



U 8 MEMOIRS OF LORD G. GERMAINE. April 

oi fervirg Hs majertv in any military 
opacity whatever. The king greatly 
incenfrd agnir.tt him, ordered it to bie 



published ii> ail qoirters of the globe, 
where tlure west any Britifh troops 
ftarioricd, at the Jiead of the refpcfiive 
corps, in order, as it was ex pit tied, 
•• That officers being convinced that 
neither high birth nor great employ- 
ments can (helur offences of fuch a na- 
ture; r.nd that feeing they are fubjeft 
to ecu lures, much wcrfc than death to 
a man who hr.s any fsnfe of hencur, 
thev mav avoid the fatal corucquences 
of difobedience of oilers." To com- 
plete hi* ditgrace, his majeAr in coun- 
C1 j 



the beginning of the feflton of 1775, 
his lordftiip in 1 warm ipeeeb, having 
declared bis opinion on die fide of ad- 
mini fixation in the favour of the^coer- 
cive roeafures propofed to be carried on 
for reducing America to obedience, he 
was aiked by the minifter a few days 
after if be would lupport his opinion 
by his advice and take a leading part 
in administration. Hit lord (hip gave 
his aflent, and was accordingly appoint- 
ed Secretary of State for the colonies and 
Firft Lord Commiflioner of the Board 
of Trade, in the room of the Earl of 
Dartmouth, who was made keeper of 
the privy leal upon the reugnauon of 



called tor the council book, and the Duke of Grafton. This ' appoint- 

ordered his name to be ftnitk out of raent took place on the loth of Novem- 

the iiit of priv) counfellors, and the bcr 1775, and from that time his lord- 

tatr.e was done in Ireland. ulp has had the chief direction of the 




the evidence en which hi> li-rdlhip was 
tor.\.cttd, and 10 this hour his ir.no- 



%s :*..-? a* well as the preps iery cf his 
to.u«uct *> contended fcr by net a icw. 
The on'v part thereto! e we have to take 
rt..\ **.:;*£ th:» delicate lubject i«, to 
\x't.- on: ivadcr* to the very amp!s ac- 
4 »-vrt cf the u.ai ; ar-J of his Sc. J£. : p"s 
i'.,"sr.e; srJ to thf copv of F«'i&ce 
re ,!■:• .r. 1 .** letter to hi* *a:e suavity, 
ir. \*-. xxi.X. cf e::: :r.aga:sne for tie 
wvv 1 ?»."*. l\v»t* c.Tv:".;:n.Tar.:ed h.s 
U»-a.l*.ii» I.\rd m it:I;e.«ert dur*rj the 
iVo.s »c ru-ito.i or the i-t< ki:t£*s le-^r:. 

■.; Tni : eKv'» ac- 



*.' 



k~* !••*■ 



•tsr ?4i* prv.j-. 
he *i*;vt:ei a^iin 



C . i'lOl' . 

vV -ch oc c*i:o-*r.i rt..-.y j»ubl:c ariraai- 
* .-■ .•:•*. Ki;: we Jo .v: r.:*JI hi* !oa!~ 
i. v v, av\ v \ \ eiv^.voyn'er: ux/ri £0- 
\.: ureter ti".' 



\»he- 



txe :::c:?:h of D.-.ia:i<r 
\*a* -tr.virud *ioe trra- 



I « 



I ri.ii*u. ia :Ve *wa cf Mr. K.:t. 



better account of the plans, operations, 
and events of that war, than any com- 
rcects we car. make. We therefore beg 
leave to refer the reader to that hiftory, 
and we (hail c!c:"e this account, by ob- 
ferving that i: is the opinion of his lord- 
lli p*s fr.er.^s that he poucAes great ta- 
lents for the iise cf civil life, and was 
always better calculated for the ftatef- 
rcar, the ruan cf letters, and the gen- 
tiesac, than tcz aa entexpriilng ge- 
neral. 

His lerifirp carried the daughter 
ar.d cchiir ot John Sanbroke, Efqs 
by whesi he had three daughters, and 
a icnbcrs i-S;, his ladycjjsedin 1778, 
ari His Ic:«ij&lp continues a widower. 
He represents in the present parliament 
the bc::u£h cf Ei& Grinftead in Suf- 
:\ the fcrcer parliament, we be- 
he was xc^iaer for Hythe in 






K "^. w\vv.o»J ?." Aether en:;. la 



THE HYPOCHONDRIACS. No. XXXI. 

* % rsT? r«Y.^ Ik M^-v.-XTtfT. AtTLCS GCLLIUS. 

•• \W ^ ;:":.* J c* •:.; h * ficul:ic* !■ fre-*-.*e=t -- J exre5re cup*.** 
1*.*: S? •* *: ■/*: ;r»: *": *f -•■• 1x1 .'trs ri.v.rai^E cr -rfijxroc; u> that a mam 



I .».!, . :,*; at ^." ^..rr *.•> v^?^ - K.^i: as «r.i •rar a ierious meditn* 

. . .- .■• •; * x» -..* I ::vjvJ r *"*.r^ rvs ^j^:t :^ roc o«n:taxt Dancing, a* 

, ■• v . >\ ■ r < -5 :"$ t*- i?c.ic: :-■«. -^ is ■« Aum jmtmt J9- 

» .. ,,t •.< .. .-.-i-; .1 .,?■«• rfr-.As— 'Nc --ir wicccs wfcen tober v M 

!..». ^ . ^ ... ...unm::^^ ^.:i .^ X>aA^^r^ ix*i*er, iaeif ku been 

jm4n 



THE HYPOCHONDRIAC*'. 



\t& of a very well compoled 
ingenious Sign or Gallini. 
ItiJarious Dr. Prie/fley has 
lit elementary tracts anda- 
inciples and progrefs, the 
Be&s of Dm n kennel*, with 
f ftylc, that if the paflage 



H9 



lam ingenii <u.y tu: /que. ft mens £? corpus 
bomints *uino Jiap art : . Sed tnim Plato 9 
fa prim j fef ,'ccHtiJv de l*vU>hs % non y ut 
tile nehnh op naha'ur, I'rrutu. :w. ijlam 
turpijjunam, qua labcjacere £? imminuere 
bominum tncntes fold, laudti-j.i \ fid 
banc largwrtrt faui* j+cundi&rMKque 'Vi- 



aced upon the ftage with a mi irrvitaiioner.i. qua. jleret fuh quibuf- 
crous inflexibility of fea- dam quafi whins C mc^ylris convi- 



u Weft on ufed to exhibit in 
mid not fail to fet a play- 
roar, as loud as ever wine 
a table. 

rtainly need hot be afraid 
iting upon Drinking in a 



*viorum.fdbriij t non Utprcbi:i;:t. Nam 
& modicis boneftifque i'.ier bibe.dn™ re~ 
mijfionibus refia tnU^rcriq^e auu.os ad 
inftauranda fobnetn.is tjicia e~ifl : ma- 
*vit y reddique cos fenjim iahor: rt^ue 
ad intentioncs rurfitm ca^endas fi.ri La- 
bi liores : C& Jimul, Ji qui I'.uius ia Us 



oer, as one of the great arts 

hen well conducted, mould affccHonurn cupiditatumque error a inef- 

> ridicule, when it is conG- fent quos aliquis pud.r r ever ens concefa- 

he divine -Plato himielf has ret, ea omnia Jine gravi per 'icuh, liber- 




oks there are feveral parti- non defngiendas lJJ'c tuque refpuendas bu- 
nces applicable to. his own jusctmodi exerc'natioies advcjuM pr«- 
overnment, fuch as that a putfandum ijini vi'Mntiam \ rustic wlum 
tottld not tafte wine during umquarn contincntcm prorfum a* nmpe- 
~" - rantcm fa'is fid titter t vijum ej/e t cujus 

t vita t virtufque non inter tpfu errorum pc- 
rictda csf in mediis wluptaium ilhcebris 
explorata Jit. Nam cut Libt <nia Gra- 
tiarque otr.nes ccn r vi e viorum incognita fiut, 
qutquc iLalum omnuio expersjit , Ji cum. 
t it, and I fliall endeavour forte ad / a.ticipanlas tjufmodi volup- 
o Engliih as well as I can, fates aut voluntas tuurii, ant cafus ia- 

duxeritf aut ..ecejj'.tcs computer it, dele* 
niri plerumque i£ eapi ; ntque mcnlim 
animumque ejus conjiper v, fidzri quadafn 
mz'a i Slum labefcerg. Longredicndum 
igitur cenfuit & tamquam in ac'u qua- 
darn cum ifoluptariis rebus, cuir.quc ijla 
<vini lictntia com /.tin us dec cm end urn : ut 
adverjum eas ncn juja fimus tut I nee 
abfcnUa ; fed ^jig.re animi & ceftfltinti 
tbidsne adufque ludibria pr<tfentia modcraioque ufu temper ant ia?* 
' m Cdsntiviis juvenum, qiue continentiamque tucamur\ & calcfaclo 
enis btbdomadsbus luna fo- fimul refotoque animo Ji quid in co <vel 
fuit f fimulatque modus epulis frigid* trifliti* vel torpentis verecun- 
ailes deleftabilefque fcrmonis dUjuerit delcmus" 

" There was a man from the Ifland 
of Crete who came to live at Athens, 
and" in a- rain -glorious manner aiTumcil 
the character of a Platonick philoso- 
pher. He was, however, an inlignih- 
cant, trifling fellow, a mere boaller of 
pofleffing the Grecian eloquence, antf 
lb much a drunkard as to be laughed 
at by every body. This man found 
his way into the fealis of the young 
men held at Athens every lunar week, 
and as fpon a* lupper was over and 



it he is in office. But the 
lit of that great man's 
on. Drinking is exceedingly 
iv AmIms Gtuisu in the c hap- 
ten my motto is taken. 
1 is fo well exprefted that I 



5 of any translation into our 
that author, though con- 
a variety of inftruclion and 
■ft. 

Ue Creia quifpiam *tatem 

j PUtonicmm fe ejfe pbilofo- 

t & nndtrier gejhbttt : erat 

mmu & nugator atque in 

fhrim Jadabundus, & 



libi 



JUentio ad audiendum pe- 
rptmbat : atque id genus vili 
verborum caterua toft 'aba - 
d bibendum, idquefe facer e 
Platonic* pnedicabat j tam- 
1 in librisy quos de legibus 
mudes ebrittatis cotiojijjime 
Uilmque eft earn bonis ac 
ns cenfuxfft. Ac jimul inter 
ttwum crebris & ingentibus 
f ingenimm ingurgitabat \ fo- 
pmdam dscens & uuitabu- 



IS* THE HYPOCHONDRIACS. 

tiftful and agreeable conversation had perance whofc life had nev 

begun, he would beg of the company led amidft dangers of error, 

to be filent that he might be heard, tue tried amidft the alii 

and in a coarfe diforderly tumult of pleafure. For be to whom 

words would urge all of them to drink and graces of convivial fefti 

away ; and this forfooth he pretended known, and who hat never 

to do upon the ftrength of Plato's opi- them, if ever inclination le 

nion, as if Plato in his books of laws carries, or neceflity oblig 

had very fully written the praifes of tafie thefe pleafurts, is ii 

dmnkennefs, and declared it to be ufc- tangled and taken, nor cai 

ful to good and gallant men. At the and foul remain firm, but 

fame time in the midft of this kind of an unufual ftroke. He thoi 

difcourfe, he quite drowned his facul- fore that we mould engage 

tics in frequent and excefltve cups, lures as if in a field of 

{hying, that to have a man's mind and among the reft with the ] 

body inflamed with wine cheriftied and Drinking, that we may be 

incited genius and virtue. But the them not by flight or aWb 

truth is, that Plato in his firft and fe- vigour and conftant prdenc 

cond books of laws, does not, as that and a moderate ufe of wha 

wretch fuppofed, commend that bafe able, may maintain tempi 

drunkennefs which enfeebles and dimi- continence; and that oar I 

m flies the understanding; but does not once warmed and. comforts 

difapprovc of that free and joyous in- get rid of any latent, cold J 

dulgence in wine which was pra&ifed torpid timidity.** 

under the fuperintendance of fome fo- This excellent -pa/Tage pro 

bei mafters and governors of convivial divine Plato was lenfiole thi 

meetings. For he thought that by wine is a great pleafure» a 

moderate and decent intervals of re- requires being trained to n 

laxation over wine, our minds are re- in it. It alio mows in tl 

ftored and renewed for the performance manner the advantages whsc 

of feVious duties, and that they are may derive from Drinking. 

gradually cheered and rendered more that Aulus GtUltu has left n 

lit for reluming their ftudies. As alio for writing more in this pa 

that if they have any erroneous affeo not fear cenfure on this acoo 

lions and defires which a kind of re- a periodical author, like 01 

fpeclful diffidence conceals, all thefe drawn for the militia, will 1 

may in the eafy liberty of wine be dif- if he finds as good a man in 

covered without great danger, and put I take it for granted I (hall 

in the way of being corrected and pratfed for the fubftitutwn> ; 

cured. And Plato in the fame place ger de Coverlsy's ■ chaplain 

alio fays, that we mould not (hun or giving his con gr eg atio n the i 

re rule lcenes of Drinking, becaufe they Til lot Ion or Barrow, or offcc 

will ferve as excrcifes to fecure us divines, inftead of his own. . 

again ft the violence of wine. For he ly none of my readers can be 

n^ver reckoned any man to be of fuf- with mm attick rutwmg % s Wttt 

fluently approved continence and tem- 

Erramum in ttt HyjxxbcmJriack, A#. XXX, p. 101, c$L 1, L mlt.rmd 0/ 

■ "J — ■' ■ »■■ 1 l gggmnaBMassje 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZIH 
SIR, 

IT having been pofitively aflerted, in larly defcribed to be the fsf 

molt of the newfpapers (which have appeared 43 years before thi 

lately come into my hands) that there our Saviour; and afterwards i 

will be a Comet vilible, fometime next in which Julius Csefar was aJG 

month, and for fcveral fucceeding I muft obferve, that it is t 

months ; which is faid to be u the fame this comet mould make dHrerei 

phxnomenon, which was obferved in in the +^d year before Chrift 

the year 1680, by that great luminary tcrwards in the year in whi 

Sir J Jane Newton, and by him particu- Caefar was aflaflinatcd s for 



ON CO 

vet the period of this co- 
75 years ; whereat the dif- 
hefe intervals, is only one 
j Ecbard't Roman hiftory 

R* 374» wc find tnat Julius 
iflafllnated, in the 4-id year 
its indeed, it is poffible a 

be feen in two years to- 
• the laft time, this comet 
td, was from the latter end 
lifto, to thefpringin 16I1, 
hit was one and the fame 
ow if we examine Pliny's 
Lib. % and 14, we (hall find 
which Sir Ifaac Newton de- 
lta latter end of the 3d book 
icipia, and which was ob- 
him in the year 1680,) to 
nd 44 years before the birth 
now, and' from that time to 
i which Julius Caefar was 
, it two years; which is a 
e than any comet was ever 
it one period to vkit our fvf- 
sat k js fcarce poflible this 
into one and the fame comet, 
—That this comet appeared 
tfa year before Chrift, we not 
the authority of Pliny, but 
of Augnf us Caefar himfelf 5 
alarly defcribes it (the fame 
Sir .Ifaac Newton) and fays 
d during the time of his 
sich began on the 13d Sept. 
t birth day) and continued 
day* : now this being a pub- 
sade it more particularly no- 
r undoubtedly it might ha?e 
1 a longer time had it been 
(fee Crmtir, page 135 the 
ion). — If we trace the peri- 
omets, we fliall find this a- 
acaiarly defcribed by Maleia, 
m of the Antioc|itan Chro- 
»' have appeared the next 

the con fu late of Lamtadius 
Iff, in the year of Chrilt 531, 
■JHum was emperor. The next 
an we have of this great body 
■I was in the year 1106, when 
••asking of Engl and: itcmerg- 
rf the fun's rays on Friday Feb. 
1 ue evening, and was feen for a 
■afterwards every evening. The 
Pvaace of this wonderful phie- 
Jj^as obferved (and particu- 
■fcibed) by the immortal Sir 
••ton himfelf, in the year 1680, 
■* )Q. 16 h. 47 m. when it 
f S>' in Leo, and had i° tV 



MET8, \$x 

N. Lat. it moved through Capricorn, 
Aquarius, Pifces, Aries, Taurus, and 
was Lift feen 00 43' 4" in Gemini, 
having U° 45* 5*" N. Lat. on March 
9d. 8h. 38 m. in the year 16S1. Now, 
if we trace thefc y ears back, we m ail 

find 1681 — Hoi = 1x06 — 531 — 

531 + 44 n 575 the deduced period. 
Therefore in the year 2256 (and not be- 
fore) this faid phenomenon may be ex- 
expected to be feen again ; when Heaven 
avert the mock ! if Jt mould have con* 
tinued a progreflive approach, each pe- 
riod towards the path of our earth : 
for the laft time it appeared, it came 
fo near it, that had it come towards the 
fun 31 days later than it did ; it had 
fcarce left our globe one femi diameter 
of the fun towards the north j and 
what would be the confenuence of two 
fuch bodies moving with fuch force, 
and meeting in contact (which is not 
impoffible) our great Creator only 
knows. Sir Ifaac Newton has demon- 
strated this comet to be 1000 times 
hotter than red hot iron : and as we 
are sold that this earth is once to be 
deftroyed by fire (and the Almighty 
brings about effects by natural caules) 
it is not at all improbable, nor any way 
unreafonable to fuppofe that fome fuch 
/hock may caufc the diflblution of the 
earth : (and may God grant its inhabi- 
tants at that awful moment may he pre- 
pared to meet their doom !) But this is 
all conjecture : I mall therefore take a 
further furvey of the nature of co- 
met*.— It is not impoffible but a comet 
may appear in the next month (though 
the one above defcribed cannot) yet if 
one does, it muft have been calculated 
by a more judicious aftronomer than I 
pretend to be.— The comets (I mould 
think) that any perfon can predict, 
with any fort of certainty, will appear 
in the following years, 1789, 1833, "J°9» 
191S, 1984, 2046, 2060, 2135, 2175, 
2211, 2256, &c. yet there may be levc- 
ral comets in the interims (which may 
appear) for' there have been 21 cli fie rent 
comets obferved befides thefe I have 
fpoken of; and which doubtlcfs will re- 
turn back, but, at what times or pti ioJs, 
future ages muft determine ; for, at pre- 
fent, it leems to be a fecrct to any but 
that great God who is the author and 
director of all created beings.— I am 
fir, yours, J. JACICSON, 

Teacher of Mathematics, &c. 
Nortb-AUertou, April 17, 1780. 

TO 



IS* 



April 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZINE. 



SI2 t 

1 Sometime iince Taw a query propofed 
by your correfpondcnt W. S. the 
population of which was, What rank 
imitation might be laid to bear in th# *r«-' 
tural order of things, ami confequently 
ho\y far diftant from truth? It muft be 
allowed, that all imitations proceed 
from fcme original ; and when that 
imitation is equal in mimic kry to the 
original in reality^ it confcqucntly is 
eo t ual /in rank, and has arrived at the 
truth. All poetrj, though what we call 
original, is no more than the verbal 
imitation of natural acls, whether in 
defcribirg the rural (bene, the ruftic 
ftvain, or the flniihcd beau. AW paint- 
ing is no more than imitation of nature 
in the artful difplay of colours. All 
mufic is only an imitation of nature, 
«rhofe original may be faid to be the 
human voice, or the chanting of the 
feathered tribe. And even our religion 
ought to be the imitation in life of our 
great patron the blefled Saviour Chrift. 
Now, let us endeavour to equiparste 
thefe few remarks : can the moft ex- 
cellent and finifhed poet equal in his 
mufe the fubjeft of the theme he im- 
plores j or can his defcription of a rural 
iccne afford the plea Cure of the fecne it- 
ielf? Can a Raphael f an Apelles, or 
a Reynold, equal the features of a Rofa- 
tuond in their artful difplay of (hades ; 
or with their unparalleled colours in imi- 
fatten equal thole of the rainbow in na- 
ture? Can a Giardiui, or the molt 
fldlful performer on a mu ileal inftm- 
ment, excel the feathered tribe in 
charming the ear with their enchant- 
ing notes j or equal with imitation on 
an instrument the natural voice of a 
Mifs Harrop ? Or can the pious Chris- 
tian (in any refj>e£l) equal that great 
patron he imitates ? If tbofe can arrive 
at thefe pitches of perfection, then s 
im » .tion equal to nature; but whether 
thty arc, cr not, is referred to the judge- 
runt of every candid reader, who, I 
fhir.ky will eafily determine for himfelf. 
I'.'.dttd, in the common order of things, 
one pcrfon may imitate the <works 9 ac- 
tions, or <urriti;:gs of another ; and may 
fonietimes ec/ual, if not e>u:el, the iV»/- 
tattJ . but this is no more than imitat- 
ing the works of an imitator, and mult 
consequently be a long way diiiauctd 



from truth iu the natural order of 
things. 

A few other queries were propofed in 
your laft by the rural Cbriflia*, the 
anfwers to which are briefly as below : 

I. Whpever mtth failed under a gentle 
breeze of wiiuj* on a fmooth tide, in a 
veflel down any river, would fuppofc 
the bafe whereon he flood to be fixed 
(which to him indeed doth not fen fib! y 
move) but by looking on a fixed obje$ 
on the more he would imagine it to 
move. This naturally accounts for the 
fun, which is the fixed objt&, to appear 
to move round the eartn, when it ia 
reality (like the veflel patting a fixed 
object) is moving round the fun. 

% . Some $ars are at fo great a diftance, 
and confequently lb very fmall to our 
fight, that the particles of duft (of 
which the air is full) frequently eclipfe 
them, which caufea the fwtnkling ; | 
whilft thofe q£ greater magnitude can- 
not have their light that obftrucled, 
and therefore moot forth a ileady luftre, 

3. In Northern latitudes, the figns 
Pijccs and Aries rife with the fmafieft 
angles ; therefore, when the moon is in 
thefe figns fhe rifes for feveral days to- 
gether nearly at the fame hour j but 
Her rifing in thefe figns on any part of 
the year (except autumn) is in the 
day, and therefore invifibje ; but in au- 
tumn fhenfcspn thefe figns immediately 
after the fun is fct, and afford* a noc- 
turnal light for the laborious farmer to 
reap the fruits of his labour by, and if 
therefore called the harvefl moon ; and 
which then appears larger than at other 
times i becaufc in thefe figns (he is 
nearly oppofue the equator, and is con- 
fequently neareft to our earth. 

4. As the moft ItarneJmzn endea- 
vours to make his name immortal on 
tin's fide the grave, fo the moft rrligicm 
endeavours to gain a happy immorta- 
lity hereafter. Now, as the praife of. 
the former can but laft to the end of 
time* whilft the happinefs of the other 
is enduring to all e'ermty\ it is very 
evident, that the latter muft bo the 
iMiftji man. 

I am, Sir, yours, 

J- J* 

Nortballtrton, April 17, 1780. 



52 



4P 



FOR THE LONDON MAGAZINE. 
IE PLEASURES AND ADVANTAGES OF RISING EARLY, 

AND A COUNTRY LIFE. 

(IN A LETTER TO THE EDITOR,) 

Sweet is the breath of mom, her riling fweet, 
With charm of carl i eft birds $ pleafant the fun 
VTben firft on the delightful land he fpreads 
Hit orient beams, on herb, tree, fruit, or flower, 



GlLnVring with dew; 



MlLTOK. 



ill die pJeafuret that recom- 
rad a country life, that of rifing 
a morning teems the mo ft al- 
u4en the fpirks are refreshed 
eons, after a regular reft, and 
•p light and cbearful, are fen- 
the quickeft impremons from 
■fiag object. In thefe ieafons, 
bal joy and fercniry diffuie 
at through the*heart and tera- 
l wa fed a kind of renewal of 
ar and powers of youth. The 
I appearance of the morning 
ie gentle grateful warmth of 
fefreiiiae fun, the variety of 
rfpefts, the (inell of healthful 
roody fires, and the thoufand 
igrances that exhale from every 
r, hedge and dewy walk, ac- 
id with the cbearful melody 

the chirpings and bufy hura- 
f induftnous infects, the in- 
id voices of refponfive flocks 
a, the tinkling of teams, and 
left fimple mirth of labouring 

relieve the melancholy of the 
bene and hour, and infpire the 
mind with imagination and 
Milton's defcriptive lines are, 
uch a time to return upon us 
■liar entertainment. 

ho long in populous city pent, 
safes thick, and fcweci annoy the 

* 

isg, on a fammer'a morn, to breathe 
ic pleafant villages and farmi 

from each thing met conceives 
at « 

I af grain, or tedded graft, orkine, 
each rant fight, each rural found— 

se influence of fo many fweet 
m as then panels us, we are 
rith a mixture of anger and 
i call out upon the lenfelefs 
multitude, in fomc feaibnable 
»• Mao. 1780, 



warm reproof, like what we find in 
Mr. Thompibn\ beautiful poem of 
Summer : 

Falfly luxurious, wi!j not man awiltcj 
And fpri.iging from the bed or Sljth, enjoy 
The cool, the fragrant, and the filcnt hour, 
To meditation due and facrcd fong ? 
For it there ou^ht io flees can .chaim the 

wile r 
To He in dead oblivion, luting half 
The fleeting mjav:nu of too Jhort a life ? 
Total extii.&ion of th* enlj^hten'd foul I 
Or die to fcv'iifh Viauity alive, 
Wilder 'd and tolling thro* diftemper*d 

dreams ? 
Who would in fuch a gloomy ft ate remain 
Longer than Natnre crave, when ev'ry mufir, 
And ev'ry blooming pleafurc wait without 
To blcfi the wildly devious Morning walk ? 

In this fenfe, the generality of our idle 
fa/hionable people are acting the part 
of a foolifli lover, doatingly enamoured 
on the beauties of a miftrefs, who yet 
choofes to flay till the bloom of ail her 
charms are worn off, before he fixes 
his refolution of efpoufing her. My 
. readers may take part in the pleafure, 
which a patiage or Mr. Ifaac Walton's 
has afforded me, a writer of peculiar 
character, and happy above all others 
in alluring you by a negligent beauty, 
in a purely natural (tile, and an art- 
lefs mafterly firaplicity. 

" Under that broad beech (fays he) 
I fat down j and the birds in the ad- 
joining grove feemed to have a friendly 
contention with an echo, whole dead 
voice feemed to live in a hollow cave 
under the brow of that prim ro ft hill, 
where I fat viewing the filver (beams 
glide filently toward their center, the 
tempeftuous fea, yet lometimes oppofed 
by rugged roots and pebble ftone$, 
which broke their waves, and turned 
them into foam. And lometimes I 
.beguiled time by viewing the harmless 
U lambs 



154 ON THE PLE 

""ambs $ fome fleeping in the cool made, 
while others fported themfelves in the 
chearful fun, and faw others craving 
comfort from the fwoln udders of their 
"bleating dams —While the owner of 
thefe pleafant meadows, that had a 
plentiful eftate, and not a heart to 
think fo, had at that time many law- 
fuits depending, that both damped his 
mirth, and took up fo much of his time 
and thoughts, that he himfelf had not 
leifure to take the fweet content that I 
(who pretend no title to them) took in 
his fields. For I could there fit quiet- 
ly, and, looking on the water, fee 
fome fifties fport themfelves in the fil- 
ver ftream ; others leaping at flies of 
fcveral fhapes and colours : looking on 
the hills, could behold them fpotted 
with woods and groves : looking down 
rhe meadows, could fee here a boy 
gathering lillies and ladyfmocks, and 
there a girl cropping culverkeys and 
cowflips, all to make garlards fuitable 
to this pleafant month of May. Thefe 
and many other field-flowers did fo 
perfume the air*, that I thought that 
very meadow like the field in Sicily, 
of which Diodorus fpeaks, where the 
perfumes rifing from the place makes 
the dogs that hunt in it fall off and lofe 
their hotteft fcent. I fay, as I thus 
fat joying in my own happy condition, 
and pitying this foor-ricb man, that 
owned this and many other pleafant 
meadows about me, I did thankfully 
remember what my Saviour faid, That 
the meek po fiefs the earth, or rather 
they enjoy what the others poflefs and 
enjoy not.** 

In my beloved fummer fallies, from 
the confinement of the unpleafant, to 
me the always difigreeable town, after 
the folitary penfive walk of an inviting 
Morning, it is no little part of my en- 
tertainment to feek out the diverfion of 
fome cottage aje-houfe (nigh an un- 
frequented road) ornamented, for a fign, 
with the homely remnants of a leathern 
Jack, or a mofs-grown Billet, erected 
with rude and ancient walls from the 

J>arent clods on which it flands ; its 
ow thatched roof obfeurely covered by 
a furrounding grove of high and fhady 
trees, that reflect their deepened ver- 
' dure on the duflcy windows, and fur- 
-nifh the apartments with a conftantand 
.agreeable' twilight. In this fylvan 
manfion, with the reflexions and tcm- 
' perance of an Epiclstus, I take the 



AgURES OF 



April 



higheft fatisfaction to refrefh myfctf 
with the innocent breakfaft of my 
healthy forefathers, a cruft from the 
plain brown loaf, and a dice of fa- 
voury cheefe, cleanlily made from the 
udders of the good family cow, and to 
take off the chilling damps of the early 
hour, by the chearful blase of a fra- 
grant wood Are, over a cup of ale. 
After this, I indolently faunter up and 
down like one of the old peripatetic 
fhidents, and obferve the prudent oeco- 
nomy of my induftrious noftefs, in her 
forecaft for the occafions and bufinefs 
of the day, among her orderly domef- 
ticks, a plain neat daughter or two, 
or a home fpun, clownifh boy, and am 
witnefs to her concern for the cravings 
of her hungry fwine, and her diligent 
attendance in muttering and feeding 
her poultry. Or feated in a nook of 
the fpacious chimney, with the obfeu- 
rity and ftate of an Indian monarch, I 
appear with all the dignity of a fpec- 
tator, in filent gravity, furrounded by 
a circle of honefl clowns, and attend 
to their ridiculous mirth and harmleft 
raillery. In this kind of primitive £• 
tuation, my fancy revives the idea of 
that envied innocence the poets have fo 
happily given to their Golden Age; 
and I feem like one of thole celebrated 
arbitrators appointed to decide the vo- 
cal contefts that I read of in Theocritus 
or Virgil. 

Thefe are pleafuret which a man of 
mv unfashionable temper, and a lover 
of Nature in rural fcenes, may agree- 
ably enjoy. But there are a fet of peo- 
ple, who, from a fort of mode, afreet 
a country retirement, who are no ways 
qualified to relifli its happinefs. Mr. 
Tradelove has acquired a moderate 
fortune, and has retreated from bufi- 
nefs to a pleafant convenient feat, a 
few miles from London. But how 
does he employ his happy leifure ? Why 
in (lead of being placed behind hit 
counter, you fhall find him vigilantly 
polled before his door the beft part of 
the day j or, at a lofs for better amufe- 
ment, taking a dull turn or two by the 
road fide, enquiring of every paflenger 
he has the Jeaft acquaintance with, 
what intelligence he can gather about 
flocks, trade, or news. The man's 
mind is perpetually in his (hop, or on 
the Exchange, and he has only patted 
a fentence of banifhment on his exani- 
mated perfon, merely from a whim of 

tlfte, 



1780; A COUNTRY LIFE. *H 

tate, and compliance with general or two befides, upon you, for a dinner, 

coftoin. Charles Lack-wit will have or an evening. The pleafure a pcrfon, 

it given out, he is retired into the coun- under thefe circumftances, propofes to 

try, only for the reputation of being himfelf in the indulgence of Lis pri- 

thought a man of famion, when all the vate thoughts, or the retired enjoyment 

while bis retirement is to be inceflantly of his family, is fubjeft to interruption 

hurried with the violence of a madman and difappointment upon every occa- 

after a pack of yelping hounds j or (ion* I remember Sir John Vanbrugh, 

brutally murdering whole months of in a piece of dramatick fa tire on this 

delicious time in noify laughter, wine, very fubject, makes one of his (pcak- 

and ribaldry, with Sir Jolly Timber- ers give a very odd piece of advice to 

icull, 'Squire Humdrum, and the reft his friend, who was complaining un- 

of the club of gentlemen fporters. der fuch an embaraflment. " The beft 

Sir Modifh Whimfy, from attaining way (fays he) is to do what is done 

the honour of being a City-Knight, when a town is on fire j blow up your 

hat commenced an adept in the prefent houfe, that the mifchief may run no 

reigning fafhions and elegancies of the farther ; or turn it into an inn, by the 

btmu-wmmde, and has been at the moft name of Pafty-Hal], with an old nifty 

elaborate pains and expence to fpoil fword, hung up at the gate for a fign, 

and disfigure one of the moft pleaiant with this infeription in charcoal, At 

feats in the county. The family hall, the Sword Royal, Entertainment for 

a venerable rural ftruclure, overfpread Man and Horfe." 

with verdant ivy, and open to the light But among the whole tribe of fa- 

with lofty projecting windows, is ex- fhionable non-entities, who have been, 

changed for a formal navel front of feduced by cuftom into the wrong 

modern brick or (fucco, and darkened choice of country plcafures, the moft 

with a fcore of Venetian blinds ; the miferable condition is that of a mo* 

rooms (tripped of their comely arras dern fine lady. About ten, perhaps, 

and plafn fubftantial furniture, and fhe is obliged to rife, and lofe at leaft 

crabeiliJhed with all the unfuiting or- the enjoyment of two of her very beft 

naments of courtly ftate and luxury, fleeping hours to receive her huwand'e 

And to banifh nature and delight en- vifitors, and afford him the confolation 

tirely from his dwelling, his lpacious of her company at the tea- table; From 

acres, adorned once with rows of grace- breakfaft till dinner, (he is a miferable 

fol trees, are nothing now but a wafte creature, the forlorneft of all her fpe- 

of gravel -walks and naked ferpentine cies, and is content to fubmit to the 

grale plots. Thus art is futfered to penance of a folitary walk in the gir- 

deftroy nature, which mould only (how den, or to mortify herfelf with looking 

herfelf in a ftudied concealment, with inattentively over half a page of fome 

the modeft diftance of a waiting hand- infipid author, unlefs (he have the fe- 

maid, to aflift her in her fimple deco licity of a few obliging friends near 

rations. her, to aflift in 'making a diverting 

There are another unfortunate fpe- party at cards, to kill odious time in 

ciet of thefe country exoticks, that .this moft infupportable fealbn of it. 

move in me a degree of pity. A citi- From four till feven, (he is wholly 

sen of eafy circumftances cannot in- employed in drefling, and is hurried 

dulge himfelf in the pleafures of fome away in her ceach to the alterably, or 

little quiet retirement near town, but a vifit, the only relief left among peo- 

he presently draws upon himfelf a bur- pie of breeding and famion, to alle* 

thenfome increafe of charges, and the viate that melancholy thing called fo- 

whole train of his acquaintance. It is litude, and the intolerable company of 

enough that a man lives in the fame one"s felf, that arc the odious incoove- 

ftreet with you, as a neighbour, though niencies of the country. Any time 

little more than an abfolute Granger to after two the next morning, (he is dif- 

you in town, to induce him to pay you pofed to take the refrefhments of a 

an intimate vifit at your villa 5 and he temperate reft, and indulge the fweet 

would accufe himfelf of incivility, if hours of deep till the approaching noon, 

at any time he patted within a mile of to prepare for the fatigues of a new day, 

you, and did not (how his refyeft, by To mc how eligible a deftination is 

jaipofing himfelf, and perhaps a friend a life of perfeft retirement, and the 

U a enjoyment 



f& 



tKGTtRES OS 



eajoymerrt of tmcorrupteil Nature irt 
her pla? heft, flmpleft charms* To par- 
tike of tl»e healthy plesfures of mode- 
rate food, early reft, the fweet walk of 
a Morning, the entertainment of an 
irtftruftive author, or agreeable conver- 
fation, in the fultry and lefs plrafing 
(eafon of the day : to clofe *he inno- 
cent happy hours of it with the diver- 
sion of a gentle ride in the evening, or 
the mild and harmlefs recreation of the 
contemplative angle, and to fill up the 
fcveral intermediate fpaccs and oppor- 
tunities of time and life, in conlciei*- 
tioufly difcharging all the attire duties 
of the Chriftian, the l.irfband, the pa- 
rent, the neighbour, and the friend. 
With thefe confiderations of the calm 
content, and undifturbed delights of a 
private and lowly condition, I do not 



Apfil 

wonder that our good QueAi Elizabeth 
wiihed herfelf a milk-mam in the month 
of May, becaufe (as (he obfcrved) 
" they are not troubled with cares, but 
fmg fweet ly all day, and deep fecurely 
all the sight." A life of rural hap- 
pmefs brings man neareft to the ftate 
of his original paradife. u The fun, 
in our climate at lead (lays the polite* 
Sir William Temple) has fomewhat in 
it reviving : a fair day is a kind of fen- 
fual pleafwre, and of all others mok 
innocent." ~My fondnefs for every 
thing belonging to the country prevails 
on me to own I have the weaknefs to 
pleafe myfelf in wiming (with the good 
but unfortunate Sir Thomas OverburyJ 
" That I may be buried in the fpring, 
and have ftore of flowers ftuck round 
about my winding-lhcet." 

RUSTICU9. 



rfm* 



Sft 



ff* 



*u». 



5* 



LECTURES ON MODERN HISTORY, 

LECTURE V. 



(Continued from our loft 

BY the adoption of the fyftem of po- 
licy noticed an the preceding Lec- 
ture, Alfred flattered himfetf that he 
mould not only repair the wafte of 
people which continual wars had oc- 
casioned in his kingdom, but that the 
naturalised Danes would not think it 
their intereft to invite over any more 
of their countrymen. The motives for 
requiring re-inforcements were former- 
ly to conquer and divide the plunder \ 
but the object was now changed, and 
the conquered Danes quietly lettled in 
England, wanted no fharers in the pri- 
vileges accorded to them by their new 
fovereign. 

Yet our prudent monarch took every 
neceflary care to prevent freffi diftur- 
bances from thofe common difturbers 
of the repofe of Europe the Danifh na- 
tion. Obfcrving that their fuccefles 
had been owing to the want of (hip* to 
defend the colts, he laboured inceUant- 
ly to form a kind of navy, anfwerablr 
fo the litilc fkill the Engli'fh ho J at that 
lime in thv arts of tiiip-huikling and 
navigation His fleets were foon ready, 
as they con fitted of little better thin 
Rallies, which however drawing but 
little water, though they could not 
make a voyage, or undertake any of- 
ftnfive raieipriic were admirably cal- 



Magazitte, page 104. J 

culated to defend the coaftt, the Danes 
beiqg obliged to quit their heavy fliipsy 
and to embark their forces for landing,, 
in boats. His attention was next be* 
flowed on repairing and fortifying all 
siie neglected caftles, and tenable pTaces 
on the fea wore, £0 that he did not 
leave a Angle port open to the invaders 
except London, which by agreement 
had J>een put into the poflfisfiion of his* 
Daniih i\jbjec~te. Having repeated proofs 
of their difloyalty, and that no trea- 
ties could re ft rain them from a trea- 
fonable correfpondence with their pi-* 
ratical countrymen, who were conti- 
nually coming up the river, and com- 
mitting depredations on the counties of 
Kent and Eflex, he found himfelf un- 
der a neceflity to feife the city of Lon- 
don by force of arms, which he effected 
in the year 886, and immediately for- 
tified it againfl the Danes, and made 
his fon -in- law Ethelred governor, with 
the title of Earl of Mercia. 

It was about this time, that Alfred 
attained the meridian of his power and 
renown ; having no enemy to contend 
with, he turned his thoughts to politi- 
cal ohjecls worthy his elevated genius ; 
he cultivated the milder arts of peace, 
and acquired as great reputation by his 
abilities as a legMbtor aad fcuefraan,. 
a a* 



MODERN HISTORY. 



tiis military exploits, tie ap- 
general aflembKe* of the ftates, 
lation, confiding of the nobili- 
gy, and gentry, to be held at 
, which thus became the me- 

•f England, and afterwards 
t of government. He divided 
gdom into (hires and counties; 
iniftered juftice in perfon fre- 
5 he caufed it to be adminifter- 
artially by others, when and 
ic could not be preftnt ; he in- 
the trial by juries ; he reformed 
idged the laws 5 he encouraged 
:ure and trade by liberal re- 
and the force of example, his 
•a applying themfelves to mif- 
; he patron i fed learning, by 
ig the Univerfity of Oxford, and 
inr to all parts of Europe not 
r learned men, but for col lee- * 
f valuable books ; in a word, 
Ited artificers, manufacturers, 
e profefibrs of the finer arts to 
rir native countries and fettle in 
ninions. Thus, neither arts, 
tuns, nor commerce efcaped his 
seal for the good of his country, 
nidft all thefe cares he found 
encourage ftody by his own ex- 
for he wrote a treatife on mo- 

But what principally exalts 
ara&er of this patriotick king 
hat of moft of his predeceflbrs 
ceflbrs in England, or any other 
r, is, his inviolable attachment 
ick liberty. It was the defire 
•ed to fee u re the freedom of his 
I by enforcing the laws ; to fo 
t a degree, that fraud, robbery, 
arther were little known in the 
>le part of his reign : he fowe d 
snd him the feeds of virtue and 
efs; unfortunately, too many 
es prevented them from taking 
«d they were almoft entirely de- 
inthe reigns of future princes. 
the good, and juftly (imamed 
eat, by foreign historians as well 
own, finifhed his mortal career 
y in the month of Oclober, A.D. 
1 the fifty- third year of his age, 
t thirtieth of his reign. He had 
ns and three daughters ; he was 
led on the throne by Edward his 
fon ; Ethelwald his other fon, 
ungeft of all his children, was 
ed for the church. Ethel fleda 
left daughter, married Ethelred 
fMcrcia, Governor of London. 



Ethelgiva his feeond daughter, tfeeamd 
Abbefs of the Convent of Nuns kt» 
founded in the Iflt of Athelney, thf 
place of his retreat; and his youngelfe 
daughter Elfrida or Ethelwith married 
Baldwin Earl of Flanders. 

Edward, whom hiftorians haw 
filled the Elder, to diftinguifh him from 
Edward the Confeflbr, though he was 
the lineal heir to the crown, did not 
obtain it but by the free election of 
the people aflembled for that purpofe 
at Kingfton upon Thames, by Pleg- 
mond, Archbiihop of Canterbury, and 
the other nobles of his late father'* 
council. Notwithstanding this fret 
election, and the folemnity of hit co- 
ronation in the prefence of all the chief 
men of the realm ; a party found meant 
sififted fecrttly by the Danes, to fet up 
Ethelwald a fon of Ethelbert, Alfred** 
elder brother, as a pretender to the 
crown ; and the Aippreflton of the re- 
bellion in his favour employed the firft 
live years of Edward's reign ; it ter- 
minated in the death of Ethelwald who 
was (lain in a pitched battle againft 
the king in the year 90}. In military 
(kill Edward was little inferior to Al* 
fred, but he fell far fliort of him in 
political abilities ; it muft be mention* 
ed however to his honour, that during 
the fhort interval of peace between the 
rebellion, and a frefli invafion of the 
Daises, he mowed the fame difpofition 
for, cultivating the arts of peace, by 
raifing the fchool of Cambridge to am 
univerfity. 

In the year 917, the reftleft Danlfli 
fubieets broke out into open reoellion» 
and fuddenly attacked the king's forces 
in Oxfordshire and other parts of the 
kingdom; and the following year, s 
large body of their countrymen invaded 
the Welfh and Englim coats, entering 
the mouth of the Severn, and commit* 
ting horrid ravages. Edward repulfed 
them feveral times, bat they returned 
year after year, and found means to 
feduce the Wei fh princes, and the King 
of Scotland into alliances with them s 
thus was the reign of this monarch 
made a feries of internal commotions 
which kept him almoft continually in 
the field. His valour in the end waa 
crowned with fuccefs ; he reduced Con* 
ftantine III. King of Scotland to the 
humiliating condition of becoming hia 
vaflhl i and having taken Thamesford, 
a tort erected in Bedfordihire. by ftorm, 

he 



I* 



LECTURES ON 



lie put the Danifh king and bis atten- 
dant nobles to tht fword, which proved 
a fatal blow to the Danes for fome 
time; but. he did not long enjoy the 
fruits of his victories, for he died in 
the year 925, not quite two years after 
the reduction of Scotland. 

Edward's family deferveonr particu- 
lar attention, for we fliall find that by 
their means he became connected with 
the moft ici';;*. table powers of Europe. 
By his firft wife Edgwynna he had 
two ions, Alfred, who died before him, 
and Athelftan who fuccccded him. Ky 
his fecond wife he had two funs, Ethcl- 
wold who died about the fame time as 
his father, and Edwin who died in the 
next reign. He had alfo fix daughters 
by this marriage, two of whom lived 
and died iingle : the other four were 
dilpofed of in marriage to the follow- 
ing princes. Charles the Simple, and 
Hugh Capet, Kings of France. Otho I, 
Emperor of Germany j and a duke 
whole territories lay near the Alps. 
By his third wife Elgiva, he had Ed- 
mund and Ed red who afcended the 
throne, and two daughters, the tided 
of whom retired to a convent, and the 
other wa» married to Lewis Prince of 
Guicnne. 

Atmelstan was elected by the 
people in the fame manner as his fa- 
ther, and the crown was fet upon his 
head at the fame place, which ceremo- 
ny was fcarctly over, when fome of the 
difcoutentcd nobility, calling his legi- 
timacy in qucftion (his mother being 
only a poor fhephcrdefs, to whom it was 
faid his lather was not married) formed a 
fecret confpiracy to dethrone him and 
put out his eyes. Alfred, the chief 
confpirator, was feifed by means of in- 
telligence of the plot conveyed to the 
king, and being fent to Rome to purge 
himlclf of his guilt before the Pope, 
died there fuddenly. The next diftur- 
bance at the beginning of this reign 
proceeded from the turbulent Dam Hi 
Subjects who took up arms and fur- 
piiicd the city of York. Athelftan 
warded oif this blow, by a treaty of 
alliance with bithric the Danifh King 
of Northumberland to whom he gave 
his filter Kdgitha in marriage. Upon 
his dcr.ih, Ahhelftan favoured the pre- 
tentions of i.:irnulph his brother to the 
excluiion ol Guthrie his foil, upon 
which the latter took up arms a gain ft: 
him in conjunction with the King of 



Scotland. Athelftan equal tor 
ther in the field, generally 
torious, he fubdued Conftantinc 
fued for peace in the moft ful 
manner, but no treaties could 
him, and he lbon after entered 
grand confederacy againft the £1 
monarch. The powers engaged ia] 
confederacy were Conftantine, 
King of the Cumbrian Britoni 
An 1 aft' brother to Guthrie, who, 
force of arms had acquired a 
ment in Ireland and the title of 
as to Guthrie he had turned pirate, 
lived entirely at fca. 

Some hiftorians mention anoti 
val fet up againft Athelftan, in 
perfon of Edwin his half brother, 
they add, that the king, jealous ofjj 
virtues of this amiable prince, 
confeious of his own illegidmacy, 
hiin accufed by fubomed witneflef] 
being concerned in Alfred*! confpi] 
upon which he was fentenced to ftel 
on board a leaky veflel and to be d 
expofed, with only two attendants, to' 
dangers of the fea, into which be tin 
himielf to avoid a lingering death 
hunger. The uncertainty tint r 
upon the life of this prince after AtJ 
ft an came to the throne, Aems to jwf 
the ftory of his death, dilcrediteol 
other writers. 

In 938, AnlafF the chief, Toeing 
molt powerful of '' the confiedcra 
landed a confiderable force from 
land in Scotland, and being joinM 
the King of Scotland, they iaikef 
the H umber, where Owen die c 
prince of Cumberland united his tes 
with theirs. The combined armwj 
receiving intelligence that the ■ 
was advancing towards them, reiow 
to march directly to meet him* 
of the moft bloody battles that 
ever been fought in Britain in t= 
times enfucd, in which the Kingjp 
ed the day, but with fo great a 
that it could hardly be called a vife 
However the confederates were obfl 
to retire in ' great confufion to • 
mips, and never made any fu ith e - 
tempt to difturb his reign. 

Athelftan then turned . his an 
againft the Welfti whom he pui 
for the ailiftance they had given 
confederates. He alfo embarkedC 
board his flee*, which had proved 
cefsful againft that of the confede-^ 
and expelled the Cornifli Britons' 



MODERN HISTORY. 



loyalty from Exeter and the 
iring countries, obliging them 
to Cornwall where he fhut 
» within very narrow bounda- 
n his return from this expe- 

e took the iflcs of Scilly from 

»« 

»«• 

i we clofe this reign, it will be 
to refume the hiftory of 
connected witb it by domcf- 
inces. 

£hire IV. we left France in 
ands of Eudes Count of Paris, 
ed as guardian for Charles the 
and we noticed the frefh par- 
rf that kingdom, which occa- 
fubvcrfion of the Frenoh em- 
the Weft. A party at length 
r that Charles mould no longer 
in a ft.ite of depmdance on 
the Count was obliged to ac- 
ge his lawful fovereign and to 
ith him the government of a 
>ercd kingdom t we call it fo, 
at this time Count Kaoul or 
i erected Burgundy Transjura- 
an independent monarchy in- 
Bugei, Savoy, Geneva and part 
:erland; and the fon of Duke 
aled over another petty king- 
led Aries, in his father's reign, 
er him, diftinguifhed by the ti- 
le kingdom of Burgundy Cif- 
from its fituation with refpeft 
ntjura. Eudes died in 898, 
arles unable to govern alone, 
reafed the troubles of the ftate. 
ales all aiming at independance, 
powerful factions in oppofition 
other and to their weak fove- 

Rollo the famous Norman 
aking advantage of theie intci- 
nmctions landed with a con fi- 
force at Rouen, took it by 
, and at length became fo for- 

that Charles the Simple, in 
d of Alfred, invited the Nor- 
1 fettle in France, and offered 
jhter to Rollo in marriage, if 
Id be a convert to Chriftianity. 
e lay the difference, when Al- 
nted a fettlement to the Danes, 
almoft adored by all his fub- 
hile Charles the Simple was 
lly detefted and defpifed by his 
is nobles, fo that he only ad- 
the number of his enemies by 
g the Normans. Rollo and 
crs, to whom all religions were 



*st 



equally indifferent, followed the line of 
intereft, and obtained the ceflion oi 
Bretagny, till the provinces allowed by 
the marriage treaty could be cultivated* 
In fhort, Rollo, worthy to be the foun- 
der of a ftate, blended the Toft man? 
hers of the French with the ferocity of 
the Normans, and encouraged his fub- 
je£ts to* apply themfelvet to agriculture 
inftead 01 piracy; by this policy he 
gave them a relifh for focial life, and 
Normandy was civilized through the 
medium of his conquefts and eftablifh- 
ment in France* 

As for Charles he was totally go- 
verned by Haganon, an odious tnintf- 
ter, and being equally defpifed by hit 
own fubjc&s and by the Normans, Ro- 
bert the brother of the late Count 
Eudes formed a confpiracy againft him, 
which broke out into an open rebellion 
in 912, when Charles to appeafe the 
people difmiffed his minifter, but the 
Archbifbop of Rhcims a few months 
after fet the crown upon the head of 
Robert, who did not long furvive hit 
ufurpation, for he was (lain in battle, 
and his fon Hugh the Great or the Ab- 
bot, who might have feifed the throne 
(for Charles was a prifoner to Count 
Hubert de Veronandes, who had de- 
coyed him under the pretence of a£ 
fifting him) chofe to beftow it on 
Raoul King of Burgundy Transju- 
rana, who in 929 gained over the prin- 
cipal nobility by large bribes, and 
among the reft Count Hubert, to whom 
he gave the county of Laon as a reward 
for his treachery to the unfortunate 
Charles. The wretched king died the 
fame year in prifon. 

Raoul died in 936, and Hugh the 
Abbot dreading the odium of ufurpa- 
tion, fent to England to recall the 
Louis D'Outremer the Son of Charles 
the Simple, whom he placed upon the 
throne, but allowed him only the pomp 
of royalty, and the moment he attempt- 
ed to exercife authority he put him un- 
der confinement. Two years after, 
this powerful Abbot fent a folemn em- 
bafly to Athclftan to demand his lifter 
Ethelda in marriage for his fon Hugh 
Capet, a prince of an afpiring genius, 
whom we (hall fee afcending the throne 
upon the ruins of the houfe of Charle- 
magne, and founding the third dynafty 
of the French monarchy. 

(To be contiuued in our nex.) 



DEPOPULATION 



i6o 



DEPOPULATION THE CONSEQUENCE OF LUX 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZINi 
S I R, 

1 Lately patted fome time in a little joy the fruits of their lab 

village diftant about fixty miles from were now 'going to toil as hii 

London, conMinjj of near one hun- der fome rigid matter, to 

dred houfes. It js entirely out of the opulent for a precarious me 

line of trade, and was inhabited by a leave their children the inhc 

race of men who followed the primeval want and flavery. The mod 

profetfion ef hu (ban dry for many gene- followed her hufband in teai 

rations. Though Grangers to opu- ten looked back on the littl 

lence, they were unacquainted with where flie had patted her lifi 

diftrefs ; few of them were ever known cence, and to which {he * 

cither to acquire a fortune, or to die more to return ; while the 

in indigence. By long intercourfe and daughter parted for ever frc 

frequent marriages they were all be- vcr, who was now become t 

come in a manner one family; and fupport her as his wife, 

when the work of the day was done, nexiqna of kindred were now 

patted the evenings innocently and bly broken, their neat gar 

agreeably in vifits to each other. The well cultivated fields were Id 

poor traveller and the ftranger always laiion. Strata jacaii pffm 

found the arms of hofpitality extended que boumque labor es* 

to embrace them. The ftated days of Such was their mifery, u 

feftivity throughout the year were duly with that this was the only h 

obftrved, and various rural pa (times fuch migrations of late. Bui 

added to their happinefs at thole fca- formed that nothing is at pn 

ions common than fuch revolution) 

Upon my firft arrival, I enjoyed a fe- moil every part of the kingdi 

crct pleafure in obferving the felicity borious hufbandman has beer 

of this little community. The chear- and the lands are now occ 

fulneis of the aged, and the blooming fome general undertaker, i 

beauty of the young, was no difagree- into inclofurcs deftined for d 

able change to a man whofe whole life ' of pleafure, of aimifement* e 

had been fpent in cities. But my fa- Wherever the traveller turns, 

tisfa&ion was foon deftroyed, when I fees one part of the inhabi 

underliood that they were fhcrtly to coming immenfely rich, he 

leave this abode of felicity of which other growing milerably pool 

they and their anceftors had been in happy equaiity of condition 

poileftion time immemorial, and that tircly removed, 

they had received orders to feck for a Let others felicitate tbeii 

new habitation. I was informed that upon foreign commerce, am 

a merchant of immenfe fortune called tcntion of our Indian terrjti 

a Nabob, in London, who had lately my part, this introduction i 

fiurchalcd the eftate on which they gives me but little latisfact 

ived, intended to lay the whole out reign commerce, at it can be 

in a feat of pleafure for himfelf ; and only by a few, tends proporti 

to turn the bed lands into a park. I enrich only a few; neither 

flayed till the day on which they were fortunes nor moderate abilitir 

compelled to move, and I own I never ry it on j thus it tends rath 

felt lo iinccre a concern before* accumulation of immenfe wei 

I was grieved to fee a generous, vir- hands of fome, than to a di 

tuous race of men, who mould be it among all ; it is calculated 

considered as the lirength and the or- make individuals rich, than 

nament of their country, torn from the aggregate happy. 

iheir little habitations, and driven out Wherever we turn our eyes 

to meet poverty and hardihips among find thole governments that 

thunders. No longer to earn and en- iued foreign commerce with 



ON POPlft tt CEREMONIES. 



8 wAftUi beccimiflg arllibcra- 
the laamenfe pr oper ty thus 
' acquired by fome, has fwal- 
Ae liberties of mil. Venice, 
id Holland* are little better 
thin retreats for tyrants and 
* flam. The great indeed 
fedr liberties there, and they 
rrj* The poo* boaft of li- 
: srotn tinder the moft rigo- 

itrrthtli parcelled out among 
i of all others the moft mife- 
*bt great, in themfelves, per- 
sot fo bad as they are gene- 
itiented* bat I have almoft 
r found die dependents and 
i •» the great, ftrangers to 
iment of honour and genero- 
tttebes, who by giving up 
dignity to tbofc above them, 
' ctaft the lame tribute from 
osr. A country, therefore, 
t inhabitants are thus divided 
rich and very poor, is indeed 
Mrs die moft helplefsj with- 
ife and without ftrength \ not 
peace within itfelf, after a 
mil he unable to refift foreign 



V6, 



1 1 mall conclude this letter with a 
pi&ure of Italy, juft before its conoueft 
by Theodoric the Oftrogoth. " The 
whole country was at that time one 
garden of pleafare ; the feats of the 
great men of Rome covered the faoa 
of the whole kingdom ) and even their 
villas were fupplied with provifions not 
of their own growth, but produced in 
diftant countries, where they were more 
induftrious. But in proportion as Italy 
was then beautiful, and its pdfleflbrs 
rich, it was alfo weak and detencelefs. 
The rough peafant and hardy hufband- 
man had been long obliged to feek for 
liberty and fubfiftance in Britain or 
<2aul | and, by leaving their country, 
brought with them all the ftrength of 
the nation.' There were none now to 
refift an invading army, but the flavea 
of the nobility or the effeminate citizens 
of Rome, the one without motive, the 
other without ftrength to make any op- 
pofition. They were eafily, therefore, 
overcome, by a people more favage 
indeed, but far more brave than 
they/' 

Yoor's, 

TIMON. 



EH 



«h 



)N POPISH CEREMONIES. 

{Gmtbnedfrm our January Magazine, p. *8.) 
TO THE EDITOR. 



OIO yOU hite done the Pro- 
ntcanJe that fervice I wiihed, 
kg my firft letter, on the Po- 
iaony of baptifing bells, I fend 
•oad on Blessings and Ex- 
sad I hereby give you and 
dtrs notice of two more, one, 
Uccs, the other, On Con- 
It, which will clofe my cor- 
ate. If it be aiked, why I 
Aa> the moft ridiculous parts 
ft My anfwer is becaufe our 
people are the moft liable to 
*ttd to the Romifh religion, 
'•fore Ample, plain narratives 
ahfardities are the beft calcu- 
keep them ftedraft to the reli- 
*tir counjtry f and becaufe the 
*f the Proteftant caule in their 
ttfctchies' of matters and mif- 
* fevanta will find the relation 
fcfts, cxpofiftg the weaknels 
'•Mac. April 1780. 



and worldly felfiflrncfs of the priefts of 
the Romifh church, anfwer their end 
better than (bund argument, againft 
which the vulgar will be fortified by 
the fophiftry of thofe priefts. 
I am, Sir, 

Your humble fervant, 
Cambridge, THEOPHILUS. 

April i, 1780. 

ON BLESSINGS. 

IT is a matter of inexpreflible fatis- 
fa&ion that the Protectants of England, 
owing to the conftitutional ftatutcs 
again it the Papifts (lately moft impo- 
litickly repealed) had lb far forgotten 
the fuperftitious practices of the church 
of Rome, that at prefent the relation 
of them is a matter of novelty and afto- 
nifhment to them. But on the other 
hand it is become more neceffary now 
as the Popilk cmiaaries are let Voofe 



*&* ON BLESSINGS. , April 

among ft us, and will impudent]]' deny In the feme ritual there ire BleftLmp 

the cxillence of loch ceremonies us ex- for houfcs, for Ihips, for fwords, for 

pole their, profelfion to ridicule, to lajr the new fruits of the earth, for the 

before the publick, the moft glaring nuptial bed, for hortes, for afles, and 

as they are praflifed at this day in in a word for all funs of beafH that are 

topifti countries, and to authenticate fick. The form of words ufedst thef* 

them fronting Roman Ritual. That benedictions, ii thus fet down, in the 

is to fey, from the lenice book of the Appendix to the Roman ritual. 

church of Rome, now in ufe by au- " Prima Anamalia a/pirgamitr aqua 

thority of the Pope, in all cathedrals, htm.tifla; pejtcafacrrdos Meat, 

rrilh thurches, chapcls,and convents. " Mifertmrdiam luain Domini, fup- 

(hall in the firlt place give you plicts cxuraiiwi, ut htc animalia, qux 

the form of blcHing of eggs at Eal- grai-i infirmilait •vcxaalur, tita brne- 

ter. A'UlioHt jaaantur, t#c — Afpirgaat ill- 

" Subveniat, qusfumui Domini, tut rum aqua btutdifli, 

htnidttlkitu gratia, i-uii eniarum erta- Translation. 

tur*, ut tibus fiduUrh fiat fidtlihus tuts, " Firft, Toe bealls mult be fprink- 

ia tuaritm gratiarum atlitmc fuiaintibus, led with holy water j and then let the 



i rtfurrriiionim Domini nnjlrt 'Ji/x prieft lay, 



Cbrifli, qui tecum vi-uil isf regnal, (Sc. " Wt humbly implore thy mercy, O 

Jit ajjitTgat aqua beiadiB*? Lord, that theft living creatures, which 

Translation, are troubled with grsat infirmity, may 

" Let, wc beleechihee, O Lord I the by thy bldling be healed, 4c. Let 

.grate of thy blcfiins descend upon this them again be Iprinkled with holy wa- 

creaiure Ecgs, that it may become ter." 

.wholelbme food to thy; faithful, re- It is remaikabie, that in their other 

eeiving them with giving thanks to benedictions they make but one afper- 

ihi'e, Tor the relurrection of Our Lord fion of huly water, but in this they 

Jefus Chnli, who liveth and reigneth ulc two, the one at the beginning the 

with thee, tec— Let him (the prieft) other at the end of the ceremony, 

bciprinkle them with holy water." There is another rite of the church 

That we may not be deluded by the of Rome, which is ftill more ridicn- 

artifice of faying that this is no more lous thin the Blefiings ; this is their 

than a common grace before meals, my exorcilitig of rats, caterpillais, flies, 

correfpondem on his travels, informs and other infefls between the feafts of 

me, that being prefent at a convent Ealier and the Afcenlion. A prieft 

where this ceremony was to be per- who renounced the errors of the Church 

formed at Ealier 1779, he delirtd the of Rome, and became a good protef- 



Cieft, with whom he was intimate, to tant gives the following account of this 
ive out the ipi inkling with holy wj- fune Millions, hut profitable ceremony : 
ter, declaring in that caie, that it would " I have adifted very often, bpth in 



\ 



remove his Icruples with refpefl to the France and Italy at the performing of 

reft of the benediction ; but though the this ceremony, and herein I can lay, 

profpefi of coi.vi iting fas they call it) that I have been among the number of 

■ man of letters to their religion was in fools : true it is, that it was for our 

■ »iew, he replied, he durA not, for the advantage ; for we were well paid for 

people would inform :ig?.inft him, and our pains. Wc go from one furm to 

lit Sign Id be fuipended as well as anothrr, from one country-houfe to 

othcrways punilheil by his fuperiors. another, and almoft upon every piece 

But to put the matter out of doubt, of ground we repeat out exorcifms. 

with refjiect to the extreme fuperrtilion We befpeak thefe little infefts, no 

of thoiv ceremonies, and the fdi'.lh otherwifc than if they were reafonable 

views of Hit.-, not,, linlinils, aid other creatures and make ufe of the name of 

orders of the Koni ih yriclthood in taf- God to adjure them, 

fering them to fobiift, 1 ihall subjoin a » Adjure wi per Drum Sa*8im, 

Jew others, which as well as the exor- per Dtum fi'vum, per Dtum Omnifa- 

cifms to follow, arc all paid for by tiiittm," &c Wc 

y merehams, trailers, Ibldiers, failors, Translation. 

■farmers, and ill oilier clnffes of people " 1 adjure you by the Holy God, 

«SV«-»ed io their luppofed. effects. by tlic Living God, by the Almighty 



ifto 



ON EXORCISMS. 



God, to depart theft grounds, and to 
get you gone to the defart and waftc 
placet, where you may not be in a con- 
dition to hurt any one, nor the fruits 
of the earth.** 

(If this be not to take the name of 
God in vain, I do not know what is.) 
Betides, all this was nothing but mere 
labour in vain, becaufe there was not 
To much as one poor worm or cater- 
pillar, that offered to budge from its 
place for all this farce. When we 
were quite tired with exorcifing, we 
went to refrefli ourfelves at the firft 
farm that was next to us, where the 
good country people did not fail to fet 
before us the bed of what they had. 
We found fome amongft them, how- 
ever, that were no fools i they told us, 
if they did not take the pains them- 
felves to rid the trees of the caterpil- 
lars our ex ore i fins would (land them in 
poor ftead. We reproved them for 
their want of faith which rendered the 
pains we took unprofitable to them. 
The create ft part of the peafants by 
way of acknowledgement, tor thefe ex- 
0rctfms, fend all their firft fruits to the 
priefts that have officiated, fo that we 
always had the firft fruits of every fea- 
ion. 

I was once invited by a noble Ve- 
netian to pafs the time of the vintage 
with him in the country at his houfe 
of pleafure, two miles from Ro*vigo> in 
the ? olefin c. When we arrived there, 
there were a kind of flies, which (as 
they laid) were fallen from the fky, 
ana did much mifchief j they fucked 
sCnd devoured all the grapes that were 
not vet ripe. The noble Venetian de- 
fired me to accompany the curate of the 
parira, in order to exorcife them. Ac- 
cordingly we went with five or fix 
more priefts. The heat was fo excef- 
flve that we were forced to go for (bel- 
ter into every hovel we met with in 
the fields. Now it happened by mif- 
chance that he who carried the holy 
water (whether by his having drank 
much, or otherways) fell afleep in a 
cave where he had retired to cool him- 
felf. We did not obferve h«s not follow- 
ing us, till we had walked almoft a 
mile to a certain field, where we were 
to exorcife. Here we began to call for 
pur holy water, without which nothing 
was to be done ; but the man was not 
to be found, and we were obliged to 
Jcnd fomebody to feck for him with all 



*6j 

fpeed. We ftayed there near an hour 
expecting him, during which time the 
flies ftung us fo terribly that our facet 
and hand 8 were all over blood j they 
plainly mowed by this, their rudenefs, 
and that they did not care a rufh for 
our exorciims; accordingly in our own 
defence, we di (pat died them as cjuick 
as poflible, and with all expedition re- 
turned home. Thcfc infects we found 
difcharged their fury during the heat 
of the day, for towards evening one 
might fafely walk abroad, without be- 
ing molefted by them, and then it was, 
that we went and recommenced our 
exorcifms, though without the leaft fuc- 
cefs, for the flies (till per tided to make 
the fame havock as before, until a 
continual rain of four or five days kil- 
led and fwept them all away better than 
all the holy water in the world. 

I went at another time, during my 
residence at Bonertia, to exorcife the in* 
feels in that country, accompanied by 
a curate, who was a droll fellow, and 
laughed at the credulity of the people 
while he pocketed their money. He 
did not tie himfelf down to the ritual 
or form prefcribed by the church, but 
made his own comments upon every 
thing j fometimes he fpoke to the ant si 
fometimes to the grafsboppers $ at others, 
to the rats, lizards, and worms. He 
banifhed them all, one after another, 
to the feveral countries he defigned 
fhould be the places of their exile. The 
moles he ordered to travel to die Antar- 
tick pole. He had fcarcely pronounced 
this fentence when a mole came forth 
from under its little hillock, where* 
upon our comical curate cried out ■ 
" Courage, my friends! look, there's 
one of them ready to begin his march.** 
But the mole, it fecms, had no mind 
for fo long a journey, and therefore 
ran into another hole not far diftantv 
One of the peafants followed it, and 
kneeling down peeped into the hole, 
and turning to the curate, faid, very 
innocently—" Pray, Sir, is this the 
Antartick pole ?" Wc could not for- 
bear laughing } but as this was diame- 
trically oppoute to that gravity whicfc 
it is neceflary to a flu me upon thefe oc- 
casions, we begged of him to defift 
from his drqllery, however it was all 
in vain, being fo natural to him that 
he could not refill it." I Jaave been pre- 
fent at many other exorcifms and be* 
hediclior.s of this kind. 1rk% ^re&i 

X a %\% 



,64 ES8AY ON ANECDOTES. April 

arc eery willing and ready to officiate St. Martin they bi*& it in the cellar, 

or a (lift at them, as it is id employ- to prevent its turning four." 

t equally plcal'ant and profitable. I might proceed to relate to you, a 

- great number of other bencdiclioi 



For by thefe meant, they talc* the free- 
dom to enter into all the country- 
houfes of the nobility and gentry, and 
into their gardens, where they 



(how you the abufe that 
is made of (hem by the prieftscf the 
church of Rome ; but beeaufe I fear 



fail of being well entertained. At the dwelling too jongaipon one fuhjea, I 
time of vintage they go and blefs the (hall here leave you in expectation of 
the feflival of my next on Relicks. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZINE. 
«IR, 

IT has been often obferved, andwhich borious memory, has produced to t ha 

it more to the purpofe, it it incon- view of the learned, many things that 

teftably true, that there it and indeed had long (lepi ; and if not difturbed 

always has been a kind of faftiion in by him, would have flept for ever in 

reading. In one age, large Hiftorits the dark bolum of oblivion j and yet 



e been adm 



l the tiV 



Then 



of 



, abridgements 
have been in vogue, and every thing 
»ras lobe comprised like Homer's Iliad 
into a nutfliell. Then Romances came 
into play j and efpecialty fuch a 



:r thought 
Anecdotes Sometimes, however, 
portance may be difpenled with, pro- 
vided they are curious and well told. 
' refpeft to Anecdotes, the manner is 
much to be confidered as the mat- 
1 ^y, fomelimes mort, for an old 
: and falfe hiftory. ftory prettily told, and handfnmely cm- 
tut thefe received their death's wound bellifhed. (hall pafs with the (hrewdelt 
from the pen of the incomparable Boi- wit for an anecdote, juft as calf's head, 
leau. Memoirs and Novels appeared properly leafontd and elegantly dirtied 
next upon the ft age ; and, to fay the up, (hall pleafc even critical palates, 
truth, nave not yet made their exit, and b,e allowed the name of tur- 
Jjut, after all, the favourite reading of tie. 

pur times is Anecdotes. But if fame There is indeed, a certain ingredient, 
fupetcilitins critic (li ou Id take it in his which is generally thought to give ths 
tiead to afk what are anecdotes ? I doubt grand it ft to Anecdote*, andlhjt is Sa- 
jnany a modern reader, though very tire. Whether it be owing to thena- 
well verl'ed in the ftudy, would be at a tural malignity of mankind, to felf- 
lofs for an anfwer; and, lofpeakean- love, to a certain fpeciei of pride, 01 to 
ttidly, it is not very e.ily to be given, whatever other caufej fo it it, thai a 
The fimple and plain reply to the ftory which lelfens the character of a 
oucftion 11, an Anecdote is a fail, or 
remark, or an obfervation, not hither- 
to publilhed. The Mcmcirs of Philip 
At Comities were, in their day, a trea- 
sure of Anecdotes ; fo is Burnet's ffif- 
twy of bis D--V3H Times, and the Earl of 
Clarendon's Ktfiwy if bit aiua Life. 
For though all thefe books contain a 
fof publick. hiftory that was 



one who has been univcrfally celebi-ate4 
for wildom, is too commonly well re- 
ceived. But though in ibme cafes this 
may give a high relilh, and an extreme 
potgnaucv to an Anecdote, it is by net 



eflentiaJ. On the 






)*n befert 

i abundan 



yet they lilcewife 

of palTages that were detecting falfe hiftoryj 
.i..:- _..i.i;. u t.. - r_i> ..r , a„k:>_ _i... 



unknown before their puhli 

But, thonth novelty in truth is the 
veryefleuce of Anecdote; -yet there are 
Tome other cite urn fiances requilite to 
make it agrsrable. It mull not only 
Venew, 'blif'Tt mult be llkewtfe of fome 
importance. "' Thomas Hearne, of 1s- 



tafte, the refcuing an injured 
and illuftrious name from calumny, the 
"' ; falft hirtoryj or even fetting 
a dubious nature in a full and 
clear light, will he allowed to have yet 
more merit ; for upon the whole, in 
defiance of all half criticks and falfe 
connnifTeurs, I venture to aflert, that 
the true left and touchjtone of an Anec- 
dote is truth, 

Aa 



Afl author muft be allowed to deal 
very honourably with his readers, who 
in his prefatory addrefs f urniflies thern 
With rules for criticifmg his own wri- 
ting*} though, perhaps, his real mo- 
tive rnay be to point out the merit 
of his performances. There are few 
things that may not be confidered in 
very different lights, and, which is not 
fo commonly obferved, are feen in ve- 
ry different forms, according to the 
coruVu&ion of their eyes ; I mean the 
mental e> es of thofe who consider them* 
The principal aim, after all, of thefe 
introductory remarks, is to convey to 
the reader's knowledge, the many dif- 
ficulties that occur in' making a valua- 
ble collection of anecdotes. It requires, 
I will not pretend to enumerate how 
many and how great powers of the 
mind ; but this I may furely have leave 
to fay, that if the marvellous may be 
eauly miftaken for the important, the 
whimiical for the curious, and obloquy 
for fatire; it is no (light taflc, more 
especially in Co enlightened an age as 



ANECDOTE OF T£ TSONG. ifcj 



will afford the judicious reader an op- 
portunity pf examining, how far tfajf 
jentiment is well founded. 

The emperor 7> Tjbng came to the 
throne with great talents and a moil 
admirable difpofition- He found aft 
old minifter, K* Tfou Y, who had bee? 
at the head of affairs during three 
reigns, and to him he confided the care 
of the empire, as long as he lived. 
When death had removed this good 
man, the emperor prefided in his own 
council, and for fome time was ex* 
trcmely happy, in a full perfuafioa 
that every thing went well, and that 
his fiibjects through the whole extent 
of his ample dominions, enjoyed unin- 
terrupted felicity; which opinion he 
entertained, in confequence of a multi- 
tude of plaufible reports to this pur- 
pofe, which were prefented to him From 
time to time, by his minifters. He 
was awaked from this golden dream, 
by a memorial dropped in his clofet, 
which informed him that difcontent 
prevailed through molt of the provinces^ 



the prefent, to offer a mifcellany of and that like many of his predeceffors, 



anecdotes to the publick view. This, 
however, is what I undertake with a 
fincere and earned defire to pleaie every 
candid and fenfible perufer 5 and at the 
lame time, I faithfully promile, for 
my own fake as well as theirs, to make 
my bow and retire, whenever I find my 
endeavours vain, and that I can pleaie 
no longer. 

Touchstone. 
fyeen- Square y April 9. 

A CHINESE ANECDOTE. 

(Applicable to England at this time,) 

AS in every thing elfe, with which 
they have at any time meddled, fo in 
reference to the affairs of China, the 
Jefitits in effect engroffed the whole de- 
tail to t hemic Ives j in Co much, that we 
fcarce know there are any other wii- 
fers, at leaft of eminence, upon that 
fubject. Yet in reality, the Snaniih 
dominions have given admirable ac- 
counts of this juftiy celebrated empire, 
which are fo much the more valuable, 
as they are written with great impar- 
tiality and perfpicuity, without cither 
magnifying the Chinefe learning extra- 
vagantly, or treating that nation as 
parbarians, to whom they have taught 
civility as well as the Chriftian faith. 
The following hiftory extracted by one 
. £ f tbcfe fathers j from a Chinefe author, 



his exaltation had, unfortunately for 
his people, raifed him above the reach 
of truth. He took the belt meafurea 
he could to be informed as to the reali- 
ty of the fact, and the refult was, the 
confirmation of his fears, which filled 
him with unexpreflible affliction. A 
faithful domeftick obferved it, and pre- 
vailed on him to alk the advice of 
LP mie, who after having paffed with 
universal efteem through various high 
ftations, had, in fearch of real fatisfac- 
tion, embraced a voluntary retreat. 

The emperor vifited him with great 
fecrefy, and having expatiated very pa- 
thetically on the circumftances or his 
chagrin, defiied that he would deal 
freely with him, and point out fir ft the 
truefourceof his misfortune, and then 
indicate the remedy. My prince, laid 
the ftatefman, while Ko Tjou T t your old 
minifter, lived, he kept all the colleges 
within due bounds, and in perfect or- 
der. After his demife the Cakes (thefe 
are the high eft order of the Chinefe 
mandarines) began, without any other 
merit than that, to promote thnrfriends 
and relations, and they, when thus pro- 
moted, following this pernicious ex- 
ample, the multitude of officers is at 
laft grown fo great, that the empire it 
become the patrimony of the manda- 
rines j your people an feeding thitn, 



i66 ANECDOTE OF TE TSONG. Apr? 

are eaten »p$ and ajl rapks and con. fome of the haughty^ extravagant Cm* 

djticns, who draw fubfiftcnce from la- fas,: leflened in every clafs ]the nam- 

hour or induflry, are •pprefied by that ber of mandarins, revived fublicifht- 

government, which was inftituted to gatitj, gaveeaJeinmajfyrefpecls to th$ 

luftain and protect them. The cure of common people 3 baniihed (he court 

this malady, rauft begin in yourfelfj penfionerat broke the connexions they 

reform your own houlehold : retrench nad formed j fupprefled the cabals they 

your expences ; apply yourfelf fteadily had railed j and by thus eradicating 

to your duty 5 beftow your confidence corruption, reftored the empire to prof 

-_i_. — *u-r- ...i.^ — c — : . :._ pentv and peace. 

The emperor himfelf wondered mod 
at the amazing • change, and liftened 
willingly to the explanation the presi- 
dent made of bis whole conduft in full 
council, which was now compofed of 
Caloos, who unanimoufly feconded the 
wife and beneficial Yiewa of their pre* 
jident, and fought their own happineft 
in purfuing and promoting the publick 
good. At this juncture it was, that 
the a&rologers defiled in audience of 
his Imperial majefty, in which they 
gave him'a pompous detail of the aufpi- 
cious omens which they had obferved, 



only on thofe who conform to your 
example; allow the people to reprefent 
their grievances freely: and oblige the 
Caloos to examine ftrictly, and fee thofe 
grievances redrefled. The emperor 
thanked him for his advice, and en- 
deavoured to follow it. Qut, alas ! he 
foon found that reformatio* yn* no eafy 
taflc His Caloos by new inventions 
continued to deceive him 1 the clamours 
of the people grew higher 5 and the 
emperor at length finding all his good 
intentions fru ft rated, refolyed to call 
L? mie from his retreat \ and having 
thus obliged him to return to court, 

made him Cbou Jiang or nrefident of and from whence they promifed him a 
the council} which at firft was fo far. longferiesof fortunate years. When 
from producing the falutary effects he they were withdrawn, the Cbou Siang 
expected, that on the contrary the ftorm role from his feat, with an air of fa- 
role higher, and feveral infurre&ion* tisfa&ion, and pointing with his fin* 
broke out in the remoter provinces, (6 ger to each of the Colon, " Thefe, my 
that every thing grew worfe and worfe, prince, faid he, thefe are the aufpicious 



and the whole feemed evidently and 
inevitably tending unto general confu- 
£on. Te Tfong, equally fenfible of the 
calamity, and perfuaded of the up- 
rightness of his new minifter, faid to 
him one day, with a look of despon- 
dency, " Thefe mifchtefs, Li* mie 9 
proceed from the irrefifti Me decree* <df 
fate, and agree with thole predioHbrisY' 
which the aftrologers made, loon after 
I was feated on the throne.** •• My 
prince, replied the minifter, leave Ibcn 
notions as thefe to the mallow credu- 
lity of the uneducated vulgar. The 
happinefs of your fubje&s depends not 
on the blind decrees of fate, but on 
your conduit and mine. Without a 
certain fermentation there can be no 
refinement. Penetration, prudence, and 
perfeverar.ee, will gradually bring back 
all things into order. The day for a 
fhort fpacc may be overcaft, but the 
fun perfifting in his courfe, diflipates 
in due time all vapours, and a little 
foul weather is neceflary to render his 
brightnels, when they are difpelled, the 
more refpe&able." Li* mie. to fulfil 
his own urefage, prolecuted his plan 
with indefatigable diligence, removed 



omens! the monarch who is furround- 
ed by able, difinterefted, and loyal 
counsellors; who knows their value* 
and fteadily purfues their advice, need 
never conuilt the ftars. Heaven will 
ever protect that government, which 
refembles its own." Te Tjjfea* lived to 
fixty-four, furvived hit minifter a (in- 
gle year, to whole memory he creeled 
a (lately monument, and left the em- 
pire of China in . perfect peace, to hia 
lbn Chun Tfong, and which was ftill a 
greater legacy, the ex^amptt of his fa- 
ther's reign. 

The true chara&eriftlcks of the ChJ- 
nefe genius are Jimplictty ind foliditp. 
This isvifible in their husbandry, in 
their arts, and in their manufa&ures, 
but more efpccially in their ftuo^ies and 
in their writings. They look upon 
morals t as the moft eflential fcieace; 
and as they prefer agriculture to all 
other profeuions, fo the cultivation of 
the mind is, in their opinion, the great 
end of man. They have an idea of 
ivit, but they do not much efteem it. 
They have never proceeded any great 
length in abflruft ftudies, becaufe they 
value no fort of knowledge, farther 

thai* 



x 7 8#. SIR JOS. YORKE'S MEMORIAL, &c. tBf 

than at it can be applied to immediate perfection mqft propofe to himfelf on4 

lift. Upon this principle, we find object. The parent regards only hit* 

them in all their compoutions, at ten- family : the tradefman his bufinefs : 

tive to fenft rather than Jlile, and in- the Teaman his vtfTel : the do&or his* 

ftead of long difcourfes, the)* are for patients : the king mould beftow hit 

conTeying practical wifdom, in Jhort, whole attention on the welfare of hie 

detached fentences, the truth of which kingdom. Whatever divides the at- 

ftrikes the mfnd 9 and the weight of tention, leflens the effort, and dimi- 

that truth, imprefles it on the memory, nifties the force, fo that the end is nc- 

1 conclude with a faying of one of vcr fully attained/ 4 
their fages, " He who would purfue 



STATE PAPERS. 

Hague, March 13. wards of eight months, his majefty 

SIR Jofeph Yorke presented a very would look upon fuch conduct, as 

ftrong Memorial to the States Gc- breaking off the alliance on the part of 

serai on the 11ft of this month ; in their High Mightinefles, and in con- 

which, after fetting forth the high ef- fequence fliould only confider the United 

timation in which the King of Great Provinces as a neutral power, not pri- 

JBritain his matter always held the vileged by any particular treaties, and 

friendihip of, and alliance with the re- mould fufpend till further orders all 

•publick, which he thinks founded on the ftipulations of the treaties made in 

the wifeft and moft advantageous prin- favour of the fubje&s of the republick, 

ciples for both nations, he enumerates particularly thofe of the treaty of 16 74, 

the various points in which the States and mould only keep to the right of 

have violated the treaties fubfifting be- nations, by which all neutral ana un- 

tween them and Great Britain, by privileged nations govern themfelves/* 
granting convoy* to naval ft ores going 

to France, &c. He then mentions the Hague, March jo, 
abfolute filence the States have kept as THE States General have by their 
to the formal demand of the ftipulated agent, Mr. Vanden Burgh Van Spier- 
faccours from the republick, and con- ings Hock, given the following pro- 
eludes with declaring, " That notwith- vilional anlwer to the Englifh ambafla- 
ftanding all this, the king his matter dor's Memorial; " That their High 
cannot think that the States General Mightinefles are very defirous to co- 
mean to abandon a fyftcm which has incide with the wifhes of his Britifti 
been fupported with fuch fuccefs and Majefty, by giving a pofitive anfwer 
glory for upwards of a century, and to the Memorial delivered by his am- 
therefore authorifes him, as his am- baflador, but that their High Might!- 
baflador, to confer with the States, in nefles forefee, that from the nature of 
order to regulate every thing in an the government of the republick, it is 
amicable manner \ but that if their impoflible to return an anfwer in three 
High Mightinefles were determined to weeks time, as the Memorial mutt be 
break the alliance with Great Britain, deliberated upon by the different pro- 
things would bear another face, and vinces, and their resolutions waited 
the king his matter would with regret for. That their High Mightinefles are 
■ be obliged to take other meafures than allured his Majefty would not wifh ri- 
he ' had hitherto done, and look upon goroufly to keep to the befcre-men- 
the republick in no other light than as tioned time, that their High Mighti- 
any other neutral power. In confe- nefles might be able to conclude upon 
quence of which he had orders to de- an anfwer in a mannev conformable to 
cure, in the moft friendly, but yet in the conftitution of the republfck, in 
the moft ferious manner, that if the which they had no right to make any 
States General did not, in the courfe alteration, and they promiie to accele- 
cf three weeks from the day of the rate the deliberations upon that head as 
presentation of this Memorial, give a much as poflible." It is further (aid, 
utisfac^ory anfwer relative to the iuc- that the Englifh ambaflador having 
cetun which Iwyc been dwuandcd up- rcud this anlwer, excufcd hitnfelC Croc*. 



i6S EMPRESS OF RUSSIA'S DECLARATION. April 



accepting of it on account or the king 
his mailer's orders, but faid lie did not 
doubt but that tile reprefetitations 
which Count Welderen Jiatl orders fo 
make to his court, would entirely ful- 
fil the intentions of their High Migh- 
linefiVs. It is atfo faid, thai Sir Jo- 
feph Yorkc communicated this his a:i- 
fwer to the Slates General on the ltth 
of this month in a conference. 

Tbi following ii a Declaration from ihc 
Emfrtfi of Ruffta to tbt Can, of 
London, Ftrfaillts, and Madrid. 
" THE Emprefs of all the Ruflias 
his fo fully manifeftrd her fentiments 
of equity and moderation, and has 
given fuch evident proofs during the 
tourfe of the war that (he lupoorted 
againft the Ottoman Porte, of the re- 
gard (lie has for (he rights of neutraii- 
(y and the liberty at univerfal com- 
merce, as all Europe can witnefs. This 
conduct, as well as the principles of 
impartiality that (he has difplayrd do- 



fiihicfls would peaceably enjoy the 
fruits of their induflry, and the ad- 
vantages belonging to a neutral na- 
tion. Experience has neve rill clefs proved 
the contrary. Neither the above-men- 
tioned confident ion s, nor the regard lo 
the rights of natious, have prevented 
the fubjeib of her Imperial Maj.lry 
from being often molcfted in their na- 
vigation, and Hopped in iheir opera- 
dans by thofe of [he belligerent pow- 

Thefe hindrances to the liberty of 
trade in general, and to that of Kuflia 
in particular, are of a nature to excite 
the attention of all neutral nations. 
TheEmprtfs finds he rfe If obliged there- 
fore to free it by all the means com- 
Eitiblewith her dignity and the well- 
eing of her fubjeCti } but before (he 
Suti this into execution, and with a 
ncere intention to prevent any future 
infringements, me thought it but juft 
to publilh to all Europe the principles 
Il».- means to follow, which ate the 
}>"■[■:> ■■■■ i to preient any mifunderftand- 
lO£, or any occurrences that may oc- 
ciiiou it. Her Imperial Majefly does 
it vtiih the more confidence, as flic 
finds ifetle principles coincident with 
Uc primitive right of nations, which 
mi] i . - - '.■ cay reclaim, and which 



the belligerent powers cannot inrali' 
date without violating the laws of 
neutrality, and without difavowing the 
maxims they have adopted in the dif- 
ferent treaties and publiek engage- 

They are reducible to the follow- 

'Firrt, That all neutral fhips may 
freely navigate from port to port, and 
on the coins of nations at war. 

Secondly, That the efK-Jis belong- 
ing to the fubjefls of the laid war- 
ring powers lhall be free in all neutral 
vtllcls, except contraband merchan- 

Tiiirdly, Tltat the Emprrfs, as 10 
the frier, i licit ion of the above men- 
tioned mercharidiie, holds to what it 
mentioned in the toth and mil arti- 
cles of her treaty of commerce with 
Great Britain, extending her obliga- 
tions to all the powers at war. 

Fourthly, That to determine what 
is meant by a blocked-tip port, this is 
only to be understood of one which is 
la well kept in by the Ihips of the 
power that attacks it, and which keep 
their places, that it it dangerous to 

Fifthly, That tbefe principle* 
ferve as a rule for proceedings and 
judgements opon the legality of 

Her Imperial Majefly, in making 
thefe points publick, does not heliute 
to declare, that to maintain them, and 
to protect the honour of her flig, the 
fecurity of the trade and navigation of 
her fnbjefts, flie has prepared the great- 
eft part of her marine forces. This 
mesfurt will not however influence the 
Uriel neutrality Ihc does obferve, and 
will obferve. To long as file is not pro- 
voked and forced to break the bounds 
of moderation and MrftA impartiality. 
It will be only in this extremity that 
her fleet will have orders to go when- 
ever honour, intereft, and need may re- 
quire. 

In giving this folcmn aflo ranee 
with the ufual opennefs of her charac- 
ter, the Emprels cannot do other than 
promtfe herlelf that the belligerent 
powers, convinced of the fentiments of 
juftice and vuuity which animate her, 
will contribute towards the acceniplift- 
inents of their falutary purpofei, which. 
ntaniieltly tend to tliejjoodof all na. 



$fc POLITICAL S Q.U IBS. 169 

nation*, and to the advantage even of conformable to the above-mentioned 

thofe at war. In confequence of which, principles, founded upon the primitive 

her Imperial Majefty will furnifli her laws of people, and fo often adopted 

commanding officers with inftru&iona in their conventions/* 



POLITICAL S Q,U I B S. 

THE CREED OF A PATRIOT. 

March \%tb> 1780. pie, if any fuch can be invented and 

1. Believe that all minifters of ftate obtained ; that having been found in 

for the time being are rogues ; that office wanting in temper, underftand- 

the devil refides in the bag of each ing, and Economy, they are the moft 

Secretary of State, in the pocket of the proper perfons to be forced again into 

Firft Lord of the Treafury, and in the the higheft pofts of government ; and 

purfe of a Chancellor 5 and that from that the neceflity ot this intrusion it 

each of thefe places he fuggefts all the exactly in proportion to the incapacity 

meafures' pUrfued by each of thofe per- or profligacy of the obje&s, and to the 

ions refpe&ively. refinance ot the crown. 

a. I believe that all minifters of 5. I believe that perfons who by 

ftate for the time being are fools j that their declarations, or by their intelh- 

as the Firft Commiffioner of the Trea- gence, fomented the American rebel* 

fury has the labour and the odium of lion ; who have ridiculed, expofed or 

raiting the fupplies, he is naturally the falfified the ftrength of England $ who 

moft profufe of publick money j that by their oppofition to all vigorous mea- 

as the Secretaries of State have the fures encouraged the Houfe of Bour- 

greateft inttreft, and the beft opportu- bon to a declaration of war; who have 

nities to obtain intelligence, they are impeded our fupplies, impeached our 

the leaft informed ; that all thefe four credit, divided our counties, infulted 

gxfons are the only four perfons in oui parliament, and violated our con- 

ngrland who are incapable of cxe- ftitntion, are the propereft perfons to 

cuting thofe offices with honour to fupport our reputation, conquer our 

themlelves, and advantage to the pub- enemies, relieve our grievances, and 

lick ; and that as their reputation as govern our country. 
minifters, and happinefs as Englifh- (Signed; 

men, muft arife from the merit and JOHN BULL, &•. Sec. 

fi* £ SgZt&S? alWay$ THE COURTIER'S CREED. 

3. That all minifters of ftate mould I Believe that the minifters of 
be deprived of all lucrative fmecurcs, ftate, for the time being, are honelt 
whether they poflefs them or not, and and virtuous. That the evil fpirit of 
of thofe exorbitant emoluments of of- lucre or ambition, never infpires either 
lice, which are not more than Sufficient Secretary of State, the Firft Lord of 
to the fupport of it; that they mould the Treafury, or the Chancellor ; and 
not be at liberty to receive any advan- that each of thefe perfons purfues re- 
tage from that government which they fpeclivcly the wifeft and beft meafures 
laborioufly and faithfully ferve; but to fccure and extend the dignity, ho- 
that having pafled through all the re- nour, and commerce of this nation t 
gular ftages of publick office 'without I believe that the minifters of ftate 
difmijfim, they mould be finally dif- for the time being, are infpired with 
miffed without any provifion, and left fuperior willlom ; that as the Firft 
to furnifli materials for a picture of Commillioner of the Treafury has the 
Belifarius in civil life. labour and the odium of railing the 

4. I believe that upon the difmif- fupplies, he always manages the pub- 
jUm of all minifters of ftate they be- lick money with frugality, and never 
come intelligent, informed, honeft pa- gives extravagant contrails to members 
triots, and intitled to crown grants of parliament, or their connexions* 
upon the Port-office, coals, or any That as the Secretaries of State have 
other levy more oppreffive on the peo* the greateft intercft and the beft. o^>t- 

JLomd. Mag. April 1780. Y vhavm* 



ig* PARLIAMDNTART HISTORY. Ajfrft 

tunities of obtaining intelligence, thtey nrftert are no longer ' refpona'ble for 
are always well informed of the- met- meafures they advise* 
furei which will be purfued by foreign I believe that the miniftertof flate 
nation 1 s, and the motives of them ) - and who quitted adfoiniftratiott, and gave up • 
that they were certainly allured France all the honours and advantages of their 
and Spain would never interfere in our employments, becaufe they would not 
difputes with America, as thofe king- cpntinee to countenance oppreiEve and 
doms could have no intereft to with to ' deftruftive meafures, and the utmoft 
leffen our commerce, or the power created want of ceconomy, are tht moft im- 
by qyif colonics. That all thefir four proper perfons to manage the affairs of 
perfons are the only four perfons in the nation, and to promote the intereft s 
England who are capable ot executing of the crown in this time of publick. 
thofe offices with advantage to them- diftrefa arifing from the meafures they 
fejves, and honour to the pubikk ; and had reprobated, 
that as their reputation as mini&efs, I believe that the perfons who bv 
ai)d happinefs as Englimmen, mould their equivocal declaration* of their 
anfe from the merit and iucceis of their negligence have done all in their power 
meafures, they have always, chofen the to create a rebellion in America) who 
wTfeft ends and the fitted meant to ob- in order to extend corruption and the 
titin them. influence of the crown, impofed imno- 
That the minifters of fate, befidet litick. and ineft&nal taxes on that 
the exorbitant emoluments of office, country, alarmed the mindi of the co- 
and the influence attending it, which lonifts by bullying and threatening 
ar.e fully fufftcient for the fupport of them, or excited *tbeir contempt by en- 
it, mould provide fmecurc places, for deavouring to cajole and cheat them $ 
their wives, their fpns, and their bro- who rejected their dutiful petitions, 
tljers : tli at they (hould be at liberty and mocked at their complaint, are the 
to make all advantages from govern- psopereft persons to conciliate the con- 
men t, whether they ferve it faithfully fidence of thofe distant people : that 
and laborioufly, or not ; but that hav- the milliners, who have mfgraced and 
ing pafTed through thick and thin, for difgufted all thofe generals and admi- 
the purpofe of corrupting parliament, rals, who had conrefledly the grcateft 
and affronting all who dtlapprove of » abilities, are the fitted perfons to fup- 
their conduct, they mould, at laft, be port the reputation of oufecountry, and 
difmijfed without lofing their beads, to to conquer ihe Honie of Bourbon* 
dernonftrate to all the wof Id that mi- AMEN, 



*sfi 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

A Coucife Hiftery of tbe Proceedings of tbe freftnt Seftku of Parliament, begum md 
belden at Weftminfter, as Thurfday tbe %$tb Day */ November, 1779* *** i W 
tbe SIXTH SeJJion of tbe fourteenth Parliament of Great-Britain* 

(Continued from our laft Magazine, page i»8.) 

HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

Tuefday, Feb. 15, Lord Nugent and Mr* Cnasnaw* atoigly 

A Motion was made by Sir Goorgt Savile obje&ed to this motion on the priacip!« of 

that an account of all the placet held delicacy, aa it would eaaofc ft* poeJiek view 

by patent from the crown, with the amoant the names and circaoiftaacti of many ladies 

of the fJaries annexed to them, and a lift of of quality who were moftly dep endent on the 

the n; met of the perfons at prcfent holding royal bounty, and would loft the rafpeex 

them, be bid before the Houfe, which after paid to them by their neighbours if it was 

a very Aiort debate wa? ordered accordingly. once known that they fubfi&ed dUefly noon 

He then moved, that a lift of all the pen- penfior.t, 

fiont granted by the crown tad paid out of Mr. TowwJbenJ confident it as a very Inft 

the privy purfe, or the civil lift, whether for motion, and f»td if It was not complied with, 

life, for a term of yen, or daring pleafure, there would be room to fufptel that feme 

together with the rrfpc&ive names of the anemberi of patUaefteat oftjoyioft pennons 

perfons enjoying them, and the fame an- wiJhed to forces them from the Jcnewledne 

aualiy paid ^ 'bem be laid before the Ho>fe. of tfie H<mfi% «nd at ay the Itdiffrbt thiujht 

fablittiaf 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



pttblifhing to the world that they had good 
pennons would be the means of making 
their fortunes by marriage. 

Lord North was replying and objecting to 
the motion on this principle, that the Hcufe 
was not competent to take notice of the ex- 
penditure of the civil lift revenue, when the 
Speaker was taken extremely ill, upon which 
the Houfe broke up, and adjourned the next 
day to Monday the 21ft. 

HOUSE OF LORDS. 

Tuejday, Feb. 15. 

The Earl cf Effingham moved an addrefs 
to his Majcfty, mat he would be gracioufty 
pleated to order William Parker, the printer, 
to be releafcd from his imprifonment in 
Newgate, and to pardon him his offence. 
His lordflup defended hit motion on the 
principles of humanity and juftice, and fta- 
tcd from Parker's petition, which the clcik 
was ordered to read, the veiy great feverity 
0/ the punifhment, totally difproportionate 
to the offence; comparing it at the fame 
time with other judgements of the Court of 
King's Bench, particularly that againft the 
members of the Council at Madrafi who 
depofed Lord Pigot, and were only fined 
Joool. each, without imprifonment. 

The Earl cf Abingdon feconded the mo* 
tjon, ailed ging that it became the dignity 
and humanity of that Houfe to redrefs the 
grievances futfered by the fubjects from fe- 
Tere fentences in the inferior courts, when 
complained of by refpc&ful petitions. 

Earl Mansfield rofe to oppofe the motion, 
not as being willing to maintain any fupe- 
riority of privilege or jurifdiction belonging 
to the Court of King's Bench, but becaufc 
it was impofiible for their lord (hips to aiTent 



*t* 



of that court. But how did the matter come 
into the Court of King's Bench? PaikcT' 
himfelf brought it \here, thinking hit pn-' 
niument would be milder by the fcritente' 
of the Court of King's Bench than that* of 
Hicks'* Hall. He was tried by a fsfedal' 
jury, convicted, and fentenced. Now whit 
does he do ? He does not bring a writ of -er- 
ror, complaining of the conviction, which 
would have brought the parties to the bary 
and the whole proceedings of the court,- -but 
he fend* a petition to your -lordwipf (6f 
mercy $ an original application : for mercy 1 
lies dircetly to the crown, as one of fts un- 
alienable, inherent prerogatives $ • and ft Itf 
the biightcft jewel of the crown. Woold- 
your lordfhips then interfere with this pre- 
rogative, and deftroy the ufual mode of ap* 
plication to this Houfe by writ of error f» 

But the f-fts alledged is) the petition," His* 
lordfbip laid, were like wife fa If*, and "po^ 
him in mind of a ftory very well told by T»> 
C-tus : A Roman loidier told a difmal tale 
of his only brother being aflaffinatcd in ffcW 
night by the guaids of the genera), and ex- 
cited his companions to mutiny } they bad? 
already refolved to let -fire to the- general** 
tent, and to murthcr him j but one, mors] 
confederate than the others, defired proof ol 
the matter, when on full enquiry, no mail 
had been murthered, neither had the Mi'ttt 
any brother. So it was-with'. Parker** atjtiJ 
tion 5 be fet forth that the walls of his rooisj 
were damp, and his life in danger for want 
of air and exercife. 

Hearing the petition read before Cbrift- 
mas, his lordfbip faid he had fent 1 meflcn^ 
ger to Newgate to enquire into the truth of 
tbe matter, who returned with an anfwot 
from the keeper, that Parker is lodged art 
one of the beft rooms in- the prifod, which 
to the motion without fapping the founda- has been inhabited three years ; that it \% tct* 
tions of juftice, and fubverting the conftitu- yards long and feven wide 9 that he has a place 
lional principles on which the criminal law of forty yards fquare to walk in, and is in' 



is founded. With refpect to tbe procefs by 
information, it had been called in qu eft ion, 
and by the ablcft men in tbe kingdom, it 
had long fince been decided, that it is perfect- 
ly conftituiionai. 

But, faid his lorduYip, I am forry to find 
the noble earl's humanity has been impofed 
upon ; tbe cafe of Parker has been grofsly 
miircprelented, and fo 1 told his lordfbip be- 
fore he opened the bufinefs. Parker was not 
proceeded againft by information 5 he had 
BOtorioufly printed and difperfed feveral thou- 
{and haiid- bills, calculated to promote fe- 
dkioo, and to excitn tumultuous and armed 
mobs j fo that if his dengns had taken ef- 
fect, felony, and perhaps high trcafon, 
would have been the confeqoence. The ma- 
jority of the country faw the heinoufnefs of 
his offence, and he was indicted for it by 
the Grand Jury at HicksVHal); and the 
ante of Newgate if within the jurifdiction of Jamaica. 
r Y z 



perfect health. The rooms in tb* King** 
Bench are but twelve feet fquare on an avev 
rage, and that prifon, at the time Of Parker** 
commitment, was fo full, that two and three 
peribns were in one room. *\-om all thefe 
confiderations he was induced, after quoting 
the cafe of Titus Oates , to think that Par* 
ker had not been feverely puniflied, and 
mould vote againft the motion. - ' 

Lord Marcbmont referred to a cafe on the 
Journal*, when fuch a petition was rejected ^ 
Lord Effingham replied, and then the q*ef«* 
tion being: put, tbe motion waa negatived, 
and the petition difmified. 

Monday t /VtVfti. 

Tic Mai quit of Rockingham; who had or* 
dcrtd t>u Houfe to be lummoned, save hi» 
reaiom ; which were, that he might prefent 
to the Home a petition of the planters, mer 
chants and traders concerned in the ill 



171 PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



April 



- His lord/hip, in a fliort fpeech, expatiated 
ob the very great importance of Jamaica to 
Great Britain* affirmed that ita defence had 
been shamefully neglectrd both by fea and 
land, notwithstanding repeated application! 
Co government ; and that its preservation lift 
year was entirely owing to accident; Count 
D'Eftaing having abandoned hit defign of 
attacking it only on accouut of a ficknefs 
amongft hii troops. His lordfliip then aflted 
whether a colony of fuch confequence ooght 
to have been left to hazard, and remarked 
that he had much rather Count D'Eftaing 
had taken both our armies at New York and 
an Georgia, than this valuable ifland ; the 
loia of which woold ftagnate credit, and 
make it impoffible to carry on any confidcra- 
hle trade to the Weft Indies. 

The Marquis gave an account df the land 
farce ftationed at Jamaica in a time of pro* 
found peace about the year 1764, and de- 
clared, that it exceeded the force on the 
ifland after the prefent rupture with. France. 
The (hips of war ftationed to protect 1 the 
Ifland, he likewife affirmed, fell far fliort of 
t,bc naval ftrength that mould be employed j 



and thus reciting in a few words the princu petty 



meat; and as the noble mayqvifi had read 
only the latter part of the letter, he mould 
take the liberty to read the whole. This 
be did accordingly. It ftated that the fnb- 
fcribera did not think it right that the peti- ' 
lion mould be called the petition of the mer- 
chants, planters, and traders, when a great 
nomber bad not aflcnted to it, neither could 
they approve of it, becaufe it was drawn up 
in a felcet committee, without proper notice ' 
and advertifement to call all the proprietors 
of the ifland and merchants trading to it to- 
gether, and that the principal facts in the 
petition were not true j and it concluded with 
an opinion that it was moft for the intereft 
of the ifland to be well with government. 

His lordfliip took notice that fifty pc rfons 
had figned this letter, whole property in the 
iflaod, and readability of character, wav 
nearly equal to that of the fevcoty-five who 
had figned the petition g but he thought 
thia no role to judge of the merits of either 
fide, only as it had been mentioned by the 
noble m<rquifs. He likewife acknowledged 
that many of the petitioners are men of the 
moft resectable characters, and of great pro* 



aal contents of the petition, be moved that 
It ihould be read, and then lie on the table, 
giving notice that he fhculd move some fu- 
ture day for it to be ta*en into confidera- 
tjno, and cxprefling aw/h -that it might then 



Ltri Sawd'witb paid the fame compliment 
to many of the gentlemen' who had figned 
the petition, but he obferved, that befidec 
the gentlemen who had fobfcrited the letter 
againft it, there were a great number of ca- 



be well attended, and fairly difcufled : As to pkal pertbns who had declined signing either, 



the proteft againft it, he only hinted that it 
had been obtained in an extraordinary man* 
ner, like fimilar proteft s againft ojher peti- 
tions} but he hoped, when the number, and 
weight of property, together with the re- 
sectable characters of the perions who had 
ftfned the petition, waa confidered, it would 
not be rendered abortive by any manonmea 
of administration, 

■ The petition waa then read ; it ftated fb- 
veral fells, fuch as the importance of the- 
ifland, the applications made to government 
by the merchants and planters for re-inforee-- 
encnts of troops and mips, aa well aa naval 
and military fiores, the neglect & theft ap- 
plications, the expense the merchants and 
planters had incurred, by which their purfca 
were almoft eihauft cd j and implorte that re- 
lief from the Houfe which they could not 
obtain from government. 

Lord Onflow declared he did not intend to 
oppofe the motion made by the noble mar- 
quis either for the petition to lie on the table, 
or to be debated on a future day 1 he should 
only remark on one part of his lorumip*a 
fpeech, which reflected on thofe who had 
Signed the letter to the committee againft the 
petition* ... • « 

His lordfliip fatd he waa one who fob* 
fcribed that, letter for fevnxal obvious rea- 
sons, betides that of thinking it for the inte- 
ttftoi uc, ifland to be well with govern- 



and was rnher furprtfed that the marquis had 
not taken any notice of them* fince it cer- 
tainly (bowed that it was highly improper to* 
ftile the petition a petition of the merchants, 
Sec. as if it meant the whole 'body. Paffing 
thia over, hit lordfliip informed the Houfe 
that he . wifhed to have the contents of the 
petition fully difcofled, and mould be ready 
to enter upon it whenever the marquilt 
thought proper to fix a day} the fooner the 
better. 

He would not enter deeply into it till then, 
but joft inform the Houfe, that he denied 
every fact ftated in the petition, enetpt one, 
vis. the importance of the ifland, and fhoufd- 
come prepared to prove their faltity. At to* 
the importance of the ifland, it was,* in hit 
opinion, the right-hand of Britain | and any 
of bis Majefty*s fervanta, who mould by wil- 
ful neglect or mifmanagement endanger the 
lofs of it, would be criminal 1 but he wou*e> 
deuionftraie that this had not been tbe cafe} 
that it had been property pro te cted | that the* 
military and naval force had, been equal to 
what it was in the lanYwars, the proof of 
the firft he mould- leave to an abkr perfeo 
(Lord Amhcrft) to produce 9 the naval de- 
partment he would anfwer for 5 it had not 
been preferved by Occident, but by proper at- 
tention and protection. 

72* Msrfminf JUekhgbsm in reply, reauV 
nan of a letter Item General Palling, detect 



*7*d. PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 173 



,_--»— 13, 1779, to Sir Henry Clinton, 
declaring that the military force under hit 
command was totally inadequate to the 
defence of the place, and that he had not 
the leaft hope of preferring it, if a fpeedy 
and large re-infercement waa not fent to him. 

Lord Sandwich wai aftonithed that the 
Marquis Ihould flop there, and not inform 
the Houfe what was done upon that appli- 
cation* Lord Corn Willis embarked with 
caoo troops for the relief of the ifland, on 
hoard the Warwick* and five more (hips of 
the line were detached and ready to fail with 
bim, when news was received at New York 
that the danger was over, for M. D'Eftaing 
was in the American feat. Would the 
Marquis then have had the fleet fent to 
leeward, to be locked up at Jamaica, inca- 
pable of any other fervice, when D'Eftaing 
was coming to North America ? It he would, 
and he should be the minifter who mould 
appoint a fiiftlord of the Admiralty fo to 
act, be would oppofe him more violently 
than the noble Marquis now oppofed him. 

Tbt Msrquit in reply faid, the time of 
Lord Cornwall's embarking was not till af- 
ter the 16th of September, and the attack 
meditated by Count D'Eftaing was to have 
taken place in the beginning of September, 
fo that be (till maintained his aflertion, that 
Jamaica waa faved by accident; as to not 
keeping a fleet to leeward, be knew who 
was bis lord {hip's advifer in that ; but it 
would notwithftanding have been a proper 
aeafore, and he was fupported in that 
opinion by his refpeclable friend Admiral 
Keppel. 

Lord Sandwich faid, he would not deny 
that Sir Hugh Pal lifer had given bim advice 
to keep the fleet to windward 5 but he had 
not relied on him, though he believed him 
to be as capable of advifing in naval matters 
as any man whatever j but he ihould be 
amamed, in his ftation, to pin his faith on 
any one man** ad?ice ; it was his duty to 
feek for information from all able perfons j 
he had done (o, and had, in concurrence with 
their judgement, formed his own opinion 
Hot to lock up great part of the fleet at 
Jamaica, which would have left America 
on protected $ for if we were to have pro- 
vided a fleet equal to D'Eftaing, foppofing 
bim to have been expected at both places, it 
would have required fifty fail of the line. 

The Duke of Bolton faid a few words to 
show that the paflTage from leward to wind- 
ward, though not quite fo certain and fpeedy, 
was freequentiy performed j and though Sir 
Hugh Pallifc, and all the Sir Hughs in the 
world mould advife the contrary, he would 
maintain his opinion that a confiderable fleet 
mould have been fent in Auguft to the lee- 
Ward ftation j and therefore, with the noble 
Marquis, whom he thanked for the motion 
and feoonded it, he (hoold be for taking the 
MtiUosi into confidciation on a fntiucday ; 



for Jamaica had been neglected, and preferred] 

to England by accident. 

The Marquis de fired Lord Sandwich not 
to change his note concerning the importance 
of the ifland, if it Ihould be taken within 
thefe two months j nor to difavow the cri- 
minality, if e^cry thing in the power of 
government is not done to protect it. 

The petition was then ordered to lie am 
table, but the Marquis did not name any day 
fordifcuffingit. ? J * 



HOUSE of COMMONS. 

Monday y February 21, 

The order of the day being' read for 
continuing the adjourned debate on Sir 
George Savilt*s motion. Lord North 
rcfumed the fubjeft, by obferving, that it waa 
nnufull to call tor the names of penfionera 
who received their penflons out of the civil 
lift, over which parliament had given the 
crown an abfolute jurisdiction. To admit 
the motion in its prefent extent would be 
attended with difagreeable circumftanccs j to 
reject it, would furniih gentlemen with a 
pretext to fay, that admin jftration flood in 
the way of every enquiry that tended to the 

fiublic good. To lay before the Houfe fucb 
ifts as had been called for, in this and the 
laft two reigns, when the civil lift was aug- 
mented, was what he bad no objection to $ 
and he thought the Houfe ought not to call 
for more. The penflons were of two forti, 
thofe paid at the Exchequer, and tbofe paid 
by Lord Gage. He would ftate both to the 
Houfe in the grofs, that they might fee bow 
very little the nation would fave by a redac- 
tion. 

In the Exchequer, the petitions were ret 
down at 35000'.. but then this was in Exche- 
quer language, where ftnpon waa translated 
petition ; but in thefc penflons were included 
lalaries. Firft, 5000!. to the Lord Chan- 
cellor, which, though a salary, was called a 
penfion $ 3000I. additional falary to the Lord 
Chamberljin 5 1500L to the Lord Steward $ 
near 5CO0I. for the fopport of the police } 
and fcvcral fumi for profeflbrs in both unt- 
verfitiev, making in all upwards of 17000!* 
The amount or the penflons on Lord Gagc'a 
lift w>s 58000] . in which were included 
numbers of fmall penflons. To the French 
P rote (rants 8000I j to minifters, fchool- 
maflers, profcfTcrs, Sec, feveral iarge fumi. 
All thefe penflons were fubje& to a land-tax 
of 45. in the pound, and to an exchequer- 
tax of is. 6d. j fo that blending both lifls, 
and deducting a tax of 51 6d. in the pound, 
there remained of penflons properly fo called, 
only48oool. a lum from which the nation 
could make but fmall fating*. If the peo- 
ple knew that the penfion lift was (blow, he 
was fore they never would have made it an 
objeA of complaint. The honourable manv 



1-4 PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. A p ,a 

bar who hid laid down a plan efrcfonnaliqn. The motion war funporicd by Mr. Mint* 
fiid, he would be laiiiiUd if the lUl /hunk) held, M'. Wbitbrod, and Lord Wdtcote, 
be reduced 10 6ocool. At prefer, t it it and oprnfed by Sir G. Yonge, Sir Cecil 
unfiderably aader ihit (ami therefore he Wray, Mr. Fo., C.n. Conwaj , Mr, By ng, 
would appeal from tbe pctltioneri uninform- And Jeveral otheu, oho contended that, 
«d, to the people when the; Dwuld be iaftud 01" pic[cr»ing, \t wat calculated 10 
: tl ■!.-. ;■■■- There wen, indeed, prnliina injure ibe freedom of eleflian ; (hit if it 
fiill paid to the fur tiring fcttmn of Queen were not f r die creation of honorary ire*. 
Caroline, and about iiooul. a )Ui U< <he men, tbe number of elefion in many corjio- 
(arrant! and ptnfioner. of the Prineeli Dow- mum wuuld become lb very incunfidera Me- 
ager of Waletj but thefe penJic.nl wtie aito be a m*eh eafier prey to corruption titao. 
daily falling off. they wcr.- under the prelint K^ulaiiuni ; 
Lord Guge'i lift «"> public-, at nit office that ihc meafuie, i,nl.-,<l 0/ makii.g elee- 
the penfionera were paid quarterly ; there tium more popular, tended ftrongly to create 
was, therefore, publicity enough to lh»w an atiflocracy, and iu fhort, that it waidan- 
wbelber improper foml were granted. But gctoui to allctnpt partial reform! in the 
thtie wn not publicity enough to get at connitmion, whir h, if meddled with at alL 
Bimesfcirthe purpo(e of infirting them in jhould recettc a thorough repair, 
■rngaiinet and newfpapen, and expoung The question wat rejected on > divifion, 
[htm to the malicious dewgaing, enrioai when the number! weir, for it, aj ; agiirul 
of thnfe, who ate ibrmfelvca 11,1*1. MajuritjtjS. 

ifione. The Houle then .tiolved itfclf into 1 com- 

W]fp concluded with rooting an miltre, and look inm coafiiliraiian n petife. 

■> Sir George S* rile '-a motion, ion frutii tbe mcichanli Wading to America, 

which rrftrided it to peofioni, and ihe praying leave to upon pnmGon! and met. 

•■net of penfionen. _e-ji.f at roe Exttifutr, dianrlife to ihofepam or" that coot incut with 

•It giving rumer. *W', ZlM'iK.,t Utfhf on thit fuSicS 

Ath.rfpeftcme thtHoufediridrd; movad fnr laave to bring in a Gill loreprj 

Aye*, - I»S axttof ah" palled at the be K inning «< toe 

Noct ■ 106 American double-, .ad to alia* the libt.ty 

WlIKIJBAft XJ. of trading to thofe parti which oqw an, IV 

Mr. Surer brought in hit billlbr cflinliOi- hereadcr m i, be, in the poffrliion B f hta 

wient of public ecconomy by a reformation in maiedy't fotce 1. 

theerptnditurt r.f the civil lift, the iboli. Thit 1 

tjon of ftindrj office!, fee. which wai lead Y-mgc, 

the nrft time, uoanimouiEj. 

The order of the day being then trad for Mokoay, la. 

referring the eflimalei of tbe onlinariei to* Upon the Iccood reading of Lord Sean, 

taltaoidioarieiof the n»y 10 the committee champ't hill far the further reiki oj iniulv- 

•f fupply. An oppofitioo Wat made. by est debwtj, cuunfel were l.eaid at li« bat 

Mr, David Hanky, who declared he would upon the HtiarMll 0< > ("-'■- nuenbte of 

not Tore one milling more uf tbe (Hiblie tiadai'men, ftiunkevpen.titd other inhabitanu 

»oney, rill thepeiitiom of the cooatiet had of the i«uniy of ^.idclle'e3, and of tbe eitj 

been taken into conlide ration, not while the anclibertiet p|' Weftminfler again ft it, 

mini #ry per filled in carrying on the dtfletw- Mr, L=e, Mr. Sylvefter jjid Mr. Erftitie 

t>« American wat; ihit bruught on a rery pleaded againti tbe printiplei of the bill, 

uninteteAing debate, with eeeit deviwiurj cuutending tbat it would io:rodutc an isnu. 

to other fubjfelt thit had kfeu r .Ike.) oaer «Ww into the .fublrftii-d lawi ol the king. 

many timel in the MlaaJ At length the domof a very dangerouieon(eo,»ejice totoai. 

lommittee fat, and refolred that Ihe fum of mtrcial credit, finte the dread of confining 

jtj,j8i], be granted for the ordinary «- the pe/ljn of an infolvent debtor in piifori 

pemn of tbe navy, and 693,580!. lor the 11 tbe ilrongefl career, Jgiinll infami'ui 

aarraordinariet for the jear ffio. perlbna cnnit. fling debit without the Ihjt 

TltoatnAY, 14. intention to dtrcharge ihem. That it arunlj 

rVfr.Cele moeed, " Thtt the eommitlee inevitably uttafino a great number oi banit- 

■ppeintcd upon the bill to explain and amend rupuiei 1rr.1t; cafitej tradefmeo, whole 

■n aft for the feturing, eiplaining, andren. deMori would by Ibn af! be enipouertd to 

tiering more effeflual the Inn for preferring forrcno'cr their cll:ili on naih into the hands 

the freedom of eleclion, be inAiBflcd 10 of one tieditor in ptctiT.uM to all the lefl, 

reeeireaclaule, Uyin e a fl.mp-duty of ml. in Older to obuin the liberation if Lh.lr ner- 

wpon the attmitrion of all honorarj inrunen looi : that it would tell 1 raowat in the 

into boioughi and corporaiiont reiiirr.ing judges ioflrad of tne conru of law to rinciae 

ntamberi to parliiment, and that the fild in- on the abJitici of the Oebtnr, and 10 deter- 

Tlruflioot be referred to ihe. tootcnitlte of mine whether he hat or hat not fuibfuliy 

W»jt and MMi." ncl^Mtdupj^Jiite&ai, tmlJ/, Uut tha 

Gil 



tyfeE PARLTAMENTA 

firft creditor who foes, will be obliged to 
iuppert the whole weight of maintaining tht 
debtor till be it releafed upon tht furrender 
of allhitefftai. 

Thecounfcl being ordered to withdraw, 
the commitment of the bill was oppofed by 
Mr. Barrow, Lord Ongley, and Lord George 
Gordon ; the latter oppofed it only on the 
principle that the House were not competent 
judges of the matter, the greatcft part of the 
members being themfclves in debt foralmoft 
every ncceflary and convenience of life 5 
Lord Ongley thought the laws already too 
indulgent, and that the frequent infolvent 
m£h had done a great deal of harm. 

Lord Beaucbamp de f c nded hi s bi II fr om t he 
example of the legislation of Holland, the 
country where commercial intercfts are bell 
ynderftood ; he fa id, he had confulted the 
ableft lawyers in the kingdom about it, who 
had approved the plan of it, and he had 
given notice of his intention at the clofe of 
the laft feffion, fo that there had been fuffi- 
cient time for every county io England to con- 
aider of it j yet ftill it was not his inten- 
tion to harry it through the Houfe. He 
would only obferve,that by thelatcft accounts 
from Holland, it appeared that there are only 
firventcen pcrfons confined in prifon for debt 
ia that great commercial republic, and thofe 
had been condemned at fraudulent debtors* 
la Amftcrdam only three, the reafon is, that 
when debtors fairly deliver up their all, they 
are relcafed after forty days imphfonment a 
and in France and other parti of Europe 
where the creditor can confine the debtor for 
a longer term, he is obliged to mike a con- 
siderable allowance for bitfopport. 

Bir. Burke and Mr. foot fpoke ably in fop- 
port of the bill, the former ftrongly in 
favour of perpetual infolvent bills. 

Mr. WslUct the Sollicitor General, related 
to the Houfe a great number of bardmips 
that prUbners for debt labour under at pre- 
fent, in the courfe of the procefs againft 
them, and in the prisons , and (aid, he hoped 
no judge would be found hardy enough to 
oppofe tf)e bill. 

Mr. Popbam hoped all debtors to the 
Crown would be included in it, and then the 
qua/lion was put for committing it, which 
was agreed to $ but a great many petitions 
having been fince prefented to the Houfe 
from all parts of England, a fpecial com- 
mittee was appointed to take them into con- 
sideration, and in this (late the bill ftill 
remains. 

Tuesday, 29. 
Lord North moved the thanks of the 
Houfe to Admiral Sir George Brydges Rod* 
ney, for his late important fervices to his 
country, which after a fin art converfation, 
was carried unanimoofly. Mr. Townfhend 
and feveral other members of the minority 
in the conversation, mentioned the versatility 
Of ldttiniftration ; one day they would vote 
4 



•w 



HT HISTORY. 

thanks to novel roeime>aler»i ftssY the 
next fuffer their hireling friibhoirs to abate 
them in print ) this had been the cafe of 
Admiral Keppel, thty therefore hoped 
Admiral Rodney would receive mere fob* 
ftantial marks of royal favour, end rJeeys 
thought the Houfe ought to addrcfi bio 
majefty for that purpofe. The friends of 
administration on the contrary faid. it was> 
the prerogative of the crown to reward merit* 
and the Houfe could not, nor ought not to 
interfere. 

The fame vote of thanks was moved the 
next diy In the Houfe of Lords by the Earl of 
Sandwich, and a Similar convcrfation took 
place, which it is needlefs to repeat. 

The bill for enabling members of the 
Houfe of Commons to be candidates to repro* 
fent other place?, was then read the second 
time, and after a fliort debate on the quef- 
tion for committing it, a divifion took place, 
when it was rejected by 66 votes againft 23. 
The chief argument againft the bill wae 
urged by Sir Grey Cooper, who from a num- 
ber of precedents, proved that every mem* 
ber is a rcprefentative virtually for the whole 
realm, though individually only for the place) 
he represents, on this principle a man being} 
once a rcprefentative, cannot be a candidate to 
reprefent any vacant feat. It was alio (aid, 
that it would increafe the number of con* 
tefted election!, and create cojifutjoft all 
over the kingdom. 

Tmviioat, Maichs. 

Lord North gave notice, that he mould 
move for leave to bring in a bill to appoint a 
committee of accounts. 

Mr. Pennant informed the Houfe, that he 
was under great apprehenfions for the farety 
of Jamaica, from the inefficiency of our 
naval force there, and in order to mow that 
it is not equal to what it was in former wart* 
he moved that a lift of the (hips of war on 
the Jamaica ftation from the year 17551* 
the year 1779 ** ^id before the Houfe* 
which was ordered accordingly. 

Mr. Bwkit bill for reformation and oko- 
nomy was read the fecond time, and com* 
mitted for WecWday the 8th. 
Monday, 6. 

The Houfe went into a committee of fop- 
ply, when Lord North opened the firft part 
of the budget, that is to ray, after (lacing the 
ordinary revenues of the nation, and the) 
ex pence* to be incurred for the fervice of the 
enfoing year, inconsequence of the fuppliet 
granted to his majefty by Parliament ; he 
informed the committee that the fum of 
twelve millions extraordinary would be wanted 
which he propofed to borrow by a loan, to 
which a great number of perfens had readily 
•greed to fuolcribe, and if he had wanted 
twenty millions, he could have obtained \u 
His lo;i*fh:p mentioned a negoctaiion with 
the Eaft India Con-pany fcr the renewal of 
t,.v./ ci**;ur, whuh lw* Uited ht«%«fe\VA 

Cuwovvi 



* I 

»?S PARLIAMENTARY HiSTORY. April 

•ompnyhidnot i,-rred to thofe term* whirh Mr, Bi'bj got Dp and mentioned 10 the 

tornce-thi th* public entitled to. Another House > doubt thit hid nifen in his mint 
jtir peibips they wnuld tohfider better, in 

money lenders hjl.ii.-ifd him to igree In 
conditions be would We unfiled to hue 
•hired, lor it was hit Mohave borrowed 

the twelve millions it five percent, hut bor- 
rowcti rouft not be choofers, and therefore 
he bid eonfenttd to the following conditions! 

Foitwtjnuol. fubfcribeel, the fubftribrr 
to be entitled to i col. .. it Annuities for 
ic years, »aM>ed it 75I. 
Anlnnuily, Called a lone annuity, - 

for the term of 71 years, of/ 

ll. 161. jd. per annua, Valued f 1 ' ° ° 

A proportional. I r flure o( fourlot-1 
: Wry tickets to every thoufand > 4 o o 
- founds dibfciibtd, valued >t J 



t the Houfe of Commons could not 
iy, by iny rrfuluti"n or vote of 
tiy enrol the [urn grin ted to bit 
Ci»il till tftih lift men! for 



cinnftincei of the time 
ded lor by bis lord&ip. 
cniMull) maintained th 
d it might be mmpiti 



Mij-.fly for 

life. ThiedoaM no wimtd to nivecieiredT 
up. and be &uj J therefore tike tbe fenfe of 
the Hiuie, whether he wu prttludeJ, by 
the cr-der of the diy, from bringing it on 

the r they thofe 10 enter upon it, el lo poft- 

A very warm converfilion enfacd upon 
ihisoccafion, in whith Mr. Foi, General 

Conwij, Lord Nous, the Attorney Gene. 
til, ind Mt. Dunr.ing were the principal 

Mr. Fa ind his friemit infilled tbit Mr, 
Rif by ought to put bit motion directly, in* 
that the Houfe fhould debate it fully, before 
they proceeded to the order of the diy, it 
it militated againfl the principle ui the bill ] 
ana it would be in viin to commit it ; for 
it rhc |.r, pofition Arnold be admitted, (bat 
the Hdufe hid not 1 rower to rtfume any 
pirt ot' the Civil Lift efUbliihmenl, there 
j 1 but he 



decU. 



verfation, but wtihoui effect, for the report 

wis agreed to,.'„d bills for the loin ordered jr.. 

SirGmrgr .Vjur.V fiid, he could not pof. 

Sbly voir n*iy 1 he public money in fuch 

kept ind uri. . to Parliament of the 

expenditure. Thof: already on the tible he 
Mmpliined were inuringly de'eeiive. 

Mr. >J™*W, Msjer Harlby ind Mr. 
Druid Henlty .clued [hey would 

the prayers of tbe people in their 
were heard, hi public oeconomy Wni 
nntheplinof Mr. Buikc'r billi Mr.Di 
Hartley like Wife called for 111 ciplamuo! 
the word* in hie votes of fupply for Oft) 



Drilling for ctnyiM 
though he wouldfl.i 


on the Awcrii 
wu agiinftthe 


Houc of 


The other 


- buEn 


(A of this djy 


.onurted 


in bringing 
fltge.billtwt 
iaibe Algal i 


'owbi. 


d reiding in 1 

II be hereafter n 
h ihey «m« 


heir fiift 
j.ted. 



if this 



.tti(.i, I 



till 



I open his II pi again wiihin thole will) 
in fivour of the liberties of his country, 
however he might flrugglr fur then-, ind 
tike 111 llwlol means to lupport them with- 
out doort. Neither fhonld he iny longer 
conCoct bimfclf 11 living in ■ land of fiee- 

Mr. Rigly, ipprehend'ng he wis reflefled 
upon, warmly iflened, rh« he wu ai ftre- 
doous 1 friend to the litertUt of hit country 
%• iny man in the Houfe, but he wis not to 

he to be toned out of it by any minillt'i 
the doubt wis honeli, it wu founded, in hi* 
Ofiinion, on juftice ind the uflje of pirlii- 
illcJ 10 hive the muter 

1/ e»prefled hitfurprifeit 
■tl m.ielly hidiuihorited 
the blue ribbon to Ggnify 
the Houfe fhould proceed 



Lord Ncrtb denied th>I iny fucb id« wu 
conveyed by tht aiTent he wu lulhorlfed to 
give: hefiidit did not bind him anymore 
thin it did hit mijelly j it wh only in lOent 
as it* the form of bringing bill. intoPirlia- 
ment that aff.cled the king's property, ind he 

flijie the moment ifter he had fignified fuch 
aJTcut 11 before : ncitoti wu he bound, in 



.fefo. PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 177 

'way "frcft «* * minister, from aAing as he Jttfr. Pvwnal very juftly remarked that the 

faYooid think fit Ma member of parliament j defcription of the office wn wrong in this 

tot fee wUhed to wave th« difcufflon of the ciaufe, and he appealed to the patent by 

amotion, and to commit the bill j he there- which Lord George Germain holds his office* 

foe ftoold certainly move the order of the a Hedging that there axe no fuch words at 

«**• fecretary of (late for the colonies j he there* 

We Attorney General fpoke to the iltega- fore propofed an amendment, by leaving out 

Hty~of taking from a man any part of hit the words « for the colonic*, which wai 

property conferred upon hi m by the law of agreed to. 

the land, unlefs he hat committed fomt Lord Ge$rge Germain then informed the 



M m«j »».«.«• U « ua« vuimiuiicv ivms **ora ucwrrc Kjcrmam ucn mrormeo tne 

— icc by which he has forfeited hia right : Houfe, that be did not coo/ider himicif aa 

id he could not fee how it was poffible to firft, fecond, or third (ecrtury of ftate, hot 

icfame any part of the civil lifteftablifhment as one of his majefty'a principal fecrctaricj 

without firft repealing the a£s by which it of flate, by which description alone he had 

was granted to his majefly. the honour to hofd the feali. 

The queftion for the Speaker's tearing the Mr. Burke readily admitting aa amend- 

chair for the Houfe to go into a committee mem, the ciaufe was amended in this maav- 

on the bill being put, a divifun followed, ner, " that one of the offices of fecretary 

when it wai carried by 105 agjinft 199; of ftate mail be taken away and aboliined, 

total 404. At paft eight o'clock the com- and the duties of the faid office /hall be done 

cnittee proceeded to the firft enacting ciaufe or performed by one or both of the two 

in the bill, Mr. Elwcs, knight of the mire remaining fecretarieinf ftjte." 
lor Berklhire, in the chair. The ciaufe After a debate which lafted till half a* 

csja&s, that from and after— day the office hour after two in the morning, the claufc 

of third fecretary of ftite for the colonics* was rejected on adivinon by 20S votes again* 

the fame not being necefTary, (hall be a bo- aoi. 
lifted, together with the under fecrctaries, 
clerks, &c. 



«M*jta*«M 



An Impartial Review of New Publications. 

ARTICLE XVIII. no better recommendation of too work can 

*]*HE Beautut of Briiijb jfntiqmity, filtO- be gi*en.— The antiquities of Great Britain, 

•* aifrem the ffritingtof eftetmed A*tio»a- according to Mr. ColKnfton, are heyood dif- 

joVi{ mt'ub Notes and 06ftrvatio*s* By Join pute, Uw more numeral*, and more corioot 

CWitrafr*. Svo. 6s. Longtian. than thofe of any other nation in the habi- 

THB modeft editor of this ingenious and t'ble world, not even excepting Italy itfelf, 

ontertaining travelling companion, hat ge- whofe ruin* are to much glorified by the 

noroaily acknowledged the authorities from legendary traveller. But, upon examina- 

wbtch he has collccled hii beauties; he "<"* >t will he round, that Italy is ramoes 

has indeed been an induflrious bee, and only for the remains of its own ancient pee- 

hia readers will find the eilcnce col led from P le » the defcendanta 0/ Romulus; while 

every literary flower in the garden of anti- England on the contrary can boats not only 

3[uity. The muft admired writers on the .of tl»e worka of its Aborigine*, hot of thofe 

object of Brit ifli Antiquities, hive favour- of its conquerors aod invaders j of distant 

cd us with large volumes calculated for the people, varying in manners from each ether, 

rludy; but Mr. Colli nfon judicioufly con- as much as the invader from the invaded} 

fidering that thofe who poffeft views, ei- and we join to the maffive rudenefs of the 

thor drawings, engravings or paintings by Briton, the elegance of the Roman, and the 

oar eminent artifts, of ruinated ftruclures, clumfy ornament of the Sixon. We have 

and other fcenei of antiquity; orwhoocca- only to add, that ewcry caftle, abbey, or 

txonaJly vifit them in journies through d:f- other edifice, the ruins of which have been 

fereaC parts of the kingdom would he glad celebrated by other antiquarians, is properly 

of a cencife yet accurate description of clafied and deScribed in the prefenc publi- 

them in a portable fixe, has executed that cation. 

task in a manner which muft give fatisfac- XIX. PbiUfobUal Eaqn'tria hta t be Lotos 
tjon to every lover of antiquities. The' */ animal Life, in fix Chapters. By Hugh 
note* and observations do honour to our Smith, M. D. 4*0. is. L. Davis, 
ooaaailcr's judgement, and the firft para- THE dengn of this treatife is to demon- 
graph in his preface gives qs fo high an idea flrate the probability that air is the fifft eaafe 
of the antiquities of Britain, that it de- of animal lite; to point out the mechanical 
fetes the notice of the curious ) to whom caufes that concur in ptodcing the tireu- 
Loajo. Mao, April 17^0, £ UrJa 



*7* 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



lation of the blood, and to explain the lawi 
of refpiration. The principles upon which 
thefe enquiries are founded were laid down 
in a ourfe of lectures delivered by Dr. 
Smith in the beginning of the year 1778— 
On the philofophy of phyfick, the leading 
a; horifm therein maintained wag, that " in 
all living anrnah, life, heat, and motion 
are infeparable j** by regular progreilion the 
doctor advanced to his laft principle, that 
«« Vital air, heat, and motion appear to be 
infrparable in animal life;** and the ulti- 
mate deduction is, that air is the firft male- 
rial caufe of every motion proper to life. 

The hypothefis is equally new and inge- 
nious 5 it has been fu p ported by experiments, 
and if it mould be universally admitted the 
application of the principles will be exten- 
sive and useful to the medical profeffion, 
which will be greatly improved by this il- 
luflration cf the anim.l oeconomy. Objec- 
tion^ are ftaied againft the theories of two 
of the moil eminent medical and anatomical 
writers of modern times, Harvey and Boer- 
lave, concerning the circulation of the 
Hood. The bare mention of fueh a conteft, 
is fufficirnt to excite the learned of the fa- 
culty, and every ftudent in natural philoso- 
phy to exanrne thefe enquiries with can- 
dour and the utmofr attention. The fix 
chapters are to be publifiied Separately, and 
it is proper to remark that the pamphlet be- 
fore us, contains only the firft chapter, con- 
cluding with feveral experiments in proof of 
his new hypothefis. 

XX. Tie Valetudinarian' t Batb Guide, or 
tbe Mttr.s of obtaining Long Life and Health, 
dedicMid to tbe Earl of Sbetbume. By Phi- 
tip Tbickr.ejfe^ 8vo. 3s. 6d. Dodfley. 

Tins is a very ul'cful and at tbe fame, time 
a very eniertaii.ing performance, for the au- 
th> r's lively imagination has raggefted to him 
that k'nd of conlolation which ou^ht to be 
adminiftcred as p.<rt of the prefcriptiou by 
every man who undertakes to give advice to 
Valetudinarians. Mirth and gtoJ humour arc 
admirably calculated to promote fuecefsful 
effects from medicines. Mr. Thicknefl'e, fen- 
fible of the f.uce cf this troth, has inter- 
mixed Ipri^htty anecdotes and amufing obser- 
vations, with ihe inoft humane and fehfible 
advice. 

The fafliion of going to Bath to drink the 
waters, and to bathe in them, carres num- 
bers of perU>ns to that delightful fpot, who 
h->ve no occahon to u!r the waters in either 
way 5 octets -re frnt there with diforders 
wLich tnofc watfrs will not cure, through 
the ignorance or fomething worfe of phyfi- 
c:ans. Mr. Thicknefl'e therefore could not 
have formed a more benevolent defign than 
tiat of pointing out from the beft medi- 
cal authorities, the n*rureof the Bath waterr, 
the diforders for which they have proved 
niter -nl, and t;iofc wherein they have failed. 
1 he n:xi object was 10 lay down certain rules 



Apri^ 



by way of caution againft the improper ufe 
of them, either by drinking them unpre- 
pared, or in too large quantities, by eating 
toofton and too haftily after taking them* 
or by bathing in them without firft confut- 
ing the ftate of tbe habit. 

The Bath waters, fays Mr. Thicknefle, 
fometimes kill, are often of infinite fervice, 
and frequently reflore to the patients perr'e£b 
health. To avoid the fatal effects this pub- 
lication mould be carefully read and ?ttended 
to ; for valetudinarians aie therein reqoeftedf 
to confult thofe phyficians who are acquainted 
with their conftitutions, to mark the mode of 
living they have been accuftomed to, and not 
to change from turtle anefvenifon, from claret 
and port, to balm tea, water gruel, and other 
flcps. 

We have a chapter on apothecaries, which 
tvtry family mould read, that they may take 
care to employ only fuch conscientious and 
diligent men of that profeifion, who will 
fuperintend the preparations made up in their 
/hops j and the dreadful mi flakes that have 
been made by young apprentices, where the 
matters are too prcud -nd too rich to do their 
duty in a matter in which the lives of their 
patients are at (lake, our author has eipofed 
as proper warnings againft iuluxe fatal acci- 
dents. 

In the chapter on long life and health, we 
have a curious and pleafant di(Tertati"n on 
the advantages of inhaling tbe breath of 
young per Ions j enforced by hi* own exam- 
ple, •« I am myfclf turned of fixty, anil m 
general, though 1 have lived in various cli- 
mates, and fuffered fetereiy both in body 
and mind, yet, having always partaken of 
the breath of young women whenever they 
lay in my way, 1 feel none of thole infirnu- 
ties which foot ten ftrike my eyes and ears 
in this great city." a Frenchman never 
gives up tbe fociety ox young women, nor 
young company till he is unable 10 keep 
any. 

On the fubjccl of bilious diforders, our 
author is very explicit, having' bimfclf la- 
boured under the excruciating torture of con- 
cretions in the gall bladder, upwards of 
twenty years, and yet outlived that painful 
diforder. The Bath waters are peculiarly 
ferviccable in tbefe cafer. Laudanum aad 
opium are l.kewife tUongly recommended 
from his own experience} of which hegivea 
the following inftance : *• I have snore than 
once caufed the ftone to pafs or return into 
the bladder, by lying upon shy belly on a 
uble, and a heavy perfon fitting on my back 5 
but much otiencr, and that too thirty years 
ago, being luddenly attacked with it on tbe 
day J was engaged to dance at the ball 
here, rather than lofe my partner or my 
diverfion, 1 have run over the parade, bent 
double with pain to the apothecary's, and 
taken forty drops of laudanum, and after- 
wards enjoyed my evening entertainment 

witkoa" 



tyfa 



.REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



179 



any inconttnience from the difordcr 
or. the medicine which removed it. 

Remarks on Dr. Oliver's cftay on the ofc 
and abuse of warm baching in gouty cafei. 
An account of the antiquity and ancient 
baths of the city. Strictures on wine and 
mod drinking to excels. On Dr. Charltu't 
analysis of bath w«ters. On the promifcu- 
ous bathing of the fexes. On mufick. On 
the cure of the dropfy j and on the different 
degree! of heat in the baths, are the chief 
remaining contents of this valuable pocket 
companion for the valetudinarian. In a future 
edition we recommend a minute defcription 
of the whole procefs for drinking and bathing 
from the fir ft arrival of the patient at Bath, 
to his final d ji'mifiion. It will have its ufe 
and be highly entertaining tothofe who have 
not the opportunity to vifit Bath. Proper 
plates to illustrate the fu ejects mould alio be 
given • 

.XXI. Love and Madnefs, a Story too true, 
in a Serin of Letters between Parties wbofe 
Nanus womld perhaps bt mentioned t were they 
left known or left lamented* 8vo. Kcarflcy, 
js. 6d. 

THE rife, f rogrefs, and final cataftrophc of 
the fatal affection fublifting between the late 
Mifs Reay and Mr. Hackman, make the 
principal (uhjedt of thefe letters, faid to be 
Written by the parties to each other. But they 
are enriched with a gerat many other incident*, 
folne of them nearly of the fame kind, 
furnifliing examples of the tragical effects of 
raft inconfidcrate love, which is certainly a 
fpecies of madnefs. It is (hown that it it 
not confined to any country. The follow- 
ing pathetic ejaculations give a (hiking pic- 
ture of love and madnefs, they follow the 
narrative of a mad lover having (hot his mif» 
trefs, not Hackman but one Empfon a foot- 
man. 

*" Oh love, love ! canft thou not be content 
to make fools of thy flat cs, to make them 
miferablf, to make them what thou pleateft ! 
muft thou alfo goad them on to crimes, muft 
thou convert them into devils, hellhounds!'* 

We hope this compilation at it is intended, 
will che:k the aidour of this predominant 
paffion, whenever it is directed to improper 
obicts, or liable to form connexions deftruc- 
tite of the peace of mind of the parties. In 
this view the editor defervea our warmed 
applaufe. 

But there is another part of his performance 
which does honour to his humanity and gene- 
rous fentiments ; in the courfe of the corre- 
fppndence.Mifs Reay wiflies to receive all the 
information (he can concerning the life and 
character of young Chattrton. This taflc 
Mr. Hackman it luppofed to have fet about 
.with great afiiduity, or rather the editor of 
this correfpondence, and he attires us that 
every fyllablc he writes on that fubjret is 
•othentick. It takes up a third part of the 
volume! and in ctcry page prefects the reader 



with fome curious incident! of the (hort life 
of that great, neglected, unfortunate young 
genius. Many aflertiont wen thrown oat by 
refpeetable authors affecting; the moral con* 
duct of Chatterton ; the editor hat taken 
great pains, and has fucceeded in mowing 
that independent of the foiblet of youth,and 
his literary deception concerning Rowley'e 
Poems, his difpofition was amiable, hit 
views liberal j and his concern for his mother 
and fitter, manifefted in his letters to them, 
muft make every reader lament bit untimely 
end. 

There are little pieces of poetry like wife 
in this account, written by Chatterton whea 
he was not twelve years of age, and never 
before published j -one of which we have in.- 
ferted in our poetical ctiays. The follow Jllg 
extracts from one of bit letters to hit lifter, 
we hope will likewife prove entertaining to 
our readers s 

Tern's Coffee-Houfe, London, May 30, 1770* 
Dear Sifter, 

There ia fuch a noife of bufineft and 
politicks, in the room, that my inaccuracy ' 
m writing here, is highly ezcufable. My 
preferit profeflion obliges me to frequent pla- ( 
cot of the beft refort. To begin with, what' 
every female convention begins with, drefs. 
I employ my moley now in fitting myfctf 
fafliionably $ and getting into good company ; 
this laft article always brings me irt intereft* 
But I have engaged to live with a gentleman, 
the brother of a lord (a Scotch one indeed) 
who is going to advance pretty deeply into' 
the bookfelling bunches : I (hall have lodg-* 
ingand boarding genteel and elegant, gra- 
tis : this article in the quarter of the town he 
Uves in, with worfe accommodations, would 
be cjol. per annum. I (hall have, likewife, 
no inconfiderable premiam-i and allure your- 
i'eiT, every month, (hall end to your advan- 
tage : I will fend you two filks this fummer : 
and expect, in anfwer to this, what coloura 
you prefer,. My mother (hall not be forgot- 
ten. My era ploy men t will be writing a volu- 
minous history of London, (0 appear m num- 
bers the beginning of naxt winter : as this 
will not, like writing political cflTayi, oblige 
me to go to the coffec-houfe } I (hall be able 
to ferve you the more by it. But it will 
neceffitate me to go to Oxford, Cambridge, 
Lincoln, Coventry, and every collegiate 
church near j not at all difagreeabie journeys, 
and not to me eipenfive. The manufcript 
Gloffary, I mentioned in my hft, muft not 
be omitted. If money flowed at faft upon 
me as honours, I would give you a portion of 
50V.0I. You have, doubllefi, heard of the 
Lord Mayor's remonftrating and addrejfing 
the king : but it will be a piece of news, 
to inform you that I have been with the Lord 
,M*>Qr on the occafipn. Having add re: fed 
an eflay. to his lord/hip, it was very well 
received ; perhaps better than it deferred ; 
and I waited qn, UU lortih^* x& taa? V\\ 

2 ft %^ufett>M*| 



So 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



approbation, to addrefs a feeond letter to 
him, on the fubjeet of the remonftrance, and 
its reception. Ffis iordftrip received me at 
politely as a ciiijrn could : and warmly in- 
vited me to caTt on htm again. The reft is a 
fecrct— -but the devil of the matter is, there 
is np money to be got on this fide the quef- 
tion. Intereft is of the other fide. But he 
is a poor author, who cannot write on both 
-tides. I believe I may be introduced (and, if 
1 am not, I will introduce myfelf) to a rul- 
ing power in the court party. I might have 
a recommendation to Sir George Colebrooke, 
an Eaft India director, at qualified for an 
office no ways defplcabre ; but I (hall not 
take a flep to the fea, w hi I ft I can continue 
on land. I wentyefterday to Woohvkh, to fee 
Mr. Wcnflcy; he it paid to day. The 
artillery is no unpleafing fight ; if we bar 
reflection ; and do not confider how much 
miichicf it rn>y do. Greenwich Hofpital, 
and St. Paul's Cathedral, are the only 
ftructures which could reconcile me to any 
thing out if the golhic, 

Eflay writing has this advantage, yon are 
fare of conftant pay^ and when you have 
once wrote a piece, which makes the author 
enquired after, you may bring the book fel- 
lers to your own terms, EfTays on the patri- 
otic fide, fetch no more than what the copy 
is fold for. As the patriot! themfclves are 
lurching, for a place, they have no gratuities 
to fpare. So fays one of the beggars, in a 
temporary alteration of mine, in the Jovial 
Crew. 

A patriot was my occupation, 

It got me a name, but no pelf : 

Till, ftarv'd for the good of the nation, 

J begg'd for the good of myfelf. 

Fa), la), fe. 

I told them, if 'twas not for me, 

Their freedoms would all go to pot* 

I promii'd to fet them all free/ 

But never a farthing I got, 

FaJ, lil, *c. 

On the other hand, unpopular efljys will 
not even be accepted : and you muft pay to 
have them printed, but then you fefdom lofe 
byit— Courtieis are fo fcnfible of their defici- 
ency in merit, that they generally reward arl 
who know how to daub them with an ap- 
pearance of it. To return to private affairs, 
Kiicnd Slude may depend upon my endea- 
vouring to find the publications you mention; 
They publilh the Gofpel Magazine here. 
For a whim I write in it : 1 believe there 
are not any fent to EriAol ; they are hardly 
worth the carriage : Mcthodiftical, and on- 
meaning. With the ufual ceremonies to 
my mother, and grandmother : and Jfhcerely, 
without ceremony, wi thing them both happv; 
when it is in my power to make them u>, 
they (hall be fo j and with my kind remem- 
brance to Mifs Webb, and Mift Thorn e, I 
ft again as 1 ever was, 

Yarn's, &;, to the end of the chapter, 
Thorns Cfyncrva, 



April 

P. S. I am this minute pierced through the 
heart, by the black eye of a young lady, 
driving along in a haeknty-eeuch. I ana 
quite in love t if ray h>ve lasts till that time, 
you mail hear of it in my next. 

XXIL Elegiac EpiJIUt on the Calam'uinof 
Lcve and War, inching a genuine Defcrlp- 
thn of the tragical Engagement between his 
MajeHfs Ships the Serafit and Countefi of 
Scarborough, and the Enemy" s Shift commandeS 
by Pawl jonei, on the 13d of September, 1779* 
AddreflTcd to the Queen, as. Pridden. 

WITH whom gentle rvader do you imagine* 
our bard is in love, ft range to tell in thefe 
modifh rimes, with his wife, and it appears 
flic repays him with equal fondnefs, yet thefe 
turtles have been paired for many years, and 
have a numerous progeny. By profeffion 
he ii a furgeon, and fervrd in that capacity 
on board the Scarborough, during the en* 
gagement. His leifure hours before that 
event, and after it, were employed in pen* 
ning an imaginary poetical correfpondencs 
between EltuVa his affectionate wife, and 
himfelf under the character of Abelartt* 
His defcription of the action is truely affect* 
ing, and his poetry is equal to the fabject. 
The following lines we give in fupport of 
our opinion i 

From War's malignant reign what evils flow ! 
(Parent of ruin and tremendous woe I) 
How many fathers grieve for children flain. 
How many fons lament their fires in vain I 
How many .widows fruitlefsly deplore 
The huArandt fated to behold no more! 
Commerce and Arts the hostile sera mourn. 
And towns and cities undiftinguitVd burn t 
Hence ancient lore from eaftern empires fled* 
And dreadful ruin o*er each region fpread; 
Regions no more with envied bulwarka 

crown*d, 
Nor o'er the world triumphantly renowned. 

Speaking of Paul Joner, he thus exclaims— 

Heavens *, that a man forgetting nature's raws 
Should take up arms againft hit country*! 

caufel 
Join with the common enemy, and dart 
To his native walla, to bring the war I 



LIST 0/ NEW PUBLICATIONS fir tin 
Month* of Maich and At ill, btfidet 
thofe that have been reviewed. 

HISTORY. 

TfE Hiftory of the United Province* of 
ihr Netherlands. By WiWam Lo- 
thian, D. D. 4*0. i6t. Boards. Dcdf 7. 

YI.e Hiftory of the EftebliunvciTt of the 

Reformation of Religion in Scotland. By 

O. Stuart, LL. D. 4*0. io«. 6d. Murray, 

POLITICKS. 

TWO Letters from D. Hartley, Eftt> 

M. P. addreflfed to the Committee of the 

County of York. Svo. 6d. Alston. 

A LUtej £om the Right Hen. Lord Ca- 

iyta\ 



Vf1&. 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



* 



tytiatt *> *• gqitintitfWfciw f>M— liruu 

8*; it. Alum* 

A llJawirf~', and hombly ajsorcAed to 
tht Sov ereign s of Strops on> the prctent State 
of riMlih Affairs kitmn the Old aad New 
World, tvo. •■• *d. B*rd»* Almon. 

*A Letter to Edmund Burke, Efq. n. Bew'. 

A Letter to Lord North, with free 
.on Penfione tod Places, tjd. Bla- 



Authtatirfc Minutes of the Debates in 
the Irish Honfe of Common*, si. 6d. Ni- 



_ _ to the CoUe&ive Body of the 

Peoele of England. By the Earl of Abing- 
don, aw* wa. Almoa. 

TawasjatJ on a Fond for the Improvement 
af Credit ia Greet Britain, is. Murray. ' 

A Letter to Lord North, oft bis Propoli- 
tioaa ia faroar of.JUaUnd. ByF.Dgbbi, 
Efq. 6d.BUdon. 

An Accnaat ef fan* particulars relative 
to Che York Meeting, is. Becket. 

TaW Spate* of Leonard Smclc, Efq. at 
York, vakh Notes, as. Faolder. 

Obfervatioos on Mr. Borke'a BUI. is. 



Observations on an Addrefs to the Freo- 
aWkasaaf Middkfax. od. Bowen. 

The Eanofition of the Motives of the 
Coadoft of the King of France towards 
tmHrit 4M>« v. 64. L. Davis. 
~~" A R T S. 

ORIGINAL Defigns in* Architeaare. 
By faatai Lewis, ii. it. sheets. Owes. 

Edmoa(bn*s complete Body of Heraldry, 
a v*4o» folio, il. 5«. fewed, Dodfley. 

PracVical Hufcandry 5 or, the Art of 
Faming, with a Certainty of Gain, as prae- 
tttad by judlciout Farmers in the Country. 
By Dr. John Trader, of Cobb am, Sacry* 
too* j*. 44. Baldwin. 

Principles of EUaricity. By Chartee 
Yilenaat Mahen, F. R» S. 410. tos. 6d. 
Rbnfley. 

Mofick made eafy to every Capacky. la 
Throe Parti. 25s* Randall. 

A Tieatife on the Military Science, fey 
T. Sisnes, Efq. 410. 13s. boards. Alaoa. 

Experiments diftiagitaninn Pas from Mo* 
ens. By Ch. Darwin, at. 6d. Cadell. 

A Hint to the Dye* and Cloth-Makers, 
ens) wall worth the Notice of the Merchant. 
By James Hiigh, SUk and MoauvDvej, 
LtedV 6a» Baldwin. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

MEMOIRS of the Town aad County of 
tUieate » • vols* fsna.ll Svo. tat. Lowodes. 

Panegyrick : an Eflay on feme of tht 
worth is*. Chafsaers intha Kingdom. it.6d. 

Fielding. 

Remarks on Dr. Saaanel JohnIbn*s Jetir- 
way to the Hebrides, By the Reverend 
Donald M*NicoU, A. M» a to* 51. Cadell. 

A Serine of Advontatae in tht Course of a 
▼ay»f« Of the Rwi |ca, i* tkf Year 1777, 

9 



In Letters to a Udy. By Brfci Irwin, Efe« 
4to. i6e,Donfiey. 

Letters on Iceland. Svo* 5a. boards ' 
Robfon. 

A letter to the People of Lsartnc*Thirk« 
it. 6d. Longman. 

A View of" Northumberland, >oei. a. By 
W. Hatcbinfoo, 410. tU ae. boards. M'Ge~ 
wan. 

Travels from Egypt towards the Land of 
Canaan. By J. C. SchswbeJlre. 800. as. 
Crowder. 

An EfTay on inulle&nal Liberty. By M. 
Dawes, Efq. as. Caakjl. 

Letters of the lace Lord Lyttelton. 3% 
Bew. 

Minatee of the rVee^edrags oa tko Come 
Martial held to enquire iata the Lota of tha ' 
Ship Ardent, ato. as. 6a»CaJeU» 

■ Stritl etts apon Agriculture SarJatsa*. 
is. 6d. Evans. 

Remarks on Johnson's Life of Milton. 
as. id. Dilb/. 

Letters from a Tutor fa kit Papila* «t»^ 
Robinibn. 

A Letter to the Right Henoarabk L '«« s i 
Th~-»w. is. Kearney. 

A Diary kept in an Esyorfion to UCtat 
Hampton, a vols. 4s. lowed, Raw 

Obfervations on the Military Bwthelrn* 
meat of the King of PnflU. as» Flddiof 
and Walker. 

Remarks on General Bargoyae's Expedi* 
tion from Canada, ia. Wilkie. 

Biographical Memoirs of catraoedinary 
Painiers. 3s. fewed. Rebfea. 

An Addrefs to Dr. Prieftly, upon hi* 
Doftrine of Philosophical Ntccasty ilraf* 
traced, at. Cadell. 

State of the Trade of Great Britain in fre 
Imports and Exports, profreflsvoly from the 
Year 1 §97 to 1773. By Sir Charles Whit- 
worth, Bare, folio. las. boards, Robinson* 

A fblemn Appeal to the Pabeie. By Cap- 
tain Baillie, late Li tat ea ant Governor of too 
Royal Hofpital for Seaaaea at Greenwich, 
falsa. 101. fd, Aamon. 

Twenty>nina Eflaya, or Dlfcoarste, froaa 
the Works of Foyjoo, and tranfUosd froaa 
the SpanUh. By John Brats* Esq. 4 voss. 
9vo» il. is. boards. T. Evaao. 

Aa Argansont an the Natara af Party aai 
Faaioa. xe. Dairy. 

Jhe Phenomenon ) or, Northern Coanat». 
Sao* aa. Bew. 

LAW. 

THE Conftablo'a (art Gaide j or, Bvery 
Conftable his own Lawyer. By Cturlea' 
HalUfax, E<q. as. 6d. BUdoa. 

A comparative View of the Eagtint %nA 
IriA Law. By M. T. Ayrea, Blq. a vols* 
fvo. aas. Brooke. 

Confiderationa aa the aa tjra asi ModiSca* 
tion of Poyning*s Law. By a Mnnbtr af 
aht atn% f B*iUM!\t% %t%t V» k^twMw 

)r\t^V;KU 



lift 

MEDICAL.' 

OBSERVATIONS on Fcvota,Q By John 
Clark, M. D. 8to* 6s. Cedezk • * 

Medical Commentaries j Part firft for the 
Yjear 1780. By Andrew Duncan, M. D. 
S*o. is.6d. Dilly. ' 

Biographical Memoirs of Medicine ia 
Great Britain, from tbe Revival of Literature 
to the Time of Hervey. By J. Aikin. 41. 
J. Johnfon. 

Cafes in tbe Goat and Rheomatifm* By 
T.Dawfon, M. D. '«, 6d. Johnfon* 

. Observations and Remark! refpe&iog tbe 



RIVIE.W; OF. BOOKS. 



Putt. By CtmiBo Qserno, *oet Lantcat t» 
theCoDgrefs. it. Bew. 

, The Putrid* Soul; a poetical Epiftle, By 
A, Bicknell. it. 66. Bowon. 

Heroick Epiftle from Serjeant Bradsnaw 
in tbe Shades, to John Donning, Ifq. It. 

WJlkie. _ 

N O V' 5 L. 
ALWVN j or, the GcnrJemsn Comedian* 
% volt. i*mo. 51. fewed. Fielding and 

Walker. w 

RELIGIOUS. 

A Letter from tbe Reverend Sir Harry 



more effectual Meant of Pro'ervation of TrelawVey. Bait. A. B. to a Reverend Cler- 

wounded Seamen and Marina* By J. Ry- gyman. 6d. Backlend. 

mer, S.R.N, is. Donalofon* The Scripture Doclrtn* of Graee explain* 



Remarka on tbe OpHtholmy. Pforoph- 
thalmy, and purulent Eye. By T. Ware. 
furgeon. as. 6d. Qilly. 

. Medical Tracts. By the late John Wall, 
M. D. of Wore eft er. 5s. CadeU. . 
P OJB'.T ft «. 

THE Maid of Arragon, a Tale* ByMrt. 
Cowley, as. id. Dadfley. j . 

An Epiftle to a Friend on the Death of 
John Thornton, Efif. it. Dodfiey* 

Rebellion and Oppofitiooj a Poem. ot.6d* 
Btadon. 

The Death of Eumenioj a Poem, By 
J.Fawcett. 6d. Val lance. 

The Fad-Day.; a Lambeth Eclogue, 11. 6d. 
Bsw. 
. Four Elegiac T«fef. -at* 6d. Flexoey. 

Unanimity j a Poena* By J. Macauley. 
J*. 6d. CadeU. i 

Eugenio, or the Man of Sorrow* IK 
Wilkie. . ■ • 

Hobby Horfet } read nt Bath-Etfton. 4(0. 
ls.£)odiley. 

-Elegiac Epiftlei on the Calamitiei of Lore 
and War. 8vo. it. Pridden* - ' 

The Senatorial Dii'penfaryj a Poem* It* 
Portal. 

. Paradife regained ; or the Battle of Adam 
aodthe Fox. 410.. 2a. Bew. 



An Epiftle rrora Jafeph Sbrfacej Efg. to, fewed, 
Richard Brinfley Sh.-ridan*. Esq. of Great' p^ 



Script 

eo\ By the Reverend C De Coetlogon, 
A. M. id. Dodfley. 

Remarks on Mr. Home*l Dialogues com* 
cerning Natural Religiose By T. Hayter f 
A.M. it. 6d. CadeU. 

Sermons. By Alexander Gerard, D. D. 
Svo. $•. boards, Dilly. .» 

The Character of a true Patriot briefly 
delineated* By the Reverend J. Welding* 
11. johnfon. 

The Meffiah. By. T. Barker, Efq. as. 6d«} 

White 

A Sermon preached on the Anniverfary of . 

Queen Elifabetb*s Reieafe from the Tower. 

By T. Montgomenr. id. ■ Walter. 

The Heavenly DoOrinefpf the New Jdw-. 

faUm. By Emanuel Swcedonbonrg. si. 

Philips. a . " * 

The Affociation vindicated, and the Pro- 
testors anfwered. is. Johnfon. 

Chriftian Catholicifm defeaded. 11. Bock* 

Liberty; moral and religious. A Ber- 
mon preached it Cambridge. By WBUnm- 
Cooke, M. A. it'. Cadtll. 

A Letter 10 the Reverend »*• Wition.M. 

CtdelL j ._ „ . - 

A Scriptwa! IlhrftratM of the Book of 
Revelation.. .By John Johnfoo, Svo. 51a 

at., id*, fewed. 



, taw. 

... ProtcrUnt Armour, Svo. 

Queen- Street, Chairmen of the Sab Com- Trapp*. 
mittee for Weftminfter. it* 6d* KeaiHcy 



Private. Thoughts on poUick Affidrat 
with fome Apology for the Conduct of not. 
late Commanders in chief by Sea aodLaad | 
a poetical Eflay. By a Sundar-by. is* T. 
Payne. 

The Artifice; a comic Opera, in two, 
A els. By William Auguftue Miles, is* 
CadeU. 

Two poetical Epiftlet, with a PotHeHpt. 
4I0. is. 6 d. Baldwin. .v * . . 

Sir Ebrius ; a Tale for Bachelors. 11. 6d. 
T. Payne. 

1 be Britoniad j a Pocm.tr. 6d. Kearfley, 

£lcgy on CjpUin Cook, to which it added 
en Ode to the San. By Mifs Seward* 4^, 
is. pd. DodHey. 

The American Times, a Satire | ia rjuc* 



A Sermon preodied it Hackney, Feb. 1* 
I7S0/ By Benjamin Ckoyco Snowoen. ts. 

• Scriptural Meditation* for the StaJbne of 
Sickneit and Melsmckoly. By a Clergy^ 
man, time, jtv Bock land. . . ' . 

A Harmony of t^e EvanftKAs in, Ea»> 
liu. By J. Prietlly, LL.D. P. R.. S. 
xto. iar. boardr* J* Jownion. ' . 

Sermons. Vol.-Ii. By Hugh Blair. D.D. 
Svo. cs; boards. Cadelt* • • 

A Wfcotirfc preached Jaaoary gotk, 1780)* 
By R. Robinfon. 6d. Buckland. 1 

A Sermon Prenetied belbre the Honfc of 
Lords, January 30th, 17S0. By ike Biflion 
of Lincoln* n. Owen. * ■ [ 

A Sermon preacTje* at York on the toth 
of AlareB, 17^ ^*e Benefit of the L*> 



t-jtu. P O E T I G A L E S 3 A Y S. 18$ 

sufec Afyfam. By James Scott, D. D. 4to. — Hon. J. Cornwallis, D. D. 6*» 

is. Baldwin. Robfon. 

A Jbemonflrance, addreffed to the Prote- — Benjamin Dawfon, L. L. D. 64* 

Beat Aflbciation. By William Jeffe, Vicar of Wilkie. 

Hotem • Cranfwick, Yo'kfhire. is. Ri- — Thomas Howe. 6d. Law, 

yinftoo. — William Bennett, 6d. Buckland, 

SuafOHt m f£e /*f* Public Fast, Feb- . — a Che/hire Clergyman, it. Cadell. 

™ ar J 4> 1780. — Richard Harrifon. is Dixwell. 

BY the BiJhop of St. David's, zt. — Thomas Wakefield, A. B. n. Daven- 

|m Davis, hill. . 

— George Home, D. D. is. Robin fon. 

f^ The ingenious artifi, who furnifbed ut with tbe views of Richmond Bridge, in order fa 
complete our flan of giving views of all tbe beautiful bridge*, over the Thames bat now 
JlmUbed bit defign by an elegant engraving cf the new bridge at Maidenhead, In tbe account 
of the environs of Wiudjor in cur Magazine for February, tbe reader will find a defcrif- 
t'mu of Qliefdcn and the country adjacent to tbit bridge, to which they are referred. 



POETICAL ESSAYS. 



A VERNAL ODE. 

SOFT breathing o'er the velvet Lwn, 
It felt the heart reviving gale j 
Cay fpiing unfolds the blooming fecne, 
The budding grove and fcented vale. 
The orchard's fweets, the garden's pride, 
The brook that bubbles thro' the plain, 
The d aided fields, and op'ning flowers, 
The wild nous of the feather'd train— 
The gilded grovts with verdure clad, 
Reflea. bright Phcebm* golden beams, 
While his celeftia) glories flame, 
Down thctranflucent purling ftreanu 
Ye Dryads fair, whofe temples round, 
Wave wreaths of odoriferous flow'rs j 
Lead me your fylvan fcenes amidft 
Where bloom your rofy fringed bow*r% 
Nymphs of the wave, fweet Naiads hear, 
As yoor fmooth waters bank along, 
With carelefs Aeps, 1 pleating ftray. 
And warble forth my youthful fong. 
Now the gay rays of orient light, 
Bedeck the iafron mantled morn, 
A ndl from Aurora's balmy wing, 
Impearlea with dew the prickly thorn, 

From off each daify- painted field. 
And from the lilly paved vales, 
Zephyr collects a rich perfume, 
And (cents hit foft cofmciic gales t 
Whofe honied pinions round difpenfe^ 
Hygeas heav'n defcended (lore, 
Chafing each noxious breath away, 
And fweetning cv'ry fragrant more, 
bright o'er the hills the folar ray, 
Its purple radiance w«nton fpreads, 
Pleas'd on the glafly fount to play, 
And gild the velvet fpanglcd meads. 

How fweet this hour to rove the fields 
Whilft nature meds her charms profufe $ 
Or hide one in th* em bow' ring made, 
To court the thought infpiring mufe i 
St*' 11 as Aurora onward moves, 
|$i fleecy flock* the, Jbephcfd fwaio 



Drives from their folds in jovial glee, 
And whitens all the verdant plain* 
The deer with nimble footed fpeed, 
Fleet as the winged paflina; gale. 
Bound o'er the mountain's flow'ry fide, 
Or fweep the low defcending vale. 
In yonder gay enamel Pd mead 
The Lark is feen to plume his wings, 
Then low* ring up the Azure height, 
fie mounts foblime, and fomring fings* 
The yellow Finch, and Linnet blue. 
In mattins wild falute the day, 
While their fweet fongs by echo caught, 
In double founding notes decay, ' 
A limpid fountain gurgling flews, 
From midft yon Ivy twifted cave, 
Where fee ! the lovely Chloe cools 
Her limbs in its refplendent wave. 

Deep in yon old fequcfter'd grove, 

Where the down-darning torrents roll, 

Afcends on fancy's roving wing, 

The rapture breathing poet's foul ! 

Lo ! foaming o'er the rough cafcade, 

The lab'ring billows force their way, 

Then mingling with the fnow white floods 

In curling eddies onward ftray : 

While down the fmooth meandering ftreasaj- 

The mining fifties fportive glide j 

The Perch, with filter glitt'ring fcaks, 

And Trout with gold befprinkled fide. 

Thefe are your blcffings fylvan maids , ■ 

The funny hills, and fliady woods, 

Delightful valliet, pleafant plains, 

Clear Ikies, J'weet air, and chryftal floods. 

Here could I ever, ever rove, 

And quit the world's contentious fcenes, 

With joy, with innocence, and truth, 

To wrap me in your charming greens ; 

But fate and fortune adverfe call, 

And fnatch me to the bufy throng ! 

Adieu then rural fcenes adieu, 

And ccafe thou dear deluding fong. 



SEA 



H. L; 
WTT 



I*+ 



POETICAL ESSAYS. 

and FASHION. 



BEAUTY 

A RXPAtTEI. 

WltutUhmwnMu^mitkiKtmtr bsiet, Tib. 



But what I wat obliged to cotttCt i 

over, 
Or you actor would have cither ho 

^AYS Be»«, «. F*l.n. ,. *cy f.. .t the £,££ ft^ *SSJS«*» 
Aj toilette, ijt ; ^ . 

•• If I girt a charm, you M f wW Ipoii A ^ . ^» .- it muft ht 

When you take it in band, there's fuch mur- Tha J a Un«K3a*™ aVl 

th'rmg and mamjing, f/f^"*; Negleclcd (he litea, and no beauty a 

— - *• eocttmcepbos'd by your fiddhng and . * h . t Ai ^ withltt rf j* f 
I fcarce know my own, when I meet /» .. di ^ dl wlwai !VJ 



Tisio 

That 



it again, 



[and 



men. 
romen 



Like the diamonds when 
charm* you beftow, 



Sock cbMgcti*. fM aMfc* Mh «f VMM But mint j, Ae feftin ,„, ^j^,,, 

To c 2^,'* wk " lb *» Ml * PhT >" 1< ' Your nymph., with UW tfc 
or Phiilif , - - r ^ - 

Tin fore that 

Now what 

be the judge : [and rouge, win te „ 

Whj ** daub tein. oter with cold cream .^ , form ^ B „„ , fiftlm ^ 

That, like Th.ibe in Of id, one cannot come ^ ^ mt thu ^ b..^ mgfl 

fop ply*d j [hate 



... ™. -. ,, ->.,—, your nympn^ Wlta their sapet, to 

V* »t- t—r jri- plewoiis, and features, [ex 

K I gm them gc^irofr. .and l.la« ^ th withool £ fa^ 

hate ,ou done r-Lat the world The R ^ Aja^JE <£* 

fudee : fand rouge, .„ . ., /f 



at em, [matum. 

Unlefs through • mud -wall of paint and po- 
And ai to your draft, one would think 

you quite mad, 
From the head to the hod 'tis all mafouerade ; 
With your Meanest end furbelow*, focki, 

trollop***, [your kneei, 

Now fwecping the ground, and now op to 
Your pinking, and crimping, and che- 

vaws de friar, 
And all the fantaftical cuta of the mode, 
You look like a Bedlamite, ragged and proud! 
Then of late you*rc fe fickle, that few 

people mind you ; [you j 

For my part, I never can tell where to find 
Now dreft in a cap, now naked in none, 
Now loofe in a snob, now cloic ia a Joan ; 
"Without handkerchief now, and now bury*d 

in raff j 
Now plain at a Quaker, now all of a purTj 
Now a flupe in neai ftayt, now a flattern in 

jump* i [numyi ; 

Now high in French hecli, now low in your 
Now monftioui in hoop, now trapira, and 

walking [like a manikin j 

With your petticoat clung to your heels, 
Like the cock on the tower, that mows you 

the weather, [iher." 

You are haidly the fame for two days fcoge- 

Thus Beauty begtn f and Mini Fashion re- 

BlyM* [•• try'd. 

« Who does tnoft for the fee ?— Let it (airly 
And they thai look round *em will prefect. 

1? fee, [to me i 

They're much left beholden to you than 
I grant it, indued, mighty favours you boaft, 
But bow fcanty your favours, how fcarce is t 

toifl ? [then, 

A flupc, a complexion! you confer now and 
But to one that you gift, you refufe it to ten } 
In one you fuccecd, in another you fail j 
Here your role is too red, there your lilly v s 

too pale ; 
Or fome feature or other it always amifs ; 
And, pray, let me know when you finiu'd 

a p:ce, 



« 



« 



« 

it 



Which time has withdrawn, or wl 
Impartial to all, did not 1 lend my I 
Both Venn* and Cupid might throi 

their trade, 
And e?en your Ladyfhip die an old m 

Tor WOODEN WALLS of ENG 

an ode. 

Wrltun hy Heavy Gal EN, m 
Mmfic bf Dr. Aomc. 

WHEN Brtuim on her Sea-fir 
Hex white-rob v d IhuiuaetR a 
WNtt Aid ((he cry '4) ftaU I iaaplti 
What bed Defence by Numoetu f 

Tho 1 hoftile natiom roaod^ki 
(The myftic Oracles *cc4yM) 
And view thine ifle with •twli 
" Their threats doty, oWftriW| 
Nor roar intanon from yuajr otlttf 
Briuint beft BulwaraUwn Itar 
•< Walls. 

Thine Oaks defceudlng to the I 
" With rloattng Forts mail f)t|B d 
AiTcrtirtg B>it*im % \ liquid Itciui 
«< Where'er her thundefnf Jr> 

«< Nor left to oeoeilWawfr iwt 
« Where Cmtmttt OtMaw 40 kt 

« In wcidBandemiUlaagMl 

" And join the Soa^iMrt tlm 

Spread then thy Sails whuro M 

« calls t [■ 

hVfMfVtbeft Bulwatlioeauwur 

Hail, happy Me I wbtttVthy 
" No Vine-impurjn«a > Tr»*t*y 
Not fann*d with odour bretthu 
** Nor Crops fpontaneoirt glad rt 

" Yet Liberty rewards the To 
" Of Ini*flry % to Labour prone, 

" W ho jocund ploughs the arat 
« And reaps the HarteftCbe hat 
While other Realms tyranni 
" inthrallf. 

f« ^rawia'j beft MwirlH are her 



(< 



« 



r< 



«( 



<• 



i&t POETICAL ESSAYS.- VjT 

BEAUTY ui FAfHIOH, lat adh* I .»» aU^ t» coctta at rat* 

A KiiaitII. , OTar, ' flare** 

V#tA*i«t r iMtai,W , *Aa*».M*Tti. 0# ww aaaw waai* taw aithar hnifaiud ■ 

-If I fi« a chum, «IMr«« &1 a-j jl^L — j^jvto. 



■When j w (At it la bend, ttctfl feet Bi 

TiL_ 

Th.t 



~3srrc«rsB esstrtSflftea. 

No. wha,hare M^i.Wl ^.W^ZmMi^^SSS 
betbeyadtet [tad roan, KT5i * B * mW * *■* "n**** 

•Th, yon inlb 'em ill mat wtt cm* ana —. ™.'*"t - „ 

Tb/t.Tke Thi* » OrU. ... caaa* com. S L*Z5l*Ml!£* ^ 5ft 



Unlef. through i mud-wall af plat and po- mn- J*B2l Jt , P»«*den, I ( 



With yoor Ufa and wW >W hcta, \ 

troltopwa, [aaaakrjan, f 

Now/weepinf iaEiroaad,aadaiwa»ta J> 

Your uinltini, ud erimpoaf, Hat aha- I 

«M de Mat, J 



■at niin lint feftrni, ino •oliaVneioo. 
Tour nymphs with ibbl^ti, their com. | 

ffeMn, and tbUprM, ftmmul 
What a™ they witnoat ran, tat poor nhMid 

*™ " "" "" "" " ■"■ijrfcaafc 

Bellae 
ill It 

eny'd i 

l ,J 

id."i 



Impirtiil to ill, did Bat I lend my aid, 
Both Tmh ind Cnpirf might throw 

their trua, 
And erea ytor LadyMf tJai 



Tfc WOODEN WALLS o# ENGLANP: 
A 11 ODE. 

And.llthtr.nuAiulcatiaftbtaMdc jr,ia» •> RiiVT.dliint, «W/« A 
yoDlookJikciBcdJwnu^HatalaadpraMI JUaA-itO*. 4an*. 

Then iriNiH'1. A AKthMfe. \TIHINaV»dh W ih W l>,.i ■»— 

people »_.d, to j _ Ami VV H«aaa*waaV*lrnrid7*X 



'"J 



■vTi. :-. -i.vT .« 



jungp.j ffpunui; Nt"i™.n«l«nWomyoui«tKr1tC<.,i, 

Now hijh in French heeli, now low in^u " fi " f J ,7 * ^ Bul«»rkt ale her Wuodcn 

Mow moritroa. in hoop, sow tnnift, wid " Wi "' 1 

wrtkin, [like i minikin ; < Tbinc Oiks defending 'a Ihe Main. 

With joar pttfjeoiu rlut^ to yoga hult, " Wiihfloiiinj FcrtiftillftemtheTider, 

Like taetoxlcpi, ihc lower, thiifliowi (on " AiTtiting flr,-',ji'i liquid Rcifn 

tfacwuther, [the..' 1 " Where'er her rhoiideriflt rV«.j tidts: 

Vou arc baldly Ihe fimt fgt two Am tags. " N'w left w ftairM *tt inclm'4, 

' ThalBttHjI^in, and UiftFalnlOnre- " Where Cmmitf open, HI her Stores, 

at*** (be tryd, " la foci.l Hindi thill Ing.t Minkiiv], 

« WW. dan moti for the tea?— Let it fairly " And join the See-dirMnt Shorn; 

Aad they that look round 'em wilt udapt- " Safcad ihen thy S.ih where rV*** c.j., 

I>R», [looiei -'..llii ["Willi. 

They're mack Irfi fc-holden to w» tbt-t " ff'»m'i belt Rnlwirti are her Wootlcn 

I irtat it, iBdtaa.-miKtiry fawiin ,'« toift, » Hiil.hippj MleT wh.ubo" tbt V.le, 

■nthowftaacjjoo. /«««», howfc.reeii. .. No Vine-im purpled T.ihute yield, 

an, B _ . ■ , r ' btn * " Not fenn'd with odaw ShfiSfci deler, 

Aftipe, . eomp|.„or,, you confer no* ,,,d .. No. Cropi fpont.neom gild St Tiel T, 

Bot to one th.t jou E !.r, y„» nMl i, ,„ ,„ , ,. Yt , t'lai Mw»di the Toil ' 

In one yoa faeeert, in .khMt yoa M , •• of HkIVy, taWht.ar.rane, 

Hen yonr .oft u too rrt, therajrWr aOljU » Wbr^ar^rf^^&wWalSoiL 

too P .1e } ■ « *adr««tBateaa»ftwV MBn , B , H 

OrrornefewureorMhtrl.rtway.Mll,. <. WMIa «tU Raafau tparmk Sa,, 

*- J pr.y, ktmakmr* whan yos flnft'd « UiMib, ' fwiil." 



< ISK«, 



[Wan..- 
MrWatatea 



I>80 



POETICAL ESSAYS 



185 



Thus fpafce the bearded Seen of Yore, 

In VliMl wrapt of Britain* % Fame, 
Era yet Ikria felt her power, 
Or Gafiia trembled at her Name » 
Ere yet Columbia dar'd t'exp.lore 
New Regioni rifing from the Main $ 

From Sea to Sea, from Shore to Shore, 
Bear then, ye Windi, the Solemn Strain ! 
This facred Truth an awe-ftruck World ap- 
pals. 
" Britain % beft Bulwarks are her Wooden 
" Walls." 



A* ZPITAPH in Imitation c/Shiwitoni, 
•— -S^uibus iff a procul Jifcordifasfcnnit, 
funditbumo facilem tritium juftiffima tellus. 

MUTE here a merry Poet lies, 
He only made Pretence 
Tofimple, limping, laughing Li net, 
Which never gave Offence. 

And he was peaceful like his Mofe 5 

The worft that- we can fay, 
'It, that be fold his Apples dear, 

And— on the Sabbath- day* 

More happy than fuperior Wits 

In Life's fir ft Rank who mov*d $ 

lot— who nor liv'd, nor died like him-* 
Refpe£ad and belo? 'd. 

No Patron flatter'd and betray*d, 

No BooifiUer oppreft ; 
Hir Meal was light, hit Sleep was found, 

His Verfes were his Jeft. 

Nor (treading on the old Man's Turf) 

Can he who writes forbear 
To pay departed Innocence 

An honeft, Heart. Aed Tear. 

Critic, forgive the firft EfTay 

Of one whofe thoughts are 'plain— 

Whofe heart is full— who never means 
To fteal your time again* 

Caflltdykft, near Dumfries 



The R E S I G N A T I ON. 
By the late T. Chatteiton. 

OGod whofe thunder (hakes the iky : 
Whofe eye (his atom globe furveys 3 
To thee, my only rock, I fly, 
Thy mercy in thy juftice praife* 

The my flic mazes of thy will, 
The (badows ef celeftial light* 
Are part the pow'r of human /kill,— 
But what th' Eternal afts is right, 

O teach me in the trying hour, 
When angnim fweils trie dewy tear. 
To trill my forrows, own thy pow'r. 
Thy goodnefs love, thy juftice fear. 
If in this bofom ought but thee 
Incroaching fought a boundlefs fwayj 
Le»o. Mao. April ijto. 



Omnifctence could the danger fee, 
And mercy look the caufe away. 

Then why, my foul, doft thou complain. 
Why drooping feek the dark recefs t 
Shake off the melancholy chain. 
For God created all to blefs. 

But ah ! my bread is human frill. 
The rifing figh, the falling tear, 
My languid vitals* feeble rill, 
The ficknefs of my foul declare* 

But yet, with fortitude refign*d, 
I'll thank th* infli&or of the blow} 
Forbid the 6gh, compofe my mind, 
Nor let the gufii of mts'ry flow, 

The gloomy mantle of the night, 
Which on my finking fpirit ffealf, 
Will vaniih at the morning light, 
Which God, my* Eaft, my Sun reveals. 



On a Young Ladfs Fan. 

SURVEY me well, and think you fee 
An Emblem of your. Sex in me s 
So like, fo very much the fame, 
We feem to differ but in name. - 
To polilhed Sticks of equal Size 
Which from a Center gently rile, 
And, fjpreading, form at Top a Bow, 
The Nicenefs of my Frame I owe* 

Thus, Florimel, milled by Pride, 
Nature's Deformities to hide, 
By artful Stays, of Steel compeer, 
Elaborates a Shape exact. 

See t now my Leaves well colour'd-flilne, 
What Figures grace the gay Defign ! 
Yet thefe (Onall caufe for me to boaft !) 
But fpeak the Artift's Skill at rrioft* 

In Sylvia thus now well unite 
The Mixture of falfe Red and White s 
Whilft here the Lily, there the Rofe, 
A variagated Bloom compofe : 
Yet all thefe Graces only tell 
That Paint can mimic Nature well* 

Now clofe my Leaves together twine, 
And in themfelves themfelves confine : 
A nd now their full Extent difplay, 
Like Flow\rs fair opening to the Day. 

Thus Women oft in Silence fit, 
And piqu'd, indolge the Pouting Fit : 
Anon th' eternal L; rum's rung, 
And Vollies break from ev*ry Tongpte f 
For few obferve the middle State 
'Twixt moping Spleen, and ceafelefs Prate. 
When Summer Suns with fultry Heat 
Around the Head intenfely beat, 
My Lea? es, with gentle Motion play'd, 
Afford a kind refreshing Shade. 

So when Cornnto raves and frets 
About Arrears of Rents and Debts, 
When now his Paflions higher rife, 
And Fury fparkles in his Eyes, 
How foon his Wife's compound Cat* 
t Waving t Cudgel V ^ \u iu^ 



186 MONTHLY CHRONOLOGErR. Apr,l 

-like a difh 
Refuge fl.M 



B.ctthe. Cilmncr. o'er thi« troubled 5e«, Yd in one Cireumftancc aloi 

And tooll him like > difh of Ten ! J cannot mike you' Cafe MJ 



, ■ , m.,*.. •;(. . MyTentui-ci, ormv Colours foil, 

■• To hide the Tut. (he cn-oot Jhri." And bid each MttUM G rue revue. 

Yet my transparent Leaver* reveal Bu[> Madam, ftiguld your Charnti decay, 

Whatthe.'reinicndcdio conceal, And Me ; D f ett fiUy iwiy. 

So fliould you 10 the Fair relate (At f.de theyniiiii. Of ibon or late) 

A Secret of the u'moft Weight, Sm h ii ihe fii'd Decree of Fate j 

Ai foon thry'll bl.b what tbey receive Thi. Truth each man of Khyaiei will ling, 

Ai Waier paffe. through a Sim. - Be.uty ne'er know, a fecond Spring." 

Thus fir we both ag-ee fo well. If then fome worthy Mite fhould offer, 

We almolt form a Parallel : Be timely wife, not from lire Proftcr. 

THE MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 

LONDON, fame footing with ihofe of other neutral 

f r ,mtht London Baiitti *«h net privileged by treaty ; and his mi- 

""' , . , J«By dolh heittj Moat, mvifloMlrj, and 

At She Court at St. Jam..'., the , 7 .h of U 'further ,„„,,, J , ht V it(itu | it &„„,,. 

Ap.it, 1780. P«ftM, A. KING'. Moll [|on) , tl>fft ; , ht fttt ^ m of n „ig lt i oa 

excellent Maj'itv in Ceirneil. and commerce, in time of war, ofthefob- 

jrf i* J<-m HEREAS fmce the eemmence- j c< i! of rbc Siaici General, contained in ihc 

L*, 30C i"m mem of the war in which ,-„ e „| U atin now lubfifhng between hi. 

^fi W flH Great Britain it inpgtd by maierty and ihe itpublitk, and mote parli- 

55^ f4 ihe unprovoked ar-reflion .of cul'irly ihofe contained in the marine irej;y 

1* ^SCitV F,ln " ' ni S P ,m > "?'"" between Grtat-B.iuin and the United Pro- 

.*-S». A.7K mcrrM „i. vl , have been ore'emed ,;„„,, tnmludcd at London, Dreemoer 

b, hi. majefly'i ambalFador to the Statar- ,.,jih, ,674. 

Cnnal of the L'niicd Provincei, demand- f Ir , m , humane regard to the intercfti of 
ir>( the furcours fl.fnalated. by ueaiy; to individual,, and a defire to orrirent their 
which requifiliun, though ftrongly c.lltd fuffettng by any fu-priff, hia majcfly, by 
up™ In Ihe lall memorial of the nil of an d with the adtke of Ml privy council, 
Alaich, ibcii Hich MiahtineiTei hive given J,,), declare, that the effect ef thil hii ma- 
no aniwet, nor fignified ani intention of jillj'i order fhall take plate it the ful lowing 
fomplyinj therewith 1 and whereat hy the termi, »ii. 

non-performiiHCDfihetleareftengaeementi, ] n [he Channel and the Nonh Seat, 11 

ihty defer! the alliance that' ba> fo io"g fub- diy^arterihed.te hereof, 
filled between the' crown of OtsM- Britain F.om Ihe Channel, the BrftKh Sea', and 

^nif the !■ 1 ii ■■ !■;, and place tbemfelre. in the North Sea., ai far ai the Canary lll.nd! 

the condition if a neutral power, bound to inclufiiely, either in the Ocean oc Mediter- 

thii kingiom hv no treaty, etiry principle ranean, the term fhall be fix week, f.om the 

of wifdom ar.d juflice .eouire. that hi. ma- .forefaid date. 

jtfty (hr-u'd confroer ihem henceforward at Three montbt f.omthe faidCinarj Idands 

flMldiniontjinthj; <-,(l:ni relation in which ls tn ai the EauinoflUI Line or Eouitt.r. 
ibey ha.e plae.d thetnftrMtl hi. mijeHy And liftly, flit mrJlthi beyond the faid 

Ihe.efore h»ir,g liken ih.i mattee Into hi. Line or Equator, and in all other parte of 

royaf eonfrderaiion, Poth, by and with the [he W.rld, wilhaut any tateption or other 

advice of bit privy council, judge it eepedient more pj^tkulii definition of time and plaee. 

rnemo"!d V p"e'en*e e -lU hi. i«MMw on the ' , Tkoh.Iiat. Mmb 30. 1780. 

lift of March lall, and ore vi. iifl y fitrrinedin On Friday lift : it the affriie. ar Krngil.>n. 

Vifsoo'm Sn.roie.ut, "oc of hi. : n Jjell T 'i on be! ' thr Hon, M.. |.ifti<e Gould and 
f.r.cipilfttKUrieiof Cue. t" Count Wei- 1 fp.-cial jo.j. when Mr. DtKftMp (»bo vo- 
rerTn, envuy enrao-'oirury and pleiipotcn- luniarllv (nrrimdcred) w»i tried for having 
ii.rv f: -m ihc recub.Jck, nearly two month, killed in a duel, in November UK, C'apr'. 

; ,. ihefe 1'ui/l.lr mainly, by and with of refpecl.bie wilatftea, that [he Mettled 
ihe advice of hit privy council, flo'.h declare, »a, entirely in fanh, and had forced Mr. 
,'uje ihc lubjefl. of (he Vclttf Pwfbta Donovin to meet l,„.. in * held *t* the 

j<e '■.,..:•'" ■' <obe ■■■.'■ i.,.i Hji-n the D ; and Dmk , it alfu appeared, Uiit the 



1780. 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. i8 7 



only ground of quarrel between the prifoner 
aad the deceafed was, that Mr. Donovan 
interfered between Capt. Hanfon and ano- 
ther p'erfon, and prevented their fighting, 
on which Hanfon gave him very abufive 
language, and infifted « that he wou'd make 
him tmell powder." The deceafed was 
wounded by a piftol ballet in the belly, and 
lived about 24 hours after. He declared to 
two eminent furgeons who attended htm, 
and to feveral other pcrfon s, that Mr. D<*no« 
▼in behaved during the a&ion, and after it, 
with the greater): honour, tendernefs, and 
concern ; and he particularly defired that no 
profecution would be carried on a gain ft him, 
at he himfelf was folely in fault, by an un- 
provoked raflinefs of trmper and heat of paf- 
fion. The learned Judge gave an excellent 
charge to the jury, and /"aid, «« though he al- 
lowed that all the circumftances were as fa- 
vourable to the prifoner as in fuch a cafe 
could be, yet as the idea of honour was fo 
often mentioned, he muft fay and inform 
the jury, and the auditors, that it was fa lie 
honour in men 10 break the laws of God and 
of their country ; th it going out to fight a 
duel was in both pa'tic: a deliberate refoJution 
to commit murthcr, and there could be no 
honour in fo favage a cuft >m, which, how- 
ever difguifed in.wmdi, is contrary to the 
principles and happinefs of fociety, and 
ought to be reprobated in every well-regu- 
lated comTmniiy.'* The Jury, without 
going out of court, acquitted Mr. Donovan 
of the murthcr, and found him guilty of 
manslaughter nu the Coroner's Inqueft. The 
judge fined him 10). to the King, which 
being paid in court, he was immediately 
difcharged. 

TUE!DAY, ArRlL 4. 

At the genera! quarter feffion of the peace 
hoiden at Guildhall yederJay, there was the 
greatefl con^ufion imaginable, owing to a 
new regulation adapted with refpect to the 
publicans and tavern-keepers of this city, 
who, to the number of anout Sco, made a 
formal complaint of injuilict, by being cal- 
led upon to give their prrfonal attendance at 
the renewal of their licences : for a long 
time the clamour put a flop to bufir.ef*. Mr. 
Jooet of Crippltgaie, and others faid, they 
thought thrmlclvr? opprcflcd to be confidcred 
by the court as offenders, for not attending 
at ;he laft fcflion, when for 30 years it has 
been the uniform cuftom foT tne feveral bea- 
dles :o anfwer fcr them. The Recorder in a 
very audible fpeech, during which the dis- 
turbance fubfided, entered into a full justifi- 
cation of the ccurt. H- faid, that he 
thought it highly neceflary, as well lor the 
fati 5 taction of the gentlemen prefent, and 
who thought they were aggrieved, as to 
throw oft' that odium and weight of reflec- 
tion which they had fo freely bellowed upon 
the bench, without the lead, colour or foun- 
dation, to fay a few words. The feveral ads 



of Parliament for lie en ting victuallers had 
prefcribed the manner in which that ftep was 
to be purfue^, and if the court knowingly 
deviated Uom the rule of law, they would be 
criminal. The law required a recognisance 
to be ulc-n by the magistrates, and entered 
into by the parties for the proper conduct and 
good order of their houfes. No other per- 
form but the victuallers could give that fecrj- 
rityfor themfelvei. However, it had been 
difeovered thit thofc only who could legally 
ant'wer were perfonatrd by the beadles. The 
laft feflion was the Aril time of this irregu- 
hrUy appearing to the bench, if it had not 
then been prevented, the court would have 
been repreher.tiblr : the magi (Ira tea had 
ben hitherto deceived ; it was evident they 
were ignorant of the impofition, by reafun 
of having all the the names called over; and 
if any perfon thought proper to affume upon 
themlelves another character, by anfwering 
to name* not their own, how were thejuf- 
ticeb fit objects of cenfure ? Thofc who an- 
fwered for the absentees were culpable. To 
the much talked of objection of expence, 
he defired all to take notice that the whole 
demand for a licence, allowed by law was 
il. 5s, 6 J, and whnrvertonk more was guilty 
of extortion. A? to th? charges made in 
confequence of this novel mede, it' was not 
in the power of the court to intermeddle 
with, or abridge ; they wee the fees of office 
upon all petitions prefentrd to the court, and 
he wimed the gentlemen would drop the idea 
of being brought as offcndcic, which was not 
the cafe ; they were applicants in the com- 
mon way, and until their petitions were read 
the court was not fuppofed to be acquainted 
with the content?. Hhving nmde rrnny other 
observations to turn the current ofabufe againft 
the court, he faid, that however generally it 
might be confidered ri»ht, it was certainty 
wrong to grant licences as for many years wai 
the practice, namely, f» proxie?. Mr. Alder- 
man Alfop roff to explain rhc c-ulV at the 
lad fcflnn, and tocVfrnd himfelf for mov- 
ing the alteration to take place. Mr. Jones 
complained of the fees of 8*. 6J. on th-* pe- 
tition, and for the i.rd?r of court; he infilled 
that it wa« a punimiatnt lor no crime. The 
e'erk of the arraigns called upon the court u> 
protect hi! character from rep-oaches thrown 
upon it, hinting a corrupt motive for his own 
intcreft to be the fole re*fon of the l-cencra 
inuing in a different way.The R reorder faid, 
there wav no truth in the ;«fTertion, and it 
being agreed to g ; ve up 5s. •••" the 8«. 6d. the 
bufinefs wrnt through fatisfjctorily to ail 
parties. Previous to the Able explanation of 
this intereflin; affair by the Recorder, film- 
ing rnnd-bills were difperfed, invetpht.vg 
bitterly agair.il the court ar.d officers, and pro- 
moting a refjftar.ee to the authority of the 
magiftrates, whivh hid nearly been of furi- 
ous confequence. 

A a 3, Win- 



iSS 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



Aprjl 



Wehnisday, 5. 

The following note was lent to the Town 
Clerk of this city by Lord Shelburne, in an- 
fwer to the letter of the committee of com- 
mon-council, making an enquiry concerning 
his health after his late duel. 

« SIR, Bnkc'y -Square, March 28. 

«« I mi trueSy fenfire of the obliging and 
affectine terms in which the committee of 
cr-mnrm-ccuncil directed you to make So 
early an enquiry after my health. I can 
orly anfwer their goodnefs by affbring them» 
trial my life always has b*en, and always 
fhail \>r y devoted to the pubiick, and my belt. 
nnJ wanned lcrvit.es ever at the command of 
thf cty of London. I have the honour to 
bf, with g'eat re;a<-d, Sir, your moft obe- 
dicr,t humble fervant, Sec.'" 
Friday, 7. 

By the new works lately erected at Ply- 
mouth Portfmouth, and Sheernefs, the 
Do. k-Ysrds are now rendered perfectly fe- 
cure from any fudden attacks of the enemy. 

Two lan?e floating batteries are now 
getting ready in the river, one of which is 
to lie off Margate, for the better protection 
of that part of the Kentifli roaft. 
Tuesday, u, 

Yefterday the qurftion to enquire Into 
ti.e Right of the Corporation to become 
Ciovernours of the four Royal Hofpitals, St. 
Bartholomew's, ChriiVs, Bridewell and 
Bcthlcm, and St. Thomas's, came on at 
Lincoln^ Inn Hall btforc the Lord Chan- 
cellor, as Vifttor of all the Royal Founda- 
tions. The Counfel for the City of London 
were, the Attorney-General, the Recorder, 
Mr. MauJcx, and Mr. Rofe ; f jr the Peti- 
tioners (ihe Pref»Jent and Governors by 
T.V nation) vv.rr, Mr. Mansfield, Mr. 
K^nyon, and Mi, Erikinc. The former, 
in a Speech of an Hour and a half, (rated 
the object i of the Petition and the Prayer, 
nr.d a mrdcrn Byt-Lv.v of the Corporation 
f»r fealing H< fjital Ltsfcs in the Court of 
Common-Council j that in confluence of 
the new refo.u ton Lea.es brought to the 
Court of Aldermen, agreeable to former 
i>!j£c, were refufed the Seal : this made 
it rivti7>.iy for the V' titioners to appeal to 
}.;-. Lo * (hip in his viiitorial rapacity : Mr, 
Mjiv field entered upon the merits of his 
rafe by adveit : n,^ to the original grants of 
!\-n£ Henry Vili, and Edward VJ, which 
•■"i: mane to ue Mayer, Commonalty, and 
l 't;en«:, in conformity to previous Inden- 
t.ires ot* tovjnant enter* d into between the 
Roy? I Donors and tlic Citizens: the learn- 
ed Counfel co:i;ci;(ieJ, that there was no 
: f.v ceation of .1 corporate Body by the 
f-.i:stof Kin- t , Hc-nry, r»iit the latter Sove- 
r;i c i, he acit.'iov.iedji'id.had beftowed a new 
ccv;>ration by a particular title, veiling a 
pr .\ •■ r « f ir?k:ti.T Bye-Laws, and appointed 
(Jovt, noun, Min'r.c-*, and Officers. Soon 
afici their invitation. Governcurs were ap- 



pointed by the Court of Aldermen, confift- 
ing of Aldermen and Commoners ; prefent- 
ly afterwards the Governors made choice of 
Succcfibrs i that in the 15th Century orders 
were made for the annual regulation of Go- 
vernors in future: that about the Year 
1700, the election of Governors ceafed to 
be annual; and alfo, that there was no 
limitation of Number. He then went fully 
into the manner of keeping the feal of the 
Governors. In the reign of -Philip and 
Mary a new fwnature was appointed, and 
fo there was before that time, viz. ia the 
re gn of Queen Elizabeth. After explain- , 
ing the method of granting Leafet, he ob- 
served, that the Aldermen being Governors 
ex officio, and acting in conjunction with the 
Petitioners, the corporation had a great 
/hare of control, and if the City of London 
Succeeded in cftablifhing the title they con- 
tended for, the counfel feemed to be in 
fomc apprchenfion Jell the corporation 
would go a ftcp fuither, and ouft them of 
the Governorihip entirely : having tenderly 
trod on this ground, he Said that the length 
of time might in Law be Sufficient to prc- 
Sume, that the donative Governors were 
fixed beyond a Pofiibility of Oufitr\ and 
beSiries, there being no flatutes given by the 
Founders, it might alfo be legally prefumed, 
that a regulation had been duly made for 
fuch anointment, and that the Vifito: nad 
Aampcd it with his authority and approba- 
tion; length of time might even prefume 
a new charter ; he animadverted upon the 
beneficence of the charities by the Go- 
vernors, aod enumerated the principal con- 
tributions. Hediew a few inferences-from 
the pointed parts of this copious opening, 
and the original grants were about to be 
read, when the Lord Chancellor intimated 
that a matter of this importance required a 
deal of time, and prepofed a further Day 
convenient to the Court and Counfel for a 
complete inveftigatton. Saturday Fortnight 
was fixed on when the Attorney-General it 
expected tp take up confiderable time in 
anfwer ing the arguments of Mr. Mansfield, 

Monday, 17. 

Saturday on a trial at bar in the Court of 
King's Bench the Will of the late Dufceof 
Kington, in favour of the prefent Countcfs 
Dowager of Brifro), was eftabl'ued, 

A few days ago the town Clerk of Scar- 
borough, by order of the corporation, pre- 
sented the freedom of that Borough to Capt, 
Pearfon, late of the Seraptt, and Capt« 
Percy, late of the Countefs of Scarborough, 
in boxes of Heart of Oak, fot^their gallant 
Behaviour in an engagement off that Port 
w'th a Squadron ofTShips under the com- 
mand of Paul Jones, whereby the Baltick 
Fleet under tbeir convoy was prcferved, 
and a flop pat to further depredations on the 
Coaft / Qa 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



1780* 

WlDlfllPAY, 19. 

On Saturday Mr. Serjeant Davy moved 
the const of Common Pleas for a rule to 
ftc«r caufe why a defendant mould not be 
dUcharged upon a common appearance to a 
writ ifTued in that court for a pretended 
debt of 70K and upwards. After obferving 
that the cafe he was inftrucled to open was 
extraordinary in ita nature and circumftances, 
he fai4 that the court would, no doubt, be 
afloniflirri to hear, that the plaintiff and 
defendant era hufband and wife. In the 
year 1760 they were married in the Spanjfh 
ambalador's chapel, according to the rites 
and ceremonies of the church of Rome, both 
being of that communion ; they were then 
fervants, and lived together, fubfequent to 
the marriage, with all the affection of a 
loving couple for 11 years. She went into 
Nortbannberhind with three furviving chil- 
dren of fevea\(the iffue of this marriage) and 
the hufband allowed her 10I. a year during 
her continuance in the country, for the 
maintenance of herfelf and children. He 
wrote federal letters to her in the warraeft 
terms of affection, and (he returned to town 
and lived with her hufband, known and ac- 
knowledged by all their friends and acquaint- 
ances as his wife. The man fell in love 
with another woman, who was pofTeffed of 
some property. His wife heard of his pri- 
vate court fhip in the character of a fingle 
Ban, and prevented the crime of bigamy, 
by informing the After of the lady intended 
as a facrifice, that the man was deceiving 
her. This ftep, to .prefer ve the reputation of 
t wife, and to defend her children from the 
imputation of baftardy, drew upon her the 
Itfentment of her hufband, who was not to 
be shook from his purpofe of marrying the 
other woman. He arretted his wife in her 
maiden name, upon an affidavit that fhe was 
Jsjftly nod truely indebted to him in feventy 
pounds and upwards, forfo much money lent 
and advanced, When in the fpunging-houfe 
an attorney offered her a fum of muney to 
fign an inftrument, renouncing all claim to 
her hufband, which fhe absolutely refuted j 
whereupon fhe was, by order of the attorney, 
taken to Newgate. During her confinement 
the offer was made a fecond time, and refu- 
fedj the attorney endeavoured to perfuade 
her to a compliance,- by telling her, that a 
particular friend advifed her to fettle the dif- 
ference by a general renunciation of the title 
of a wife. But even this Subterfuge had not 
the effect ; fhe was in Newgate 12 days, and 
fhe Angular cruelty of the affair being repre- 
sented to a captain with whom the hufband 
Kved, he generoully directed an attorney to 
bail the action, and apply to the court for 
redraft. Serjeant Davy having commented 
Moon this transaction, faid he mould fuper- 
add a dasjfe to the rule, for the purpofe of 
aanifhing the attorney for pro Aitu ting the 



189 



procefs of the court to fo fhameful a dejjgnt 
evidently calculated to impofe upon an inno- 
cent family, and therefore he moved alfb, 
that the parties would anfwer,—. The court 
feemed ftruck at the relation, and (aid, that 
whether it was in point of law criminal or 
not, the attorney had acted very unconfeien- 
tioufly, and it would be right to call upon 
him, and, if poflible, to punifh him ) they 
therefore granted the rule as prayed for. 

IRELAND. 

Dublin , April j. 

THE late acts paffed in England for a 
free trade to this kingdom will be pro*, 
ductive of the gieateft benefits. It has al- 
ready fee induflry to work. Many have begun 
to engage in new branches of manufacture ; 
but the advanced wages they give to the work- 
men has drawn fo many from our great 
ftaple manufacture, the linen, which, though 
not fo profitable, was more lure, that thole 
engaged in that branch have been under the 
necerfity of advancing their workmen's wages 
one half, in order to retain them, which 
will very foon fet their workmen and fami* 
lies above want in this very cheap country* 



AMERICAN AFFAIRS. 

From the London Gasettx 

Whitehall. April 1, 17^0. 
Extract of a Letter from Major-Central Cmmp- 
Sell to Lord George Germain, dated Penfact- 
la^ Dec. 15, 1779. 

WHAT a gricvoui mortificatiou mufl 
it be to me to have to relate to your 
lordfhip, for my fovereign's information, 
the conqueft of the weflern part of this pro- 
vince, by the arms of Spain, in confluence 
of their early intelligence of the commence- 
ment of hoflilities. 

I cannot help obferving that facts have 
demonftrated, that Spain had predetermined 
on a rupture with Great Britain long before 
the declaration made on the x6th day of 
Jure laft by their ambaflador at the court of 
London j had laid their plans, and prepared 
all their governors abroad for fuch an event j 
and it would appear had even fixed on the 
day, or at leaft nearly the time, on which 
it was to take place \ for we are here in- 
formed that war was declared at Porto- 
Rico in a few days after the 16th of June. 
Englifh vefTels are known to have been curl- 
ed into the Havannah as prizes in the begin- 
ning of Auguft laft. And from New Or- 
leans I have the governor's ownr acknow- 
ledgement of his being apprised of tbecom- 
mencement of hoftilities on the 9th day 
of Auguft laft : but how much earlier his 
intelligence of that event really waa is un- 
certain. However that be, it is now un- 
oootrovcrtibly known that be hat long ago 

bcjta 



i go 



MONTHLY CH 



been fecretly preparing for war. That bar- 
ing previoufly collected the whole force of 
the province of Louifiam, the Independen- 
cy or' America was publickly recognized by 
beat of drum at New Orleans on the 19th 
day of Align ft, ani every thing being in 
readinef* fur that purpofc, he immediately 
marched againft our forces on the Mifnffip- 
pi ; and he fo effectually facceeded by the 
capture, by ftraugem, of a king's floop in 
lake I'ontchartrain, by the feizure of a 
fchooncr in the river Mifliflippi on ber way 
with rum and provifioni for Manchack, 
and of fix other irnall veflels on the lakel 
and in the river Amir. One of thefe laft 
with troops of the regiment of Waldeck, 
and another with provifioni, and by pre- 
ventive precautions in (lopping any com- 
munication <■( intelligence of his move- 
ments, being fent to this place ; that he 
had nearly effected the reduction of .the 
weftern part of this province before we at 
Penfacola were apprized, or had the f mailed 
communication of his having commenced 
hoftiliiics ; the information of that event 
having only reached me on the 14th of Sep- 
tember, as intim.ited to your lord (hip in 
my letter of that date ; and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Diction, it appears, was forced to 
captu'aic on the 2 lit day of that fame 
month. 

Copy cf j L'tttr from Ltutenant-Cohr.el Dick' 
Jon :s Majsr-Gen:ral CampbtUf dated New 

Or fans, OSfoter 20, 1 7 79. 
SIR, 

I fend by Lieut. Wilfon, for your infor- 
rmtion, a copy of a journal which I kept 
ever fince the commencement of hoftilities 
with the Spaniard:. The dangerous and 
difagreesble lituation I have been in ever fince 
that period will be fully related to you by 
him, and I hope will in every particular 
juftify me, by convincing you that I have 
ufed my utmoft efforts, even to the laft 
minute, againft a great fuperiority of 
forces, with every other advantage an enemy 
could defirc. 1 fent by Lieut* Wilfon the 
capitulation in En.: lift, as propofed by me 
to his Excellency Don Bernardo de Galvez, 
and the original one in the French language, 
as finally concluded on between us. The 
teims are honourable to the troops and fa- 
vourable to the inhabitant!, and I hope 
will meet with your full approbation. En- 
gineer Graham, who has obtained leave 
from his excellency Don Bernardo de 
Galvez to go to Penfacola on private 
bufinefs, was very ufeful to me in drawing 
up the terms of capitulation, and fi nee our 
arrival here, on many occafions, from hii 
perfect knowledge of the French language. 

It is with plcafure I a dure you that all 
the officers and men under my com- 
mand behaved exceedingly well, and did 
every duty they weree ordered wi»h great 
chcarfulncfj and cxactnefi, Lieut. Wi lion 



RONOLOGER. April 

and the detachment of the royal artillery* 
as well aa the additional gunners, diAingui fil- 
ed themfelves particularly the day the enemy 
offered their batteries againft the redoubt. 

I rauft, in juftice to his Excellency Don 
Bernardo de Galvez, fay, that the officers 
and foldiers, who are prifoners of war at 
this place, are treated with the greateft ge- 
nerofity and attention, not only by the of- 
ficers, but even the Spanifh foldiers feem to 
take pleafure in being civil and kind to the 
prifoners in general- I am, Sec, 

Alex. Dickson, Lieut. Col, 

1 6th regiment of foot. 

Tbe following are tbe moft material Articles of 

Capitulation agreed upon and granted betwee* 

bit Excellency Don Bernards de Galvex, big 

CatboHck Majefly** governor and Commander 

in Cbitf of the Province and Force* of Loui- 

Jiana, and Alexander Dickfce, Efa. Lieure- 

nant -Colonel cf the Jvtb Regiment of Infantry f 

and Commander cf tbe Troops of bit Br it an' 

nick Majxfty up"n tbe Mejjiflippi, &c for 

tie Gamjon and DijlrxB of Baton Rouge in 

JVefi Florida. 

Article I. 
THE garrifon (hall not be nude prifoners 
of war, nor obliged to engage not to bear 
arms for a certain time. 

Article II. But they flu 11 go cut with all 
the military honours, arms, baggage horfes, 
drums beating, matches lighted at both 
ends, colours flying, two pieces of field artil- 
lery, with their ammunition for 30 rounds, 
and 36 rounds for the infantry. 

Art. III. Th>: garrifon ihal) be conveyed 
as foon as po /libit, under a good efcort and 
convoy, to Penfacola, in Spanifli vefiels, 
either by the B^ife or the Lake;, ar it may 
be thought proper ; «»nd the troops (hall be 
furniihed with good and wholefome pro- 
viflons for th; r ff-ge, at leaft for three 
weeks, the veffJs and provifioni being firft 
examined and fcarched by commMTaries ap- 
pointed for that purpofe by Litutenant- 
Coloncl Dickfon J and the charges and ex- 
penfes (hall be repaid on the Debarkatioa 
of the troops at Penfacola. 

Art. IV. His Excellency Don Bernardo 
de Galvez (hall provide the troops with a 
veffel of 100 tons burthen, or with two 
large boats, which mail not be fe arched 5 
and, in cafe of a want, with as many more 
as (hall be found neceffaiy for conveying the 
wounded and fi<k, who mall be able to 
undergo the fatigues of the voyage : and 
the other fick and wounded that cannot be 
conveyed immediately, mall be permitted, 
as foon as they are able, to join their regi- 
ments ; and, in the mean time, his Catho- 
lick Majefty (hall furnifh them with every 
afliftance of which they may (land in need. 
Anfwer. The fupeiinrity of the troops 
under my command, as well as of arms, 
ammunition, and proviftons, together witli 
the knowledge 1 have of the bad Atuation 

i* 



s 



1780. MONTHLY CH 

in which the troopt and the fort of Baton 
Rouge moft be, from which all communi- 
cation it cot off, having taken every veflel 
coming from Penfacola with troop* and 
■tovifioni, at well at the armed vetTel Weft 
Florida, which was their only protection, 
and from which vefleli there are already in 
town more than i5oprifonert of war: all 
this will not permit me to accede to the 
propofitioa of not making pri Toners of war 
the Britiw troops which are in the fort of 
Baton Rouge. I therefore pod lively re- 
quire their furrendering themfelves prifon- 
crt of war ; but confidering the honourable 
defence made by Lieut. Col. Dickfon, his 
officeri, and troops, they (hall go out with 
drums beating, pieces charged, and colours 
flying, 500 paces from the fort, where 
they (hall deliver the arms and colours to 
the troops under my command, and fur ren- 
der themfelvas pri loners of war, to be ex- 
changed at the pleafure of the King my 
matter; engaging, at the fame time, that 
they (hall be treated with refpett, and all 
pofltble Humanity. The field officers mall 
be permitted to wear their fwords. The 
fort at the Natches, as depending on this, 
(hall be evacuated and delivered up to me; 
and the garrifon (hall have the liberty to 
retire to Penfacola, Jamaica, or fuch other 
place under the government of his Britan- 
nick majefty, as they (hall judge proper. 

What is contained in the above is to be 
eoofidercd as my anfwer to the ill, ad, 3d, 
and 4th articles. 

Art. V. All the baggage and other ef- 
fects, belonging to the officers, folders, 
and other perfons of the garrifon, (hall re- 
main their property, and be fent with 
them.— Granted. 

Art. IX. The inhabitants of this diftrift 
(ball be under the fane laws, and enjoy the 
fame privi eges and immunities of religion 
and judicature* and ihaJl have the fame 
magiftrates a» they had under the Englifli 
government, at leaft till the peace (kail be 
re-eftablifhed.— G ranted ine^cry point that 
(hall not be contnrv to our laws, until the 
decifion of the King my matter is known. 

Art. X. The inhabitants (hall, in like 
manner, be kept in full and entire po.»ef- 
fion of all their effects and (laves, and in 
(hort of every ihingthat belongs to them.— 
Granted. 

Art. XII. All the inhabitants who 
(hall prefer quitting the country or diftric~t, 
in order to eitabiuh themfelves in fomc part 
of the dominions of his Britannick majefty, 
(hall be provided with a pal] port for their 
perfont, families, and effect?, and ihey 
shall br permitted to remain without being 
difturbed or obliged to take the 0.1th of 
fidelity to his Cathu.'ick majefty.— Granted, 
in relpcft to the liberty of retiring; but 
• they (lull be obliged to take the oath of 
fidelity during their refidence in tbejurif* 
diftioa of his Cathriick majefty. 



RONOLOGER. i*i 

Art. XVI. Under the above-mentioned 
conditions and ftipulations, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Dickfon will deliver up to his Ex- 
cellency Don Bernardo de Galvez, the re- 
doubt of Baton Rouge, with all the cannon 
now mounted upon the pan pets' of the re- 
doubt, and thofe that may be found belong- 
ing to it, which (hall, with all the remain- 
ing ammunition, ore. except what hat bean 
expretTed in the 2d article, be put into 
the poffeffion of fuch officer as his Excel- 
lency Don Bernardo de Galvez (hall fend 
for that purpofc. by the officer command- 
ing the royal artillery of his Biitanniclc 
majefty in that poft. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Dickfon will, in like 
manner, deliver op to his Excellency Don 
Bernardo de Gal vex, or to the commiiTaries 
he (hall pleafe to fend for that purpofc, 
all the proviftons and other effects belong- 
ing to his Britannick majefty, which are in 
the garrifon. 

At the time of the final ftipulatton of the 
convention, the barricr'or poft of the garri- 
fon (hall be delivered up to the befiegerr, 
and their fentinels (hall relieve the fenti- 
nels of the garrifon with all the military 
honours. 

N. B. In refpecl to the 9th article, the 
inhabitants of tbts di ft rift, in taking the 
oath of fidelity to his Catholick majefty, 
during th« prefent war, that is to fay for 
the time that is granted them to quit the 
country, (hall be exempt from bearing arms, 
at leaft againft their natural and primitive 
fovereign his Britannick ma : efty. And in 
refpecl to the lath article, his Excellency 
the Governor of Louifiana (hall permit the 
inhabitants of the town of New Orleans 
and province of Louifiana, and the mer- 
chant veflcls which are in the ports, to 
convey the Englifli inhabitants, with their 
effects, to the deftination they (hall prefer. 

I accept the proportions granted by bit 
Excellency Don Bernardo de Galvez, which 
are ftipulated in the French language, hav- 
no interpreter of the Spanifh language in 
the fort. Baton Rouge, the 21ft of Sep- 
tember, 1759. 

(Signed) Alex. Dickson, Lieutenant- 
Colonel 16th Reg. Foot, commanding 
his Britannick majefty's troops on the 
Miffiffipi, &c. in Weft-Florida. 

(Signed) B. de Galvez. 

N. B. The inhabitants of the diftrift 
of the Natches (hall in like manner enjoy 
the fame right and privileges gratned to 
thofe of this dirt rift by the capitulation : 
and moreover the permiffion to wear their 
fwords is granted to all the officers without 
exception. 

(Signed) B. deCALvxz. 

(Signed) Alex. Dickson, Lieutenant- 
Colonel 16th Reg. Foot, commanding 
his Britannick majrfty's troops on the 
Miffiffipi, fce, ia V/cft-Fiorida. 



*--■•- *' 



I 



i 9 a MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. April 

Ctfy of LteutenantXaUail Pttijm'i nejoot !tniee bionrs, I fond anjfelf oUM » jitM 

/or reMftVfag '« £**»•] fe*X** .t» the §»at i>a«ioritf of .his aalUlery, 0*4 

Baun Rcmg* Rtdouk, $?*•%** Itf9» to fomnder ike. redonk M bis Karc lla n cy 

THE varioos report!, feamingly erell Do* Bernardo de Galvca, who flnmmiadod 

founded, that the rabekwere in force the troopi.oi has Catholic rnajefty. 

above, and meditated in i aWt time an in* I am confident I (hoeid not haw been 

vafion of this part of the country, made it able to mike fogped a deface at Ifanchac. 

neceiTary without delay to fix open (erne fppt and of course m have protared focb mvonr- 

where works might be thrown op and; for* able terms for the troop* ondermy command* 

tificatioos erc&ed, fo as to prevent, if peffi- and the country 1 waa bat to prated, 

ble, the troops under my command, and the On accoont of the redoubts beiof creeled 

country J was font to protect, from falling thereon, Governor Qalvcs, cOafideViag the 

into the hands of the enemy. The fitna- plantation of MciT. Watts and Flower* at 

ton of Manchac was unaiusnouflj condemn- b e longing to the King, bat accordingly taken 

ed, and the fort there confidettd at indefen- i c j and unlets government wall make them 

fible againft cannon. Accusingly, on the a recompence, by mason of their loyaky and 

joih day of July, 1779, agreeable to my osjrn rcadineft to promot e the pfote&ien of the 

Jcntirnenti, and thofe of {be Engineer and .country, they will Jofe a very valuable pro* 

other officen I con fu I ted on the occasion, it '.pjertjr ; J therefore mnft sVoogly recommend 

was determined to take poft at MefiY Watts then tp government for a generous fafja- 

and Flower*** plantation at Baton Rouge, faction. 

, the fituaiion ot which, and large ouanrity (Signed) A/.SI. Dicxiow , 

of cleared ground, pointing it oot as the obW Lien; Cot 16th Reg. Foot 

place where 1 could have a fcawnnble prof- I do hereby certify, that having bee* con* 

pelt of accomplifhing the intent of my com- felted by Ueottnaat-Cosoucl Dickson, when ■ 

mand. I accordingly Cent Engineer jGraham it waa reported that the rebels were coming \ 

with a letter addrc&d to the inhabitant*, dewn to attack hit Britnnnick majesty's j 

requesting them to co-operate with me in .pofleiGona on the MUBAppi, it appeared to 

throwing up a redoubt on that place, with me, that in ouradloal rircusnftences nothing ' 

which tbey chearfully complied! better could be done than tncrtdc a field re, 

Having intelligence which J conld depend doubt in the ckariog of AfcsT. Watta anl 

upon on the 3d day of September, that bis Flowers, who bad been generous enough tc 

Excellency Don Bernardo de Galvca was offer the ufe of the land provifionaUy foi 

approaching in force to attack me, and that that purpofe : and hearing that the Spsnift 

the redcubt at this place was in pretty good for- ■ forces under Don Bernardo de Galve* wert 

wardne.»,it was determined in a council of war, coming to attack ns p that it appealed tomt * 

to remove the troops, artillery, and fiorca, as that nothing elfc was lclt hot to make oot 

fuon as poffi ble to the rcdoabc, which was fbnd in the faid field redoubt, the Stockade 

accordingly done. On the lath day of Sep- fort at Manchac being ontenabie .against 

tember the redoubt was invested, and earjy cannon. 

in the morning of the 2 ift a battery of heavy (Signed) J. ?• Guar am, 

cannon was opened against it, and after gn AmAant- Engineer* 
inceflant fire on both fides for more than 

11 g w ■ * !■■■ ■ '■ ■ ■ 1 .11 ■ ■■ I ■ I ■ II ■ ■ ■!■. ■ - 1 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

T O 

CORRESPO N D B N T & 
f)N a clofer revievj Thwaddrefito firing, The grateful lays, ami the epigrams 
KJ fent us by our friend W. S. mre found to be fa imcorreS, that tbey will m$t admit 
of publication. The loft epigram totally omits one part of tbefubjeS the Woman! 
We are convinced our friend md mot be/hw bis ufual attention tn coMpofimg tbem. 

The ejfay on the power of Britifl Kings nut are' obliged to refeB % tie fubje3 
being of a nature to involve us in political dij}utes. 

The fong on patience isdefo&hte car maty parts, but particular^ im the l*fiftan2e f 
and therefore cannot be admitted. 

The firfi part of Rofcius im Heroics is received, and highly approved \ asfoonas 
tbefecond comes to band, it Jball be prepared for the prefs. We fubwnt it to the 
author if the following title, Partly lis own, vjodld not be mtore applicable, omit- 
ting the firfi, The Reward •/ Merii, afatire. We mmjl beg leave jal/o to avail 
our (elves of the liberty hinted at, ami curtail where vjefnd redundancy. 

The valuable packet from our mofl efieemed correfpondent Periples is received, and 
ourfincereft tha ks are here repeated for this great favour. Jn/rmcHons are given 
for the topographical /ketch recommended $ in the mean time, the mhtnUs pointed out 
/6a# &* ixferuJ, assdtbe whole be put to prefs vjuhgut fefj 0/ !t*u* 




Or, GENTLEMAN'? 


Monthly Intelligencer. 


For M A 


Y, 1780. 




1 Debitct In the Houfe of Comment ibid. 


Th- Hyp -Lh^miict, No. XXXII. ibid. 


On >.,. i K .-.;,■>■ Bill fan Com- 


miHi"n of Atxoiintt ibid. 


Obferntiom ri the E.ron and Corruption! 


On BrOBoGnE the Taicf 114 




Mr. T. Luunll't Complaint ■ »|iinlt 


Remirki on the Prefect Suit of ton- 




don 3CB 


CulunelFullirtnn'i Complaint acinic 


True Dtlicitv, «nintrrr(rireSrriK 104 




A Dialogue lietwsen Cictro and Chtlhrficld 


■ i-"rd North'! Motiom aboil thi Eift 




India Company ibid. 


A Cnotan Aneedntt I--7 


D:i<npt>on of South Carolina, inrhwing 


Memoir* of Mn. Wntnogton log 




AnudiM-of Mr9.Cii*c 110 


Rmivror NiwPvbiicaticm. 


Uflu K VI. an Modern Hillary »il 


Oi Adventure in a Voyage up the 


Cu-bry l'itv>..f Mir Ccrin. Emp. ib. 


Red Sr* 217 


TheHifiwyf France r.fomr-d 114 


OI Ihr Life of Garrick ibid. 


Proarefiof 1 young L.dy of Spiii( =15 


OI I'mini Cor'u-n «S 




Of ih - ftefttniei 219 


DebaKlin [lie HoufeofLordl 111 




■ On the Karl of Shelburne'i M. t.on 




•hour D.fniiffiiTi of Lord Lim'tmnti ibid. 




DtbilM in ihe H.ufe rf Commom lia 


Poi-riCAt. EiIATr. 


On Mr, Ri,by'' Morion ibid. 




, In [he Committee on Mr. Buike'. 








Delate, in (be HrtifcofLnidi ibid. 








fprer.qiiirm-iniotlieP.jliarnentaryliiflii- 




enteof the Cr(.wn. 112 


Ao.«iwnAffiirl «37 



With the following Embellilhmentj, »i«. 
A Arikini I. keneli of COLONEL BARRE, 

Jap of Sovtii Caiohha, the orefrnt Seat of War, ne»t1y cngriMd. 

1ROS, printed forK. Baldwin, at No. 47, in Patcr-nolrer-Roi 
iy be h>d complete Seis. from the Tear i 7 ]i in the prefcnt Time, «»4i 
and irilehed, or any 6nf,le Volume lo eouitAtle. 5«W. 



ifiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiij iiiyiz 






HI 






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Nil 

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B V «<S 



stsi^a-s^v 






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THE 

LONDON MAGAZINE, 

FOR MAY, 1780. " 




SOME ACCOUNT OF COLONEL BARRE. 

( With a Portrait frcm an original Drawing. ) 

HE Right Honourable encouraged; he was bred a foldiefj 
IlaacBarre, member for and to make ufe of his own words, he 
Calne in Wilt mi re, and has always loved and honoured the pro* 
one of the molt rcfpcc- fcfliort. 

table characters in the In that profeflion he eminently dif- 
Houfe of Commons, is tinguiflied himfelf upon many occajion* 
the fon of a linen-ma- during the la it war, and by his merit 
nu fa 61 urc r of Dublin, who rofe to the rofe to the rank of colonel. He was 
dignity of an alderman of that city, likewife adjutant-general in the array 
His grandfather, we believe, was one commanded by the immortal Wolfe, 
of thofe trucly devcut French Protef- and fignalifcd himfeif fighting by hit 
tants who fled from their country upon fide in that glorious, but fatal day, 

the impolitic revocation of the famous when he defeated the French, and fell 

Edict of Nantz, by which the French a facrifice to the conqueft of Quebec. 

Proteftants, called Huguenots, had en- In the excellent historical picture paint- 

i*oyed a peaceable toleration of their re- cd by Weft, of the death of Wolfe, 
igion, and fecurity for their perfons Colonel Barre is reprefented in the 

and effects from the reign of Henry IV. ■ group of officers who are attending 

juftly ftiled Henry the Great, to that upon, and weeping over their beloved 

of Louis XIV, who was honoured with expiring hero. 

the fame epithet ; but this fingle act Upon the reftoration of peace in 176 j, 

of his reign, the revocation of the the Colonel began to appear confpicuout 

Edict, is of itfelf fufficient to mew in another light. It was found that his 

how little he deierved it j for he revived political knowledge was equal to his 

the fpirit of religious perfcution in his military abilities, and that amidlt the 

dominions, and drove many thoufands din of arms he had ftudicd the art of 

of his molt valuable fubjects, ingerti- government*, and the characters, con* 

out artifts, and manufacturers, into ncxions, and views *f our principal 

exile. In England, in Ireland, and ftattfmen. Either during the ncgocia- 

in Holland, they were received .with tions for the peace, or not long after, 

open arms, and thefe countries were foine p'irt or the political conduct of 

amply rewarded by the fruits of their Mr. Pitt did not appear to him to be 

ingenuity, as well as by the example confident with the true intereft of Great 

oftheir moral conduct, and their fteady Britain. It is laid he both fpokc and 

attachment to the interefts of religious wrote to his friends with gicit freedom 

and civil liberty. upon this fubject, and was thu9 intro- 

Vcry little is known of the early part duced to the patronage and friend (hip 

of the life of our venerable patriot ; if of the Earl of Shcllnnnc, who came in- 

report fays true, his father difcoverinij to administration with Mr. Crcnville, 

in him a tafte for literature, fpaix-d no being appointed Fiiit Lord Commif- 

cxpence to give him a liberal education ; fioncr of Trade and Plantations when 

which he had fcarce finiihed, when his that miniftcr was put at the head of the 

inclinations took another turn ; mili- Trcafury. This admir. titration were 

tary ardour took po (Union of his Coiil, avo«vcdly in oppolition to Mr. Pitt, and 

the ioldiei's laurels invited him to the Colonel Bane fmt diliinguiflied him- 

field, and he panted for glory : as foon felf in the Houfc of Commons by a 

JU this difpofition was kjaown, it was powerful fpeech agai nit hi* conduct to- 

£ b a >irw^\ 



■«« 



ACCOUNT OF COLONEL BARRE/. 



wards the latter end of hit adramiftra- 
tion ; Mr. Pitt not being pre fen t, he loft 
a great part of the merit of his fpeech 
with his own friends $ but the account 
given of it to Mr. Pitt made fuch an 
imprtfTion on that great ftatefman, who 
was always open to conviction, that 
""Toon after he found means to convert 
this formidable political enemy into a 
ftaunch friend, and their union and 
friendship continued uninterrupted, till 
it was di Halved by the death of Lord 
Chatham. 

When Mr. Grenville was minifter, 
Colonel Barre was governor of Stirling 
Caftle, a poft of military honour and 
emolument, but we do not find him 
in any civil employment under go- 
vernment. In the month of Auguft 
j 766, when the Duke of Grafton was 
appointed Firit Lord of the Treafury, 



abfence, placed in contraft with another 
which he made to his face, laid to be 
replete with flattery. Secondly, the 
fupport he gave to the Bolton Port Bill 
in the f'effion of 1774, which gave birth 
to the American war, contrafted with 
his violent condemnations of the mi- 
niftry for involving Great Britain in 
that war. 

We do not think it falls within our 
province to enter into political difcui- 
fions, thofe who wiih to make thera- 
felves matters of the contefted points 
between the Colonel and adminiftration, 
will find an ample field of information 
in our Parliament Hiftory, from the 
year 1770 to the prefent date. 

All we have to add, is, that Colonel 
Barre is a very active, ufeful reprefenta- 
tive, who has promoted feveral bene- 
ficial regulations, particularly with re- 



the Earl of Shelburne Secretary of fpeel to the army and the finances, over 



^>tate for the Southern Department, 
and the Earl of Chatham Lord Privy 
Seal, the Colonel being fct down in the 
lift as an able friend to this mi niftry, cal- 
led the Shelburne Adminiftration, was 
fworn in one of his majefty's moft ho- 
nourable privy -council, and foon after 
made joint vice-treafurer of Ireland, 
with the Right Honourable James Gren- 
ville, upon the refignation of Welbore 
Ellis. 

In the Cummer of 1768, his great 
friend and patron the Earl of Shelburne 
refigncd, and was loon after followed by 
the Earl of Chatham, and Colonel 
Ban e likewifegave up his vice-treafure- 
fhip. From that period, the Colonel 
has continued fteady in his oppofition 
to the prefent adminiftration, which 
was completely formed foon after, by 
the removal of the Duke of Grafton, 
and the appointment of Lord North to 
be Firit Lord of the Treafury, or mi- 
ni ftor. 

The conduct of the Colonel in parlia- 
ment has been as freely cen lured on the 
miniilerial fide of the Houfe as it has 
been loudly applauded by their oppo- 
nents. The two (biking inconfiftencies 
he has been charged with arc, firft, his 
faruou3 fptech again ft Mr. Pitt, in his 



which he keeps a watchful eye. Being 
well acquainted with the army efta- 
blifhmcnt and difcipline, his enquiries 
into the appointments, the contracts, 
and the expenditure of the fums voted 
for it, have produced many benefi- 
cial effects. Difcovering by the ac- 
counts he moved for, the (hameful ar- 
rears of the Land Tax, he has brought 
the collectors into a regular mode of 
payment ; and if the bill he propofed to 
bring in, for appointing a committee of 
accounts, had not been ftifled in its 
birth by Lord North's, in all probability 
we fhoulo) have feen the full extent of 
his talents for the finance department 
fully displayed. 

Colonel Barre in his perfon is robuft, 
and manly in his afpeel, but rather fe- 
vcre; it is the countenance of a veteran 
chief, and like his voice, calculated ra- 
ther to awe, and to ftrike terror, than 
to perfuade by any winning graces. 
But to make amends for the want 
of ornament, his ipeeches are fubftan- 
tial, the ftibjcct matter is always im- 
portant, and the arguments found j 
fomc admonitions that have been thrown 
eut have abated his too great warmth, 
and really improved him in every re- 
fpeft as a fpeaker. 



roR 



ther 
be 
the 
fiii 

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th 
i- 



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■*■«•*• 



■•■Ml 



I 



FOR THE LONDON MAGAZINE. 



RULES OF BEHAVIOUR, OF 

MUCH DISREGARDED IN 

i.^T^O be more ready to give the 
J[ wall, than to arfert it, for fear 
of a dirty quarrel in a trifling caufe. 

a. Not to walk arm in arm, as if 
the ftreet was made for us only, or we 
had no concern for any body's conve- 
nience but our own. 

3. When we meet a friend we would 
talk with, take him afide, that the paf- 
Jage may be uninterrupted. 

4. Not to walk the Greets with a cane 
or ftick under one's arm, which may 
be very offcnfive to the eyes or face of 
thofe who follow us ; a practice no lefs 
frequent than inconfiderate, to fay the 
heft of it. 

5. Not to ufe the fauntcring gait of a 
lazy Spaniard in this bufy town of trade 
and hurry j for though we may be fo 
idle or infignificant as to be in no haftc, 
yet multitudes are as well behind us as 
before us. 

6. To be cautious of flaring in the 
laces of thofe that oafs by us, like an 
inquisitor general ; for an over-bearing 
look has the air of a bully, and a pry- 
ing one that of a bailiff. If we do it by 
miftake for a friend, afk pardon. 

7. Pafling in halie through a crowd, 
let us make way with our elbows, not 
with our hands ; for laying hold of 
perfons leems contemptuous, and often 
gives offence j and call not out to your 



GENERAL USE, THOUGH 

THIS POPULOUS CITY. 

companion to take care of his pockety 
for that is a random imputation, and 
unmannerly fufpicion of thofe next 
you. 

$. Not to fatten yonr eyes upon 
any perfon entering into a publick 
room, for fear (by fuch a broadfide) of 
(hocking his modefty, anddifmounting 
his affurance 5 yet this is the common 
behaviour of the fparks of the town (out 
of an air) though they look for no par- 
ticular perfon. 

9. At eating-boufes, Sec. not to be 
officioufly forward in our difcourfe or 
ceremonies to ft rangers, who, perhaps, 
deilre to be unobferved, or incog, 

10. Not^to affect a difregard of any 
perfon, though ever fo mean, by whiff- 
ling or humming a tune, as if nobody 
was prefent ; the dignity of human na- 
ture, in any circumftance, is confider- 
able. 

xi. Never to force French complai- 
sance upon mere Englifh men ; but con- 
fider, that making people eajj is the 
end of good breeding. 

xt. In a coffee-houfe, never to ufe 
that unjuft and provoking practice of 
keeping more papers than one in hand $ 
for that is an arrogant encroachment 
upon the common right of all the com- 
pany. 



THE HYPOCHONDRIACK. No. XXXII. 



Catullus. 



W 



At vos quo lubet bine abite lymph* 
Vim pernicies, et ad frveros 
Migrate, hie mtrus eft Tbjonianus* 

" Hence water— cryftal though thou art, 
From my convivial board depart j 
Go where thou wilt, and fpoil the wine ; 
Go where fad, rigid mortals dine, 
My heart to cheer, and griefs to cure, 
The grape's rich bounty (hall be lure." 

RITING upon Drinking is other paper upon my readers* Happy 

mould I be, could I flatter myfclf, that 
this paper will be received with as 
hearty a fatisfaftion as is generally 
felt, upon the opening of an additional 
bottle. 

% SI 



in one refpect, I think, like 
Drinking itfclf : one goes on imper- 
ceptibly, without knowing where to 
ftop ; and as one calls for the other 
bottle to his friends, I prefs the 

I 



-198 



THE HYPOCHONDRIACK. 



, Sir William Temple's metaphorical re- 
mark, thai '«•■ Life, like wine, muft 
not be drawn to the dregs," ihould be 
.before me while I write upon the ufe of 
*rine. To nreach over one's g?afs is a 
very expreffive phrafe for tedioufnefs in 
a focial meeting j and to preach upon 
taking a glafs till every body is weary, 
would be very d fgufting. 

Yet Drinking is a fubjectof fuch ex- 
tent and variety, that it is not eafy to 
quit it foon. My readers, therefore, 
will make allowance ; and perhaps 
they will find more entertainment in 
thefe Rcckcrcbes Pkilofopkiques aboire 
than they expected. 

The ingenuity of the poets has been 
ms much cxercifed upon Drinking as 
upon love iticlf. It would be improper 
to fill my papers too frequently with 
quotations. I mall therefore only refer 
my readers to the fine paflages upon the 
fubjeti in Lucretius, and in Horace, 
which evert* man of taitcwill read with 

Jdcafure again and again. But the molt 
ubilantial piece for Englishmen is 
VCk:mpn% defcription of a Drinking- 
bout, after a fox-chace, wlure all the 
ftrong and coarle circumlt .wees of ruf- 
tic intoxication are felt tied and brought 
together with admit abb juftnefs, and 
in a ftyle of humour, which Tkcv:- 
Jon has exhibited in that finglc in- 
france. 

The Diinking-fongs of different na- 
tions are innumerable; and are, for the 
moll part, very diftinftly marked with 
national characters. It is remarkable, 
that many of our Englifh Drinking- 
fongs have thatrrafoning catt, which is 
©hlcrved Jb peculiarly to prevail amongft 
the natives of this itland. Perhaps no 
poetical productions in our language, 
beneath thofe which are piopcrly fpeaic- 
ing lubliine, are more ingenious thr.n 
feme cf the verfes upon Drinking. "The 
Tippling Philofophers,' KDr" Waller, 
Pcpe, &c. and •* Drmking'saChriltian 
DiverHon," by CsK£r&ze 9 are compofi- 
tions ofexquifitc merit ; and thw Dri ink- 
ing- fcr>g m ^Ir. ScsnJttns Dutr..:a y 
«« A Bottle's the Sun of cur Table/* 
bas an elegance of allu.iou cf fancy, 
and of exprciUon. which all mutt ad- 
mire, though the we] I -ir. forme J and 
candid wi!l regret, that n writer of fuch 
prcttv talents mould, tin; ?r from vulgar 
error, or a dc 111 e to £::,:-. f v r* n u r. 1 1: ; c r- 
ed populace, re ^ re tent tac rci'^tou* cf 



any order in the Roman Catholic 
church as drunken impoftors. 

The northern nations are more adJ 
dicled to the ufe of ftrong liquors _ 
the fouthern,- in order to fupply by . 
the want of that^jenial warmth of bloodj 
which the fun produces. It is com-' 
inonly faid, that .'drinking to excefs it 
not known in the fouthern regions. 
But although it is no doubt much more 
rare in thofe countries than in the 
northern, efpecially amongft the people 
of rank, it is occafionally pratiifed. Of 
this we are afTured, not only by tra- 
vellers, but by the books of entertain- 
ment in difFerent languages, where the 
manners of the people are painted*. 
Even in Spain, we meet with Drink- 
ing, when we read thofe exact, and at 
the fame time animated fcenes,the Ad- 
ventures of Gil Bias. I know not if 
the Turks, who make fo much ufe of 
opium, are ever known to indulge in 
wine to any confiderable degree. But 
I have heard the late Earl of GaJUivay 
tell, that when he was at Constan- 
tinople, he fcund fomc 0/ the Turkifli 
men of fafhion very fond of joining bis 
lordfhip in the pleafure of an enliven- 
ing glafs. My lord afked one of them, 
how he ventured to drink wine, as it 
was forbidden by their religion ? The 
Turk anlwered, Does not your religion 
forbid gating drunk?— But he added, 
" Our prophet prohibited drinking 
wine, becaufc he knew it would be 
dangerous in this hot climate : but men 
of fenfc know that it was never meant, 
but that they might ufe it with difcre- 
tion.** I would not propole this truth 
as an example of bold freedom of pri- 
vate judgement to be imitated, I only- 
prelate an authentic ftory by way of il- 
luft ration. 

The cticntial diflintiion in the vSe of 
wine is between Drinking and Drhr- 
kennc/s ; between " making glad the 
heart of man," and fwallowing the 
" inordinate cup," which is " put- 
ting a devil in our mouths to fteal away 
our brains.'" I: was a beautiful thought 
in a foreigner, who, while a bottle cf 
wine ilocd before him, of which he 
teak a glifs at intervals in the cowrie 
of an agreeable conversation, pefcted 
to a lamp that was burning in the 
room, end faid, " This wine is oil to 
my rar.cy " No general rule czn be 
prefer. bed for Dunking j for the ccn- 

ftitutioBc 



THE HYPOCHONDRIACK. 199 

as of men arc infinitely various it. foraeriraes exemplified in the moft re- 
gular ftate of ibciety. 
How pa<c each worlhiptul and reverend gueft. 
Rile fro-n • Clergy or a City i^ft, 

■ v.»»w ..~- — , — p- -r - is the farcafmof a fatirift; but is not 

; partitions between the bounds of • altogether a poetical fi&i on j and that 
ing and Drunkenneis, luce thole ditfincbem of character makes no tlif- 

fere nee, when men are drinking I argely, 
we have all upon lomc occ aliens ob- 
ferved. 

As Drinking can only be a good in. 
(o far as it is really a pleasure, or an 
enlivening refrefhment, I disapprove of 
ail external incitements to it. Indeed 
all orderly Drink'm^ is calculate J for 
Drunkcfinefs. i mean all that Drink- 
ing in evolutions of equal bumpers, 
with toafis, to which juftice is to be 
done, and honour is to be done ; and 
in mort, the company are to get them- 

,. „«.„ , , „ felves drunk under the pretext of laud- 

es the love of ftrong liquors is ex- - able principles. Let ralie notions of 
r. " Whatever (lays he) be the hofpitality and gallantry in Drinking 
on, or pretext, on which the Amc- be bammed from the mind, and Drun- 
i a.Temble, the meeting always kennefs will be mach lefs frequent 

am on git men of better education. It 



: rcfpe&, and even the fame man 
crent at different times. ' Every 
ercfore muft judge for himfelt, 
care however to judge fairly ; 



m great wit and nindnefs, are 
He who has an inclination to 
refs the bounds of rcafonanle re- 
lent, mould be on his guard, and 
within them ; while others, who 
vourcd with more temperate ap- 
5, may folace thcmfelvcs in a 
free fecurity. 

mkcnnels is moft frequently to bo 
ed to the fame caufe which the t 
points out for the adultery of 
mtis. It is the vice of unoccu- 
nen. Dr. Rol>c>tfjri t in his Hif- 
>f America, ob erves, that among 



nates in a debauch. Many of 
feitivals have no other object j 
they welcome the return of them 
tranfports of joy. A* they are 
rcuftomed to reftrain any appetite, 
fet no bounds to this. Trie riot 

continues, without intermiflion, 
il chys ; and v/hatever be the fatal 
s of their excefs, they never cenfe 
Drinking as long as one drop of 
r remains. The p.rlbns of greateft 
ence, the moft diftin^uifhed war- 
, and the chiefs moft renowned 
leir wifdom, have no more com- 
1 of themiVlves than the moft ob- 

member of the community. Thejr 
•nef* for preiVnt enjoyment renders 
i blind to its fatal confequences j 
thofe very men, who in other fitua- 
i fcem to poffefs a force of mind 
j than hum.m, are in this ir.ftance 
ior to children in foreftght, as well 
onfuleration, and mei\j flaves of 
al appetite. When their paflions, 
rally ftrong, are heightened and in- 
ed by drink, they are guilty of the 

enormous outrages > and the fcf- 
v fcldorn concludes without deeds 
iolence, or bloodlhed." 
hat this account may be cxaggcrat- 
y thole from whom Robert/on has it, 
the exaggeration be fomewhat mag- 
d by his eloo t uence, I can allow ; 
the iuhftunce of the faft cannot be 
id in oueftion. Add iodeed we find 



is affumed as a maxim, -that there fliould 
be an equality in Drinking as long at 
men fit together j and a very good ftorjr 
is told of a worthy fquire, who knew* 
the constitutions of his neighbours fo 
well, that he had glafles fuited to the 
capacity of each, by which means he 
could keep ftrong drinkers and weak in 
unifon for a whole afternoon. But f 
Tee no good reafon for fuch attention. 
For why mould not there be inequality 
amongft men, when Drinking, as well* 
as upon other occafions ? It is argued,' 
that fome mould not fit fober, and be 
fpies upon other9 when intoxicated* 
But it is plain that fome will always be 
fober in companion with the reft 5 and 
it is as fair, that thofe who are tern- 
perate mould have the advantage, at 
thofe who are " mighty for ftrong 
drink." If fome people will fill them- 
felves drunk, and be expofed like the 
(laves of the Spartans, it is their own 
fault ; they do it for pleafure 5 they 
have their reward. But it is opprrffive, 
either to oblige temperate men to drink 
at all, or men of weaker heads for 
wine than theirs, to drink falter than 
they choofe to do, and be intoxicated 
before part of the company is warmed. 
For my own part, I never drank 
lei's than I choi'e to do, becaufe 
others were not drinking fair 9 as it it 
called i and I really think, that Drink- 
ing 



j 



THE HYPOCHONDRIACS. 



200 

ing may be tnifted to every' man's own 
inclination. Happy would it be, if 
even then, Drunken nefs were rare. I 
do not, however, mean to forbid that 
focial glee by which men are infenfibly 
encouraged to exhilarate therafclves. 
But all adventitious means, and chiefly 
all compulsion, mould be avoided in 
Drinking* Where there is cotnpuluon, 
there is no plcaiure. 

It is truely wonderful, whata&rious 
confequence Drinking may, in procefs 
of time, acquire in the oeconorny of ci- 
vililcd life. We find this arnongft the 
ancient Greeks and Romans ; but the 
nation mod celebrated for it amongft 
the moderns, is the Trim. In the late 
Earloj'CkejhrfielcTi MtfceUsneuuWorks, 
of which Mettle urs Dtlly have given a 
fpiendid edition, which does them ho- 
nour, and will ever be an ornament to 
polite libraries, we find feveral very keen 
ex ch mat ions upon that fubiect. In his 
eighth letter to the Biihop of Waterford, 
his lordfbip fays, " Drinking is amoft 
beattly vice in every country, but it is 
really a ruinous one to Ireland : nine 
gentlemen in ten in Ireland are impo- 
verished by the great quantity of claret ; 
which, from millaken notions of hof- 
pitality and dignity, they think it ne- 
cetfary mould be drunk in their houfes." 
In his fcventy-fixth, he mentions five 
thouiand tuns of wine being annu- 
ally imported into that country ; and 
in his eighty- lixth there is the follow* 
ing parVag? : " If it would but pleafe 
God, by his lightning, toblaft all the 
vines in the world, and by his thunder 
to turn ail the wine? now in Ireland 
four, as I molt finccrely wiih he would, 
Ireland would in joy a degree of quiet 
and plenty that it has never yet known.** 
Lord Che iter field, I admit, was too fine 
a gentleman 5 yet he had fome " reafon 
in his rage/* when he wrote thus. The 
noble writer adds, " By the way I am 
not lb partial neither to Ireland, as not 
to pray for the lame blefling for this 
my native country, notwithstanding the 
grief and dtfolation which I know it 
would occaiion in our learned univer- 
iitics, the body of the clergy, and 
among our knights of (hires, burgefles, 
&c. and in general among all the 
worthy honcft gentlemen who toaft and 
are t*»nlted." 

Drunkennefi, one fhould think, would 
be ihu nned by every man who has once 
iui 1 he levert ikknefs and pain which 



is (bmeti met the confequence of it. If 
Ireland be remarkable for Drunken- 
nefs, I have found in an I rim poet the 
only defcription that I ever law of its 
diftrefling effects : to the bane and an* 
tidote are both in that country. The 
defcription is in a large quarto volume, 
entitled, " The Skamrcck, or Hiber- 
nian Creffes" a collection of poems, 
" the original production of Ireland,** 

{>ublifhcd a few years ago. It is cal- 
ed Next Morning; and I (hall tran- 
scribe the two nrlt stanzas : 

,€ What means this fury in my reins f 
This fire lhat hifl>» ihroa?h my brains ? 
Ah me ! my head ! my head ! : 
My pulfes beat } pare hM up my tongue ; 
Dry arc my palms, try nerve; anfiruog ; 
And every tenfe it fled. 

Now ntufeom qaalms my bofom heave, 
And, oh! Inch fad fenfj t ions fcivc, 

Too ciquifire to name 1 
In d try ir.ifts my rye- ball* fwim ; 
A languor creeps e'er creiy lirr.b, 

And all unmans my frame/' 

From thefe my readers will judge of 
its intention and effect. It very pro- 
perly concludes with a relblution to be, 

*' Fair temperance, ever ib'ne.'* 

In a religious view, the consideration 
of Drinking to excels is dill more fe- 
rious; and thtre every man's " con- 
fcience muft accufe, or elfe excufe 
him 5" for the fubject is in general lb 
nice and complicated as to each indivi- 
dual, that one mould not judge an- 
other ; but in this matter, above all, 
(hould remember, that " to his own 
mailer he frandeth or falleth." 

1 met with a fentence upon the vice 
of Diunkennefs in Bofton\ " Four- 
fold State of Man/* a pious, practical 
book, by a Scotch Prefbyteiian divine, 
and I marked it in my pocket-book, 
as tlrongly and juftly faid. " Drun* 
kenr.efs hurts foul and body, and haf* 
tens death, while it unfits us for it/* 
I trull that none of my readers will 
imagine that I mean to vindicate the 
vice of Drunkennef6, though I fpeak 
with relifli of the innocent gaiety of 
Drinking. But left they mould, I Jhall 
end my (peculations on the fubject with 
the caution of an Italian poet, men- 
tioned by Mr. Addifon, in his Travels, 
who declared in a prtface, that if there 
was any thing in his writings againft 
the doctrine of the cuufch* he retracted 
and renounced it* 

TOR 



?/ *?8o. 



3ot 



iaBHMta»4rtta%: 



riMih 



MMtaHiMMMil 



4^1 



FOR TjdE LONDON MAGAZINE. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE ERRORS AND CORRUPTIONS 
• THAT HAVE CREPT INTO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



WHOEVER poffeflfcs a talent and 
taftc for literature, or even com- 
mon learning, or reaps any of the be- 
nefits it is known to produce, mult feel 
himfelf very fenfibly vexed to find fitch a 
multiplicity of errors and improprieties 
introduced to his native tongue, even 
by thofe from whom he would leaft ex- 
pect them, and whole bufinefs it chiefly 
is to refine it and guard again ft them. 
This fpecies of corruption and igno- 
rance would be the more (upportablc 
if it were confined to the fenfelefs and 
fkupid, to whom they more properly be- 
long ; but the mifchief of it is, that by 
frequent habit they gradually mingle 
with people of the heft rank r.nd fafhion, 
whofe understandings are too often of 
a fize with their manners and language, 
which renders them wholly unqualified 
to felett the be ft, or re j eel the worft. 

I do not mean, however, to com- 
plain of the mixture of foreign phrafes, 
becaufe with a little pains wc may trace 
oat their birth ; but to find an explana- 
tion to half the jargon lately invented, 
and now in vogue, would puzzle the 
understandings of the moft ingenious. 
Tq endeavour at finding out the authors 
of fuch a medley of corruptions would 
"be ufelefs and ineffectual j all I would 
defire, is, that thofe who are fo fond of 
imitating bears, by delivering fuch 
crude lumps of nonfenfe, would finiih 
their bufinefs by licking them into 
in ape, and make iliem in fome degree 
equal to a Bririih comnichcnfion. 
There are, indeed, numerous inde- 
pendent terms and phrafes that arc 
current and allowable - r but which, 
however, would very much perplex a 
foreigner who hr.d but a f mattering of 
Englifli : for inftnnce, upon going the 
other day to give fomc orders to my 
butcher, I found him fcolding at his 
man for neglecting to take home a joint 
of meat; the fellow, calling his eyes 
upon the joint in qucilion, cried out, 
*' He had not forgot it, but had car- 
ried it all day fitfr in his head" which 
is fomewhat abfurd, when wcconlider, 
that the head, not being very larg?j 
Loao. Mao. May 1780. 



and being clofely fortified by a fcull to 

fireferve the brains, is but poorly qua- 
ificd to contain a moulder of mutton, 
although I have often heard of its be- 
ing crammed into the bdly. Some 
other inconfiftencies paflTed, which I do 
not remember j but the following letter 
fent me by a friend, to whom it was 
written, will ferve as a trifling famnle 
or abridgment of the contrarieties which 
arc perpetually increafing upon us, and 
which it fcems to be almoft out of the 
power of ridicule to prevent : 

" Dear Cousin, 

" I AM really ftruck dumb by your 
accufation of my neglecting your af- 
fairs, which I can promife you is all a 
bum, and only wifh you were here this 
moment, that I might talk to you upon 
it ; but as I have much more to fay to 
you than what I can here write, I will 
pocket the affront till you arrive ; as to 
your enquiries about old Wentworth, 
poor man-! he died extremely ricb\ his 
difeafe ftuck fo dole to him that it has 
obliged him to kick the bucket, upon 
which there is a firange dufi raifed, 
and reflections are bandied about by his 
relations touching the will, who fuf- 
pecl there has been a good deal ofjbuffle- 
iug, and fome treacherous cards played 
in it, and this creates a vjsrU of bicker- 
ings; but that is neither here nortbere 9 
nor is it any bread and butter of mine ; 
for my part, Iivajh my bands of fo in- 
tricate an affair, merely becaufe I have 
never dabbled in any fuch muddy water s% 
but I am loth to dwell upon this fub- 
jeft, it makes me fo down in the mouthy 
therefore excufe me. 

'* Air j. Gord:n paid us a vifit laft 
. night, and brought her new lover with 
her, and being, you muft know, a 
monftrous great wit, fhe ferrited and 
pummelled him to a confounded yfcr ; 
and her lifter tells me, this method of 
combing bis head is her daily cuftom, and 
declares, lhe never law a feilow pep' 
peed and pounded to fo fine a tune in 
her life \ but however, after a while, 
when his fpirits were a little fajhned 
C c with 



,S& REMARKS OS THE PRESENT May 

•vjth wine, he begin to pay her in btr civile we have continual examples of 
»wj» coin, and in/(J btr in her own thofe, who, in the midft of riches and 
gravy, wealth, have the fame proportion of 
" You make complaint) in your poverty in reiptfl to happinefs and eafe 
letter, that you bear of my keeping an of mind; but to omit the reft of tl»*' 
additional horfe ; but I nil tire you, it jargon, I Ihallconfinemyfelf lo the fol- 
wu only a ftray mangy ferub that I iicilm of the horfe, who is.defcribed to 
elope «p in my Aiblc for a few days i fwallow bit vuja bead amongfl the pro- 
Tout I have now kept hira a great num- vender, which, to fay nothing of the 
btr of weeks; and though he ii a difficulty l°E« at it, it a diet no way 
mgbly dintinutiii animal, yet he ha* fnited to hisllamach : thia ii fomethine; 
almoft tat nff bis btad in provender, like the harlequin, who, aioongft other 
which vexes me to the pluck, and there feati of activity, contrives to leap down 
haaripfinn tf pauicies j but I hare his own throat. It is likewife to beoh- 
faid too much to you here, and there- ferved, that thi» correfpondent, after 
ftre will end my epilllc — O, but be- having acted or talked in the capacity 
fbre I do that, 1 ihould tell you, I of a cook in the circumltance of grtaf- 
hire had a number of fqirabbles with ia^his vanity, treats bim moreimmedi- 
•W Leigh about the impropriety of ately like z/llit cfx-tml, \ty fluffing and 
your having any money connexions tramming him with compliments; and 
with Saunders the ulurer ; I vindicated lall of all, he is a ixbttl-IUrigbt, and 
you all I could, but I think, you are ii> threatens to fiipply him with zjpokt. 
the wrong; fo when he began' ft be I confers there is fomr hazard in pro. 
rufiy, Igreajld his vanity by crammn'iHg during the above as errors in our Jan-. 
liim with a fewcomplimenis, and it was guage, when they are fo conftantly 
all very well; but never mind him, ihcjttredfromctnfurcby all the faihitm- 
1*11 warrant I'll put a Jpekein kh wibttl able tongues in this town j hut I bava 
in a twinkling. I gave your love and only touched upon thofe phi-afes, in the 
compliments to all friends, who return ule of which people contend there is no 
you the fame again. impropriety, hecanfe if I were to enu- 
I am your merjte, millions of others, that ha%e 

Moll faithful fiiend and coutTn, ,hei . r %*"?% *""* £ SS^E^T 
ANTII nnWNRirHT- pockets and thieve., it would fill many 
AN I H. DOWNRIGHT. vo \» mt% an d be too hard a tad (be- 
Now, the firft paradox we meet with fides ipoiling my drfigu) which wa* 
in this letter is the man's wilhing for his only to expofe thofe that would bear the 
friend's prefence, to enplain himfelf by belt conftruction, leaving the more no- 
con verfati on, when he hat altured him torioas to the correction of thole who 
immediately before that he itjfrecbtefs. have more patience, and are better qna- 
I Ihould have been at a loft alio to have li lied to deal with flu p kilty and (oily 
known the fignilicance of kicfog the than my ft If i for, in IWt, the feeds of 
bucket, but am told it ii an expreflion impropriety, which every nolly cox- 
ufed to inform us of a perfon's drath, comb is ntabfad to fcatter, produce 
although I Ihould no fooner apprehend Inch a number of weeds to chcuk ouc 
it to bo fo than if I were told he had let pretended refinement* in convcrlatiofl 
fall hie watch, or rapped at my dour, that it rtcjuim a (harper mlrrument 
The pa»r man's dying rich, although than mine to IclTen their number, or 
the expreflimi be j hull in itfelf, yet it prevent an increase. 
it b»L a linall deviation front trutlt, bc- 



REMARKS ON THE PRESENT STATE OF LONDON, TO 

WHICH IS ANNEXED A SINGULAR STORY. 
By the Author of 0}/trv s ti BKI aa de during a 7W thrintgb Paris of Eng- 
land, Stoltand, andtt'alei. 
IN featching into the rife and pr#grcft invariably arift. Many men, and rnofe 
of the dtritrent rations of the wai Id, ton of ibe rlearell heads and moll brnc- 
or.e is naturally hit to inveftittsste the volrnt itearts, have attributed to large 
■aufei whence :he J*ed«. of djlfurutiea .eitiu a prituipi] fiiare in the eaule of 



rfic 



STATE Q? LONDON, tec. 



103 



this declenfion. Extcnfivc towns, fay 
:fhey, drain the country of its inhabi- 
tants. The cottagers, unable to fup- 
jport them (elves, link under the pref- 
fnre of labour and of poverty. Clean- 
s' inefs, comfort, and relief from labour, 



our defire, no place could furnifh the 
vicious appetites with a greaterprofu- 
fion or variety than London. The ta- 
verns are commodious, well fupplied, 
and afliduoufly attended. The epicure 
there may fealt himlelf luxuriantly on 



fcaniJhed from their doors, effectually the primeft delicacies of the feafon; 
.Hops the growth of population. The while fmiling wantons, as append a^ 



£efds in time become uncultivated, agri 
.culture deadens, and the whole becomes 
a de/ert. 

Large cities indifputably are hurtful 
to ,a (late, borne capital towns, it is 
true, arerequifite; but the metropolis, 
st ihould fuppofe, mould neither con- 
tain too great a mare of thofe hands, 
_ which might otherwife be more ufe- 
£ully employed, nor bear fo manifeft a 
.difproportion to the bulk of the nation 
as it exhibited by ours of London. 
On this principle, therefore, I think 
We may venture to pronounce, that 
London is too extenfive. The head is 
too unwieldy for the body ; and the 
jevilt which it engenders are fo nu- 
merous and fo general, that they rufh 
in torrents into every corner of the 
.country, and there, fupplanting in- 
duftry and content, taint the very vital 
principles of our political constitution. 

Strange however as it may leem, 
that a matter fo pregnant with bad 
conferences ihould not hitherto have 
met with the healing prevention of the 
Jegiflaturc ; the tacit confent which it 
.fives to the daily iticreafe of this huge 
leviathan, is an infatuation (till more 
worthy of furprife. How far this fpi- 
rit of toleration may .carry the govern- 
ment is uncertain ; this, however, is 
beyond a doubt, that if projectors are 
jn a fimilar manner permitted to carry 
on their works, London in a few years 
will feel the want of thofe necefTaries of 
life, which, coming from the country, 
cannot be expected while that country 
is deprived of its husbandmen and cul- 
tivators. 

But if the metropolis is unwieldy, the 
magazine of pleafurcs which it pro- 
vides is proportionately abundant and 
well filled. In enumerating what the 
generality of mankind deem pleafures, 
I (hall confine myfelf merely to a con- 
figuration of thofe which are attainable 
by purchafe, and not to thofe that aiile 
from an innate fatisfaction of the mind, 
or from a ednfeioufnefs of rectitude 
arifing from reflection. Were meat, 
{Jsinkf and women, the only objects of 



to the feaft, are ever ready to receive 
him, with at lead the appearances of 
terfdernefs and affection* Miferable 
wretches! how feelingly are yourmis~ 
fortunes to be com mife rated 1 Not a day 
paJTes, but you diftractedly curfe the 
very authors of your being.! Caft ofF 
to infamy and fhame, a few blooming 
graces fupport you for a while 1 The 
nipping froft at length comes and fur* 
rows over your cheeks ! The canker 
of difeafe, probably in the hour of 
youth, anticipates the date of your ex- 
igence; or want, that horrid fiend* 
follows you in diftrefs, and gnawing 
your fair frames, exhibits you a dread- 
ful example of the moral uunifhment of 
vice ! Heaven, for fome feci et purpofe, 
hath certainly ordained that we mould 
be the tormentors of each other j elle 
why, in every ftate, do we fee fuch in- 
ceilant pains to accomplifh the deftrue- 
tion of our fpecies ? War, drenched 
in blood, (talks with unremitting rage 
throughout the different nations of 
the globe. Villainy (kulks in every 
corner of our ftreets. While unguard- 
ed innocence, free from apprehenfion, 
falls a daily facrifice to that curfe of 
our exigence, the (emblance, not the 
reality of virtue* 

On thinking on this fubject, and es- 
pecially on the cruel fate of women, I 
have often been aftonifhed at the want 
of feeling, obfcrvable in the conduct of 
their feducers. Hard hearted monfters.l 
were they pofTefled of minds fufceptible 
of even the fmallcft fpark of goodnefs-^ 
fome pity, fome rcmorfe, at lead, mould 
(how them the bafenefs of their offences ; 
(liould teach them to mun a couiie fo 
full of torment to thole haimlefs be- 
ings ; or if their natures were llill too 
hardened, pride, if nothing elfe, mould 
lead them to protect from further igno- 
miny thofe whom a mi (taken fondnefs 
probably had ruined. But humanity 
is itifted, except in theory; beauty and 
innocence arc the devoted victims of 
dettruclion. Man prowls about more 
favagc than the wolf in feirch of prey. 
The gratinciuvm ol* * tromtxtx. wtatt* 



104 

hit defire ; and thi 
under the banners 
more elevated doe; 

however, fuppofe 
fo diaboli 

nefs lhll 



TRUE DELICACY. 



(he. 



which (how i 

praved. Cyr 
hour admired 
$cipio hath r> 
than ail the ci 

publnktye. 



of prollitutio'n, the 
i he place himfelf in 
>n. We will not, 
that all mankind We 
lifted. Much good- 
onglfiis: tnd, how- 
ace fame examples 
is not naturally de- 
gentrolity it to this 

red him more glory 
ity of hn conquinV 
lies (uncealed. The 
in it keep* it leu n tnc 
e, on the contrary. 



but often, I fear, as an allurement to 

Amongfl a number of others, one 
flory I recolltci, which pleifed roe 
much. It wai related to me by a 
fiiend, one for whom I had an .iflec- 
tion, and in that lulemti hour, when 
the [bill fleeting from its earthly habi- 
tation, pants for an cxiftence impervi- 
cully concealed fiom man, 

" In our youthful days, my friend i 
(faid he, tenderly taking me by the 
hand) thou canft not but remember 
my ioved Amanda. Nature lure never 
formed a purer or more exalted mind. 
The fate of heaven, however, was fet 
again!* her felicity. Parental violence. 
in her fifteenth year, forced her into the 
arms of a wretch. It was not, how- 
ever, until her nineteenth year that r 
beca.me acquainted with her. lime 
had already reconciled her to her mi- 
fery. The hand of nectmty, though 
bitter and ppprefiW, was quietly to be 
borne. She aimed at mirth, but, alas! 
the firuggle w " oftentimes too vifiblc. 
Crulhed in this manner, by the mil". 
taken fondnefs of her father, I could 
not but pity; the moment I beheld her. 
Companion led me to addrtfs her ; 



harbinger of love: in my c 
decifively was verified. I loved her 
forgetful of her fituation ; and 1 fought 
her happinefi, never once reflecting o 
my own. In this manner rolled a pica 
fant year along. The pure it intercourle 
of foul had banilhed every ides of re- 
fervei we lived but in each other; 
while true to honour, Ihe proved fi.ll 
fanhlol 10 her hufband. One fatal 
evening, however, uuihed wuh wine, 
and burning wuh def.re, I met her in 
an athonr m the f;a.drn. The right 
was bulbed, all was blifsful f.lence, 
whilft the glimmering rays of the bright 
luminary of the night twinkled wan- 
tonly orerlhofe beauties which youth- 
ful ardour urged me to poflefs ; the trial 
was too much — Virtue tottered under 
the temptation. I fnatched a kifa. 
But, ob,. my friend I how can I ei- 
prefs to you the feelings I experienced 
on finding her balmy lips clol'ely 
joined to' mine. ■ Decayed as I am, my 
dflill feds a little of the ecltatie 



■ ill. 



Suffice 



that I was t 



chanted to think of reafon, while (\i\ 
loved girl, was almuil equally as fenlc- 
lefs. The providence of goodnefs, how- 
ever, mterpofed, to faye her from <ie- 
ItruCtion. Save me, my Eugenie, fave 
me from wretched net's, Ihe cried. Oh ! 
arm againlt vourfclf. Nature is loo 
fofceptible within me. 1 cannot refill ; 
btit, oh, my God! my honour I know 

i* dear to yew i I know your he art 

Mercy! mercy 1 mercy! Awaken- 
ed thus, my friend, by lovelincfs iti'elf. 



ipCMg n 



effor 



oed fw< 



i baitifned milery from 

the melancholy particulars of 

No laving, niy friend, is 

tally juft, than that pity is the 



lor protection, I inllanily 
my delirium. The beau- 
itoub vieiim llill continued dafped, 
within my arms. I looted, however, 
with fuddennefs the bonds ; and flying 
from the fpot, accomplithed a victory 
which hUh ever Slice afforded me the 
molt heart-felt (jt is fact ion and de- 
light." 

Here, then, is an example worthy of 
imitation, although I doubt if it will 
be followed ; and were there no other. 

Eves, at leall, that there air ibme 
, dt» ot true virtue Itill cxiiling in the 
wwlcL 



ra*Hoqmp 



ON THE SUPERIOR VALUE OF SOLID ACCOMPLISHMENTS. 

A DIALOGUE BETWEEN CICERO AND LORD CHESTERFIELD. 
■ 

Ejfe quam <vnicrL Sall. 

From Knox % s FJfays Moral and Literary *. 

Cicero. feance forbids it, I will be a pbilofopher 

ISTAKE me not. I know bow for once.— A-propos, pray do you re- 

to vilue the fwect courtefics of concile your — what Mali i call it ? your 



M 



unlmooth nddreis to thofe mles of de- 
corum, th;.t genrlcnefs of manner*, of 
which you lay yen know and i.rach the 
propriety as well as myfclf ? 
Cicero. 

To confofs the truth, I would not ad- 
vance the aits of cmbwllilbineist to ex- 
treme icliiuur.nt. Ornamental educa- 
c.uon, «.r an nt t-n'ion to the graces, 
has a connection with effeminacy. In 
acquiring the t;eii:!cinaii, I would not 
lofe the lpirit of .1 man. There is a 
gracefulncfs in a manly character, a 
beauty in an open, ingenious dilpofitioo, 
which all the pro fl lied teacher* of the 
airs of pieuiing know not to in- 
fulc. 

Chesterfield. 

You and I lived in a ftate of man- 
ners, as different as the periods at which 
we lived were diftant. Von Romans, 
pardon mc, my dear, you Ramans had 
a little of the brute in you Come, 
come, I mult overlook it. You were 
obliged to court plebeians for their fuf- 
f rapes ; and if jhniiu Jim 1 It gauJjf, it 
mult be owned, that the greatelfc of you 
were fecure of iheir favour. Why, Beau 
N-fli would have handed your-Citos 
and your Brutuf'cs oiit of the ball -room, 
if they had mown their unmannerly 
heads in it j and ray Lord Modifti, ani- 
nnted with the confeions merit of the- 
largeft or fimll*ft buckles in the room 
according to the temporary ton, would 
have laughed Pompey the Great out of 
countenance. Oh, Cicero, had you lived 
in' a modern European court, you 
would hive caught a degree of that un- 
dcfcribablc grace, which is not only the 
ornament, but may be the lubltitute of 
all thole laboured attainments which 
fools call folid merit. But it was not 
your good fortune, r.nd 1 make allow- 
ance*. 

Cicero. 

• This ani*nr.t»d and htflruSlivc diakguc is felt 8ed and infer led in our Mifeel- 
h*j, at the rtqxeji of a rtftcclablc Cuin.jjCud>ht, in irjcv U cx.'Acf it J circulfttfoi 



life. Affability, attentions, decorum 
of behaviour, if thev have not been 
ranked by philofophers among the vir- 
tues, are certainly related to them, and 
}iavea poweiful influence in promoting 
ibcial happinefs I have recommended 
them, as well as yourfelf But I contend, 
and no fophiftry mall prevail upon me 
to give up this point, that, to be truely 
amiable, they muft proceed from good- 
nefs of heart. Afliirned by the artful 
to ferve the purpofes of private intcrelt, 
they degenerate to contemptible gri- 
mace, and deteltable hypoenfy. 
Chesterfield. 

Excnfe mc, my dear Cicero; lean- 
not enter farther into thecontroverfy «t 
prefent. I have a hundred engage- 
ments at Icalt, and fee yonder my little 
elegant French Comtcjje. I promifed 
her and myfeif the pleafure of a prome- 
nade. Plealant wdkirg enough in thefe 
elyfian groves. So much good company 
too, that if it were not that the canaille 
are apt to be troublclbme, I mould not 
much regret the diltar.ee from the 
Thuillcnes. But adieu, man cher ami, 
for I fee Madame • * * is joining the 
party. Adieu, adieu ! 

Cicero. 
.Contemptible v. retch ! 

Chksturfield. 

Ah ! what do I hear ? Recollcft that 

I am a man of honour, unuled to the 

■ pity or the infults of an uplt.ur, a no-vus 

homo. But perhaps your exclamation 

was not meant of me— If lb, why 

Cicero. 

I am as little inclined to intuit as to 
flatter you. Your levity excited my in- 
dignation ; but my comp Wlion for the 
degeneracy of human nature, exhibited 
fnyourinitance, abforbs my coutempt. 
Chesterfield. 

I could be a little angry, but asbicn- 



*o6 



Cic 



i led yoi 



"" Tie vivacity you hive acquired 
fiudyine the writings and (he 
of the degenerate Gauls, has 
to fet too high a value on qunli 
which daiile the lively perception* With 
a .momentary blare, and to depreciate 
that kind of worth which can neither 
be obtained nor understood without fu- 
rious attention, and fometimes painful 
efforts. But 1 will not contend with 
you on the propriety or impropriety of the corrupt atfecli 
the outward modes which delight a — 
.monkey nation. I will not fpend ar- 
gument* hi proving that gold it more 
valuable than tin id, though it glitters 
left. But I mult cenfure you, and with 
an afperity too, which, perhaps, your 
graces may not approve, for recom- 
mending vice as graceful, in your me- 
morable Je iters. 

Chesterfield. 
That the great Cicero (hould know 
fit little of the world, really furpri ft s 
me. A little libernnifm, my dear, that"s 
all; how can one be a gentleman with- 
out a little libertinifra 
Cicero. 
I ever thought that to be a gentle- 
man, it was recjuiGte to be a moral 
-man. And furely y&u, who might 
iave enjoy ed the benefit of a light to 
.direct you, which I wanted, were 
. blameable in omitting religion and vil- 
. tue in your fyftem. 

Chesterfield. 
Whatl fuperllitious too!— You hava 
•tot then converted with your fuperiar, 
the philofopher of Ferney. I thank 
heaven, I was bom in the fame age 
with' (hat great luminary- Prejudice 
elfehad p,rhaps enchained me in the 
thraldom of my great grandmother. 
- Thifeare enlightened <L ys, and I find 
I have contributed ibmtrhing to the ge- 
neral illumination, by my pollhuiuous 
letters. 



ts great 



ON SOLID ACCOMPLISHMENTS. 
Cicero. 
True; your con del cinfior 
indeed. You were the pandar of your 
fon. You not only taught him the 
ottjn arts of diflimulation, the petty 
tricks which degrade nobil iiy i but you 
corrupted his principles, fomented bis ] 
piUFions, and even pointed out objects 
for their gratification. You might have 
left the talk of teaching him falhionable | 
•oild. Example, and 
ins of human nature, 
:apable of aceomplilhing 
this unnatural purpofe. But a parent, 
the guardian appointed by nature for aa 
uninllrufled offspring introduced intoa 
dangerous world, who himfelf takes 
upon him the office of (eduction, it a 
raonfier indeed. I alfo had a fon. I 
was tenderly follicitous for the right 
ccnidua of his education. I entruttti 
him indeed to Ciatippus at Athens s 
but, like you, I could not help tram- 
roitting inBructinns dilated by pater. 
nil love. Thofc inductions are con- 
tained in my book ol Ofiices ; a book 
M-hich has ever been cited by the world 
as a proof to what a height the mora- 
lity of the heathens was advanced with, 
out the light of revelation.- I own I 
feel a confeious pride in it ; not on ac. | 
count of the ability which it may dif- 
play, but for the principles it teaches, 
and the good, 1 flatter myfclf, it hat 
diffufed. V'ou did not indeed intend 
your initniftions for the world ; but as 
you gave them to a fon you loved, it 
may be concluded that you thought 
them true wifdom, and withheld them 
only hecattfe they were contrary to the 
proftffions of the unenlightened. They 
have been generally read, and tend tq 
introduce the manners, vices, and fii- 
volous habits of the nations you ad. 
mired, to your own manly nation, who, 
of all others, once approached molt 
nearly to the noble limplieity of the Rq. 



Cicero. 
Boaft not of them. Remctnbsr you 
were a father. 

CliJlJTERFIELD. 

And did I not cruleavuur meft effec- 
tually to frrve my Ion, by pointing out 
the qualifications ncceffary to a foreign 
-ambaflador, for which department I 
always deGgned him? Few fathers 
hive taken more pains to accompli Jb a 
fonthan myfelf. There wasooihing I 
did not coiukftcnd to point cut to 
hiin. 



Spare me, Cicero. 1 havi 
- rough c 
1 feel i f 
in his company. I fcem to (brink in 
his noble pretence. I never felt my in- 
(ignificinie To forcibly as now. Fiench 
courtiers and French philofophers have 
been my models ; and amid the ditTi- 
pation of pleafure, and the hurry af af- 
fefled vivacity, I never confidered the 
traccfulnefs of virtue and the beautr 



A Gt&titAti ANECDOTE. 



inly character. I had a love of 
nee, and with better models 
have attained Ft. I fee and vc- 
it in you, and I requeft that you 
>t exert your eloquence to expole 



207 

my futility, fince I confefs if ; for I 
ftill retain, and mall never lofe, that 
regard to character, which permits me 
not to fubmit voluntarily to infult ami 
contempt. 



in ■«'.-, 11 



i*u** 



ANECDOTES 

( Continued from page 167.) 
GERMAN ANECDOTE. 



ERE is no cortrt in Europe, or 
t may be in the world, more 
> of its grandeur than that of 
ij and of coarfe, the minifters 
jonrt whateyer affeft greater (late, 
at more pains to imprefs a very 
legree of reverence and refpeft 
11 who have the honour to ap- 
them* But it fometimes hap- 
that even to candid obfervers 
re amazing littlenejes, vifible in 
>therwife great men ; and broad 
of folfy now and then appear 
;b all the grave tvifdom and re- 
viicy of thefe mighty ft ate (men. 
jfvc law to great kingdoms, they 
on the fate of potent nations, 
tfcribe rules even to lateft pofte- 
nd in the midft of all this atten- 
• others, fo it is ! that they have 
and glaring foibles, uncorrected 
mielves;. which naturally tar- 
that glory, and diminifhes that 
in which they mould fcem to 
laced their felicity. 
is Count ZinzendorfF is cele- 
for his profound minifterial abi- 
>y all the memoir writers of the 
t age, from the folemn Marquis 
inberti down to the ingenious 
de Pollnitz. The illuftrioua 
was defcended from a very noble 
in Auftria, and his mother was 
:efs of the houfe of Holftein. He 
good perfon, ftrdng natural parts, 
red by a regular education, and 
uch more improved by long ex- 
re in a variety of great employ- 
, which he difcharged with a de- 
reputation, and rofe gradually to 
vated ftation of chancellor of the 
mini tier for foreign affairs, and 
: of the order of the Golden 
, in the reign of the emperor 
:s the Sixth. He had diftinguifh- 
ifelf in the conduct of many per- 
, negociations j and it was to his 
oast* Hull in politics we ftand 



indebted for the famous pragmatic 
fanflion, that has already made fuch 3k 
noife in Europe, embarrsuTes k at pre- 
fent, and the confequences of which 
will probably reach, and may perhaps 
again embarrafs, ages that are ftill to> 
come. 

Baron de Pollnitz, with his ufual' 
care and circumfpe&ien, remarks, 
" That he kept the nobleft and moft 
elegant table at Vienna." This, which 
to a common reader it is likely, may 
appear no uncommon circum (lance* 
might very probably have pleaicd tbat 
great minirfter more than all the fine 
things he has faid of him befides. 
With all his mining talents and pro- 
found abilities which had rendered him» 
admired in fo many different courts, 
the count was lefs Jealous of his repu- 
tation in the cabinet than of his honour 
in displaying the moft fplendid and the 
moft exquifite table that perhaps was 
ever kept in that or any other capital. 

His magnificence in this point would 
have been truely wonderful, if it had not 
been eclipfed by various excellencies of 
a fu peri or kind. His '{kill was fo great, 
that he was equally acquainted with 
Afiatic and Italian luxury. His olios 
exceeded thofe of Spain, his paftry was 
much more delicate than that of Naples, 
his Perigord pies were tmely brought 
from thence ; his faufares were made at 
Bologna, his macaroni by the Grand 
Duke's cook j and as for his wines, no 
country that produced a grape of any 
repute, but a fample of it, for the ho- 
nour of its vineyards, was to be found 
at his all-capacious fide-board. Hi* 
kitchen was an epitome of the univerfe; - 
for there were cooks in it of all nations t 
and in the adjacent numerous and fpa- 
cious apartments were to be found ra- 
rities collected from all the quarters of 
the globe. He had, in order 10 col- 
It ft thefe, his agents for provifions in 
every country \ the carriages on wKvcK 



ao8 A GERMAN ANECDOTE; May 

they were laden came quicker and mure tbefc Ic.fons, a> is ever the cafe as to 

regularly than the rolls j and thofewho the privacies of prime miniRcrs, there 

were very well informed believed that was agreat v»ricty of deep as wc)l u 

the expen.cts of his .mrrtiinmcnis ran different (peculations. An inqiiifitivc 

higher th.in that for faSet cotreipotid- foreigner, however, refolved to be ar 

ence, thqugh veiy pom bl y l lit y might the bottom, coft what it would, anil 

be rendered lubleivient and ufeful to by a gratification to one of his pages, 

each other. which might have pictured a greater 

In his general convention, the lrcnei, he was let Into this. In order 

count was cautious and eircumfpeEt ; to gratify his curiofity, he was placed 

in his conferences with other minifters, in a clofet between the room where the 

referved, though very polite { but at Count was and the chamberof audience, 

his table nil this ftate machine™ was where he had the fatisf'j&ion of behold- 

laid adde. There, to difplay his tu- intr the raHfawtng pltannt fceoe. The 

periour learnin;', he difeotii Im at luge, count feated in hit elbow chair, gave 

and delivered the moft curieus as well the (ignal of hii being ready for the 

as copious leflorei on all his exotic and important hulinefs, when,, preceded by 

domeftiedclicacics. In thtle he mowed a page, with a cloth on his arm, and 

a true fpirit oF juftiee : no man was a drinking- glsi-, one of his principal 

ever left a plagiary. This fillau he domettics appeared, who prefented a 

had from Prince Euein*, who hid It C' 1 "" lalver, with many little piece* of 
bread, elrpai-tty dllpofed ; h-: wai im- 
mediately followed by the fiiit cook, 

ehionefs de Pric ; the Kean •hicti wm who, on another falver, had » number 

ftewed in the llilc of flleCWeSflal do offimll ftflell filled With i'o many dif- 

Bois ; and the lamprtji um> ready fertnt kinds of gravy. His excellency 

dreffed fium a print niiiiitter in Eng- then tucking his napkin into his cravat, 

land. His difhi''< furniflicil him with n fi>il warned and gargled his mouth) 

fcind of ( braiahgy 5 his ivater fouify and having wiped it, dipped n piece of 

was borrowed from Marthal d'Auver. bread in each kind ot fauct, and 

querque"s table, when he was firrt in lining* fitfbd with much deliberation, 

Holland ; the fbtafanttnri was a dif- rincing his pdate (to avoid confuuen) 

Covery he made in bpjin, where he was after every piece, at length with inex- 

fo lucky as to pick up a man, who, as prefljble ligacity decided as to thedef- 

a pitr-veyci; had been in the f.rvict . f nn»tioa of them all. Thefe grand in- 

thJt prince of ira-iWitMne DAf <fe ftrumentj of luxury, with their at- 

Vendofmc - hut hcalways allowed that Kndants, were then dhTmWW, and the 

the grand fchool of cookery was the long expt-Sed minifter having fully dif- 

angrefsux Soiftbns, where the fnUtkal etllfid this interfiling affair, found 

conferences indeed proved inefrtthial, hnnlelf at liberty to dilcharge ntxt the 

but the entertainment* of the fever tl duties of hit political lunAron. 

minifters fplendid beyond description. This is no malignant eenfure, hut ft 

In a word, with a true Apician elo- gentle and genuine tcprefeutation of 

qtience, lie generoiifly inftruSlcu all the this tjreat nun's olieniation, in what 

novices in good living ; and as Solomon he chufe to make his principal profrf- 

difcoiirfed of every herb, from theeedar f'on. If it was right, as poliible nuny 

of LehanL.11 to the hylbp on the wall, may think it, tli.n, though faintly 

fohebegan with s: l:n:ipgnian no bigger drawn, this is to be confidered as a p- 

•'"■ - ' ■'- — niltcoat button, negyric ; but if wrong, i" : - - 



tided with iviU bt& t thegloryof hut barely an admonitory exhortation 

to thole who in every high Am ion may 

n half be a little tinged with this folly 1 and 



the German foiefts! to thole who in every hig 



> near a whole one, a fliort excrcilc upon thin propofition, 
^thcr inaccilliblei that the jiiexce of cling, great as it 
his era ploy tnent at may be, is after all tui'ltkeial feience. 



,178b. 



209 



MEMOIRS of Mrs. WOFFINGTON, 

From the Life of David Garrick, Efq. by Mr, 'Thomas Davies. See our Review 

of New Publications this Month. 



A Short (ketch of an actrefs fo cele- 
brated for beauty of countenance 
and elegance of form, as well as merit 
in her profeflion, will be expected by 
the reader of this narrative. Mrs. 
Margaret WofHngfon wcs born at 
PubTin in 17 18. For her education 
in the very early part of life, flic was 
indebted to Madame Violante, a 
Fxenchwoman of good reputation, and 
famous for feats of agility. She is 
occasionally mentioned in Swift's De- 
fence of -Lord Carteret. From her in- 
structions, little WofHngton learned that 
eafy action and graceful deportment, 
which (he afterwards continued with 
tmremitting application to improve. 
When the Beggar's Opera was firft 
acted at Dublin, it was fo much ap- 
plauded and admired, that all ranks of 
people flocked to fee it. A company 
of children, under the title of Lilli- 
putians, were encouraged to reprefent 
this favourite piece at the Theatre 
Royal; and Mils WofHngton, then in 
the tenth year of her age, made a very 
diftinguifhed figure among thefe pigmy 
comedians. 

She appeared for the firft time in 
London at the theatre in Covent Gar- 
den, in 1738. Her choice of character 
excited the curiofity of the public : Sir 
Harry Wildair, acted by a woman, 
was a novelty ; this gay, difupated, 
good-humoured rake, flie reprefented 
with fo much cafe, elegance, and with 
fuch propriety of deportment, that no 
male actor has fince equalled her in that 
part t flic acquitted herfelf fo much to 
the general fatisfaction, that it became 
fafhionable to fee Mrs. WofHngton per- 
fonate Sir Harry Wildair. The ma- 
nagers loon found it to be their intereft 
to announce her frequently for that fa- 
vourite character ; it proved a conftant 
charm to 611 their houles. 

In Dublin (he tried her powers of 
acting a tragedy-rake, for Lothario is 
certainly of that can 5 but whether flie 
was as much accomplifhed in the manly 
tread of the bulkined libertine as flic 
was in the genteel walk of the gay 
gentleman in comedy, I know not 5 
. Lomb* Mac. Xylay 1780. 



but it is certain, flie did not meet with 
the fame approbation in the part of Lo- 
thario as in that of Sir Harry Wil- 
dair. 

Her chief merit in acting, I think, 
confined in the reprefentation of fe- 
males in high rank, and of dignified 
elegance, whofe graces in deportment, 
as well as foibles, (he underftood, and 
difflayed in a very lively and pleating 
manner. The fafhionable irregularities 
and fprightly coquetry of a Millamanf, 
a Lady 1 ownly, Lady Betty Modilh, 
and Maria, in the Non Juror, wero 
exhibited by WofHngton with that 
happy cafe and gaiety, and with fuch 
powerful attraction, that the excefloa 
of thefe characters appeared not only 
pardonable, but agreeable. But this 
actrefs did not confine herfelf to parts 
of fuperiour elegance ; flie loved to 
wanton with ignorance when combined 
with humour, and to play with petu- 
lance and folly, with peevifhnefs and 
vulgarity : thofe who remember her 
Lady Pliant, in Congreve's Double 
Dealer, will recollect with pleafure her 
whimfical abfurdity of paflion, and her 
aukward aflumed prudery : in Mrs. 
Day, in the Committee, (he made no 
fcruple to difguife her beautiful coun- 
tenance, by drawing on it the lines of 
deformity and the wrinkles of old age, 
and to put on the tawdry habiliments 
and vulgar manners of an old hypo- 
critical city vixen. 

As, in her profeflion, flie aimed at 
attaining general excellence, flie fludied 
feveral parts of the mo ft pathetic, as 
well as lofty clafs in tragedy, and, was 
refolved to perfect herfelf in the grace 
and grandeur of the French theatre $ 
with this view flie viiited Pans 5 here 
flie was introduced to Mademoifclle 
Dumcfnil, an actrefs celebrated for na- 
tural elocution and dignified action. 
Col ley Cibber, at the age of feventy, 
profefTcd himfelf Mrs. WofHngton** 
humble admirer ; he thought himfelf 
happy to be herCicifbeoandinftructor $ 
his great delight was to play Nykin, or 
Fondle wife, in the Old Batchelor, to 
her Cocky or Lctitia, in the fame play. 

D d Oa 



3io 



MEMOIRS OF Mrs. WOFFINGTON. 



On her return from Paris, (he acted, 
with approbation, fome parts in tra- 
gedy, particularly Andromache and 
Hermione, in the Diltrefled Mother, 
which, to fhow her proficiency, the 
played alternately ; out (he never 
could attain to that happy art of {peak- 
ing, nor reach that (kill of touching 
the pafiions, fo juftly admired in Gibber 
and Pritchard. Old Colley her m after 
was him f elf a mean actor in tragedy, 
though he was extremely fond of the 
Buflcin ; he taught her to recite Co 
pompoufly, that nature and paffion 
were not feldom facrificed to a falfe 
glare of eloquence. The inftruclor in- 
filled upon a particular tone, as he call- 
ed it, in the declamations of his pupils. 

Mr. Garrick's acquaintance with 
Mrs. Woffington commenced, 1 be- 
lieve, in Ii eland, when he firft vifited 
that kingdom, in 1742 ; me acted Cor- 
delia and Ophelia to his Lear and Ham- 
let. When he commenced patentee, in 
j 747, he found her one of the articled 
comedians of his partner Mr. Lacy; 
but as he brought with him, from Co- 
vent Garden, Mrs. Cibber and Mrs. 
Pritchard me thought her continuing 
at Drury-lane wpuld be attended with 
niany di (agreeable contentions for cha- 
racters. Before that time, Clive and 
Woffington had claflied upon many oc- 
cafions, which brought forth fquabbles 
diverting enough to their feveral par- 
tizans amongft the actors. Woffington 
was well-bred, feelingly very cajm, 
and at all times miltreis of herfelf. 
Clive was frank, open, and impetuous; 
what came uppe rmoft in her mind, die 
f poke without rderve : the other blunt- 
ed the fharp fpeeches of Clive by her 
extremely civil, but keen and farcaftic 
replies; thus (he often threw Clive off 
her guard, by an arch feverity which 
the warmth of the other could not eafily 
parry. 

No two women of high rank ever 
hated one another more unrefervedly 
than thefc dames of the theatre; but 
though the paflior.s of each were as pre- 
dominant as thofe of a firft duchefs, 
yet they wanted the courtly art of con- 
cealing them, and this occafioned now 
and then a very grotefque fcene in the 
green-room. 

Mrs. Woffington, after acting a few 
years with Rich, engaged herfelf in 
1751 to Mr. Sheridan, the manager of 
the Dublin theatre. Here ibe continued 



May 

three years, and was the admiration of 
the publick in a variety of parts, tragic 
and comic. Her company was fought 
after by men of the firft rank and dif- 
tinetion ; pcrfons of the graved cha- 
racter, and raoft eminent for learning, 
were proud of her acquaintance, and 
charmed with her converfation. She 
was, I think, chofen prefident of a fe- 
left fociety of Beaux- EJprits, called 
the Beef-fteak Club, and was the only 
woman in the company. 

She frankly declared, that me pre- 
ferred the company of men to that of 
women ; the latter, fhe faid, talked of 
nothing but fiLks and fcandal. Whe- 
ther this particular preference of the 
converfation of males might not take 
its rife from her not being admitted to 
vifit certain ladies of quality, I will not 
take upon me to fay, but me certainly 
had not that free accefs to women of 
rank and virtue which was permitted to 
Oldfield and Cibber. 

Mrs. Woffington was miftrefs of a 
good underftanding, which was much 
improved by company and books. She 
had a moft attractive fprightlinefs in 
her manner, and dearly loved to pur- 
fue the bagatelle of vivacity and hu- 
mour: (he was affable, good-natured, 
and charitable. When me returned to\ 
London in 1756, file once more en- 
gaged herfelf to Mr. Rich, and died 
about a year before his death of a gra- 
dual decay. 

We have on the ftage at this time a 
very pleafing and beautiful young ac- 
trels, Mifs Farren, not very unlike 
Mrs. Woffington in her perfon, who, 
it is hoped, will in time, by continued 
application, arrive at great excellence* 

%* Mrs. Clive's franknefs being 
mentioned in this (ketch of Mrs. Wbf- 
fington's life, we take the liberty of 
borrowing from the fame entertaining 
work, an account of the interview be- 
tween Garrick and Mrs. Clive, when 
(he refolved to leave the ftage and retire 
to the beautiful Villa, where fhe now 
reiki es. 

Mr. Garrick fent Mr. Hopkins the 
prompter to her, to know whether fhe 
was in eameft in her intention of leav- 
ing the ftage. To fuch a meflenger 
Mrs. Clive difdained to give an anfwer. 
To Mr. George Garrick, whom he 
afterwards deputed to wait on her on, 
the fame errand, this high-fpirited 
actrefs wat not much more civil j 

- bQWCYer, 



1780. MODERN HISTORY. *u 

however } the condefcended to tell him, himfelf. Upon his fmiling at tier fup. 

that if his brother wifhcd to know her pofed ignorance or mifinformation, fhe 

mind, he fhould have called upon her explained hcrfelf, by telling him, that 

himfelf. When the manager and Mrs. fie knew when (he had enough, though 

Clive met, their interview was fliort, be never would. He then in treated her 

and their difcourfe curious. After to renew her agreement for three or 

fome compliments on her great merit, four years j fhe peremptorily refufed. 

Mr. Garrick wilhed, he faid, that Hie Upon his renewing his regret at her 

would continue for her own fake fome leaving the ftage, (he frankly told him, 

years longer on the ftage. This civil that (he hated hypocrifyj for (he wat 

fuggeftion fhe anfwered by a dec i five Aire he would light up candles for joy 

negative. He aflced how much fhe was at her leaving him, but that it would 

worth $ (be replied brifkly, as much as be attended with fome expence. 

■ - - - - ■ * - - . i_ .j. 

LECTURES ON MODERN HISTORY. 

LECTURE VI. 
(Continued from our loft Magazine, page 159.J 

ACurfory view of the ftate of the were difpofleffcd of great part of their ' 

weftern, which we may hence- conquefts in Germany ; and having 

forward call the German empire, will with a degree of gratitude and genero- 

be neceflary in this place to preferve fity, nominated Henry the fon of Otho 

every link of our hiftorical chain united to be his fuccefTor, who had never loved 

and uninterrupted. him, but whom he recommended out of 

In Lecture III. page 15, for the refpec"r. to his father : accordingly, upon 

month of January laft, we left his demife, in 91*, the imperial robe* 

Arnulph or Arnould, a baftard were carried to Henry, by order of the 

of the race of Charlemagne, in pof- electors, he was found in the fields 

feflion of the imperial throne. This taking the diverfion of hawking, and 

prince, by a fatal policy, involved Eu- from that time, he was known by th* 

rope in a fcene of defolation and name of Henry the Fowler. Thus wat 

daughter ; for he called in the Huns, the houfe of Saxony placed at the head 

a barbarous nation, who, in imitation of the German empire, and the govern- 

of the other emigrants from the North, ment of that of France totally extin- 

fought to eftablifh themfclvcs in better guifhed. Henry mowed himfelf worthy 

regions than their own* and foon be- of the dignity to which he had been 

came the deftroyers of their allies. raifed, not only by the nomination of 

Arnulph wanted the a (Ti (lance of the Conrad, but by the unanimous vote 

Huns againft his powerful enemy the of the States, compofed of the clergy, 

king of Moravia, and the Normans $ the principal nobility, and chief offi- 

but the Germans paid dear for their af- cers of the army* His firft care was to 

fiftance. The new allies avai line; them- turn his arms againft the Huns j hav- 

felves of a minor emperor, after the ing defeated them, he marched againft 

death of Arnulph, who was fucceeded the Vandals, difpoflefted them of Bran- 

by his fon Lewis IV. a boy of feven denburgh, and created it a marquifate 

years of age, ravaged Bavaria, Suabia, in the year 918 Two years after, he 

and Franconia. His reign was (hort built the city of Mifnia, and made the 

and ignoble, he died blind, before he province of that name alfo a inar- 

attained the age of twenty, after having quifatej it was by means of placing 

fubmitted to p-.y a tribute to the Huns, nobles, who were generals in his army, 

to prevent their further depredations, to prefide over extenfive diftri&s, with. 

Tired of the imbecile government of titles of honour and limited jurifdic- 

the Pepins, the German electors con- tions always dependent on the crown 

ferred the imperial diadem on one *f that Henry Secured the whole empire 

their own mbles, Conrad, duke of from foreign enemies: out of thefe 

Franconia, known afterwards in hif- marquifates in time arofe independent 

•wry by the ftyle and title of Conrad I. ftatcs 5 from electors of the empire 

By his valour and prudence the Huns having vote* to ctaofe \ta\t fomwi^fifc* 

Ddt ^Kl 



ftI2 



they rofe to independency, and creeled 
feparatc kingdoms and dukedoms, en- 
joying all the prerogatives of royalty. 
Hardicanute, king of Denmark, and 
his fucceflbr, Gormon III. having af- 
fjfted the Huns in their incurfions into 
the German dominions, Henry fent a 
powerful force againft Denmark, and 
made that kingdom tributary to the 
empire. He died in 936, and was fuc- 
ceeded by his fon Otho I. commonly 
called Otho the Great : this prince 
married Editha, the daughter of our 
king Edward the elder. He was un- 
doubtedly the greateft hero, and the 
wife ft monarch of his time. He added 
Bergia and Burgundy to the empire He 
created his brother Duke of Bavaria, 
which was the origin of that electorate. 
He defeated the Sclavi, who had ra- 
vaged Saxony. At the requeft of Pope 
John XII. he carried a powerful army 
into Italy, to deliver that country from 
the tyranny of Berengerius and his fon, 
who had ufurped the fovereignty, and 
cxercifed every art of cruel defpotifm 
in the Campagnia of Rome, and in al- 
moft every part of Italy. In recom- 
penfc for this great fervice, he was 
crowned king of Italy at Milan, and 
emperor at Rome by the pope, in 961. 
But the ungrateful pontiff no fooner 
found himfclf releaied from a for- 
midable enemy, than he fomented a 
revolt a^ninft his benefaGor, andjoined 
with Adalbert, a revolted general, 
in a confederacy to dethrone Otho : 
their party, however, being too weak 
to make head againft the emperor, the 
pope fled upon his approach ; Otho 
once more entered Rome in triumph, 
and the inhabitants not only fwore al- 
legiance to him, but folemnly engaged 
not to elett nor confecrate any pope in 
future without the confent of the em- 
peror or his fon. John XII was de- 
pofed, and Leo VIII. elected pope 5 
but after the emperor had retired to 
Germany, imagining he had ftcured 
the Romans in his inrereft, the depoled 
pontiff returned, and partly by bribes, 
and partly by force, engaged the ci- 
tizens to revolt, to renounce Lto t and 
to reftore him to the pontificate, which 
he did not long enjoy ; for he diedfud- 
denly in the year 964.. But the Sedi- 
tion did nut fubiide ; the fame party 
elected Benedict V. and the emperor 
found him lei f under the neceflity to 
return to Italy, at the head of an army 



LECTURES ON M ay 

of veterans, and to lay fiega to Rome 1 '■ 



r-- 



having reduced it to the laft extremity, 
the inhabitants fubmitted, delivered u^ 
their pope, and on condition of fub- 
mitting peaceably to the reftoration of" 
Leo VIII. the emperor publilhed a ge- 
neral amnefty. Benedift, in a full 
council, at which Otho prefided, ac- 
knowledged himfelf a criminal, and 
threw off his pontifical robes : then it 
was that Leo, with the whole body of 
the clergy and people of Rome, made 
the celebrated decree, that Otho and his ■ 
fucceflbrs, as kings of Italy, fliould 
perpetually enjoy the power of choofing 
their own fucceflbrs, of naming the 
popes, and of granting inveftiture to 
the bifhops. For along time, the em- 
ptors of Germany retained this power, 
and it was confidered as a fundamental 
law- of the empire ; but the popes, by 
their intrigues with the other potentates 
of Europe, found means to (hake off the 
yoke,and to erect an independent cccle- 
fiaftical and temporal fovereignty. 

Upon the death of Leo VIII. the Ro- 
mans mutinied, and reftored Benedict 
V, in the month of May 965 5 but be- 
fore the emperor, who was gone to Ger- 
many, could ta^e any meafure to op- 
pofe this revolution, Benedict died, 
and the imperial commiffioners nomi- 
nated John XIII. whom the citizens 
expelled j upon receiving intelligence 
or this audacious infult, the emperor 
returned a fourth time, and feverely 
puniihed the feditious. He baniflicd 
the confuls, hanged the tribunes, and 
had the military governor of Rome 
publickly whipped through the ftrcets. 

He was in the next place obliged to 
turn his arms againft Nicephorus, the 
Greek Emperor of the Eaft j that per- 
fidious monarch had betrothed his 
daughter to Prince Otho, yet in viola- 
tion of the laws of nations and of hu- 
manity} he caufed the ambaffadors to 
be afiaflinatcd who went to Constan- 
tinople to demand the princefs, and to 
conduct her to Germany. A fevere re- 
venge was taken 5 an aft of barbarity 
lufficiently horrid was retaliated by an- 
other ftill more unjuftifiable. The 
German army entered La Fuglia and 
Calabria, defeated the Greek army in 
thofe provinces, cut off the nofes of the 
priibners, and fent them in'this muti- 
lated condition to Constantinople. This 
cataftrophe exafperated their country- 
men againft their fovereign, whofe vio- 
lation. 



modern History. 



] at ion of the rights of ambafladors had 
brought upon them all the horrors of 
a bloody war: an infurrection was the 



%n 



labria from the Greeks ; hot the Sara- 
cens, who were in alliance with them, 
defeated the army he fent upon that en- 



OTHO III. his fon and fucceflbr 
only three years of age, and the right of 
governing during the minority being 
contended by his mother and his grand- 
mother, Germany experienced for a 
ftiort time, the horrours of civil commo- 
tions. Their domeftick diflenftons af- 
forded a proper opportunity for reviv- 
ing the factious fpirit of the male- 
contents at Rome; accordingly Cre- 
fcentius once more invited the inhabi- 
tants to inlift under his banner**! n 
order to deliver their country from the 
German yoke, by eftablifhing an in do 
pendent commonwealth. At fixteen 
years of age, the emperor entered Rome, 
at the head of his army, and Pope John 
XV. who had implored his fuccour 
again ft the factious, being dead, he 
feated a near relation of his own in the 
papal chair, by the name of Gregory V. 
and was himfelf frlemnly crowned King 
of Italy and emperor of Germany by 
the new pope. All was quiet while 
Otho remained at Rome ; but as foonas 



confequence, and Nicephoruswas aflaf- terprife. In the midft of new prcpara- 
fioated. John Zimiicts his fucceflbr im- tions for carrying on this war, theena- 
nediately concluded a peace with Otho, peror died at Rome in the year 983. 
and ceded to him the Iordfhip of Capua. 
This great prince died in the year 
973, after acquiring a character which 
makes his name conspicuous in the hif- 
torick page j he imitated Charlemagne 
in bis warlike enterprifes ; in his legif- 
latiye capacity, and his attention to li- 
terature. By the defire, and with the 
afliftance of his brother, Bruno, arch- 
bimip of Cologne, he founded an aca- 
demy in that city. And fuch was his 
zeal for the converfion of the barbarous 

pagan nations of the northern parts of 
Europe, that he eftabliftied bifhopricks 

in thofe parts, and greatly contributed 

to the extcnfion of Christianity. At 

the fame time, owing to the fu perdition 

of the times, he placed too much au- 
thority in the hands of the German pre- 
lates ; for he gave them duchies and 

counties, and thus made them power- 
ful temporal lords. Another foible di- 

minifhes the luftre of his reign, which 

was the dec ifion of difputes, concerning 

hereditary fucceflions, by duels. 

Otho II. was only eighteen years of he returned to Germany, Crefcentius ex- 
age when he fucceeded his father; a pelled Gregory, and fet up another pope, 

faction attempted to make his youth an <whoaflumed the name of John XVI. 

occafion for rebellion} but the refolu- 

tion of the young emperor rendered the 

fcheme abortive. At Kome however, the 

greateft anarchy prevailed, Crefcentius, 

the fon of Theodora, a concubine of Pope 

John X. took up arms to reftore the an- 
cient republican form of government, for 

which purpofe his parti fans created him 

Dictator; bis firft Hep was to depofe 

and imprifon the reigning Pope Bene- 
dict VI. But another party elected 

Boniface VII. and a third John XIV* 

who was murthered by Boniface VII. 

The emperor vifited Italy to put an end 

to the war that had fubfifted for fome 

time with France for Lorraine ; which 

he effected by a prudent compromife, 

agreeing to partake the government and 

revenue of that country with Charles, 

the brother of Loth aire king of France. 

Being thus at liberty to fupprefs the fe- 

ditions that prevailed at Rome, he 

marched thither at the head of bis army, 

and found little more than hit prefence 

neceflary to reftore publick tranquillity • 

He afterwards attempted to wrcft Ca- 



This revolution obliged the emperor 
to make a fecond journey to Rome, he 
was well received in the city ; but Cre- 
fcentius and his party kept poflVflion of 
the cattle of St. Angelo, which Otho 
inverted, and having taken it by ftorm, 
he put an end to the hopes of the fedi- 
tious, by putting their chief to death* 
Gregory V. being reftored, caufed the 
eyes of the antipope to be put out, and 
in this condition made him ride through 
the ftreets on an afs, with the tail of the 
animal in his mouth. In 999 Gregory 
died, and the emperor nominated Ger- 
bert his preceptor, archbifhop of Ra- 
venna, who took the name of Sylvefter 
II. but the people were not yet appear- 
ed : the emperor, in another viut to 
Rome, found the revolt run (6 high, 
that he was befieged in his palace, and 
probably owed his life to fecret flight. 
Bv a ftrange infatuation, be took the 
widow of Crefcentius with him, and kept 
her as his concubine ; fome authors fay, 
that having promifed to marry her, when 
we found herfalf deceived, we poifoned 



3H 



MODERN HISTORY. 



him : but be this a* it may, it is cer- 
tain that he died in an obfeure retreat, 
at the cattle of Patema, near Rome, in 
the year 1^04, leaving the affairs of 
Rome in the lame ftate of confufion, 
which for a long time before, and after 
his death, engaged the attention of all 
Europe \ Italian liberty ftrugeling with 
the power of the empire, and the Ro- 
mans themielvts torn to pieces by the 
ra^c of parties. 

Heie we may with great propriety 
drop the hiftory of the German em- 
pire, and return to that of the reduced 
kingdom of France. 

The lame imbecility which loft the 
empire transferred the crown of France 
from the fecond to the third race of 
kings, from the dynafty of the ho life of 
Ch arlemacne to that of the Capets. 

Louis P'Outrfmer, whofe aecef- 
fion we noticed in cur laft Lecture, did 
Hot enjoy a peaceable reigi, for he was 
embroiled in civil wars to check the 
ambition of his nobfes, which he at 
length affech-d by the powerful aflift- 
ance of the emperor Otho I- whofe fifter 
was his fecond queen. Hcwasalfoen- 
gaged iifa war againft Hugh de Blanc, 
Count of Paris for the duchy of Nor- 
mandy, which he was obliged to ter- 
minate by a d: (graceful treaty, after he 
had been taken prifoner by the Count. 
The king died at Rheims, of a fall 
from his horfe, in the year 954., and 
was fuccccded by his rfdeft fon Lo- 
thaire, whofe reign is not .fignalifed 
by any memorable event ; he endea- 
voured to recover Lorraine from the 
Emperor Otho II. but without fuccefs, 
and was at length obliged to yield one 
part of that country to his own brother 
Charles, and the other to Otho* Lo- 
thaire fell a vi&im to the jealoufy of 
Emma his queen, by whom he was 
poifoned in the year 986, in the forty- 
fifth year of his age. 

Loir is V. his only fon, fucceeded 
him at the age of twenty; he was ftyled 
in contempt, Le Faineant, or do little, 
though he fhowed lomc proofs of valour 
at the beginning of his reign, by quel- 
ling the rcvoltof the citizens of Rheims. 
It is very remarkable, that in the fe- 
cond ytar of his reign, he had the fame 
unhappy fate as his father, toeing poi- 
foned by Blanche his queen, a daugh- 
ter of the Duke of Anguitaine. He 
was the laft of the kings called by the 
French the race of the Carlovingiens, 



uA 



the dependents of Charlemagne, whiffc 
governed France 136 years. 

Charles puke of Lorraine, his uncll 
fhould have fucceeded, but he had ren-] 
dered himfelf odious to the French, by 
rendering homage to Otho II. for part' 
of Lorraine, and yielding him one half' 
that ho might retain the other and 
the title; Hugh Capet, the fon of Hugh 
the Great, or the Abbot, availed him- 
felf of the popularity he had acquired, 
and was railed to the throne by the con- 
fent of all orders of the people. 

We muft now recapitulate in a few 
words, the principal caufes of the ruin 
of the fecond race of French monarchs. 
The firft was, the impolitic diviiion of 
the kingdom into different petty mo- 
narchies, the fruitful fource ot civil 
wars between the children of Charle- 
magne. The exceffive atfeclion of Louis 
le Debonnaire for his too dear fon Charles 
the Bald* The imbecility of moft of 
the kings his fucceflTors. The invafions 
of the Normans, who defolated France, 
and favoured the revolt of the principal 
nobles. And, the too great number 
of Charlemagne" s natural children, who 
all wanted to be fovereigns within the 
limits of the provinces alugncd to them. 
Hugh Capet endeared himfelf to the 
clergy of France, by giving up to them 
the rich abbeys his father had appro- 
priated to his own ufe, and bequeathed 
him ; to which he added other a&s of 
reputed devotion. Thus prepoflcflcd in 
his favour, Charles found it in vain to 
contend for his legitimate right; how- 
ever, he made an attempt to recover the 
crown by force of arms, and actually 
took the cities of Laon and Rheims ; 
but by the treachery of the Bilhop of 
Laon he was taken prifoner, and died 
in confinement in the year 992^ Capet 
being thu3 delivered from his. moft 
powerful rival, applied himfelf to the 
recovery of that union in his kingdom 
which might once render it a formid- 
able ftate ; for this purpole he eftab- 
lifhcd the peerage, which at the fame 
time, that it conferred a degree of dig- 
nity till then unknown, in the families 
of rank, put the nobles more upon 
equal footing, and prevented thofe am- 
bitious intrigues which had difmember- 
ed France ; for the number of peers 
created by him formed a kind of court 
of honour, jealous of each other, and 
watchful of the tranfattions of every 
individual. Hit reign was of too fhort 

duration 



A YOUNG LADY'S PROGRESS. 



*i$ 



I for the firm eftablifliment of 
;ular fyftem of policy and re- 
>n which he meditated a$ the 
of reftoring the grandeur of 
I but by the prudence of his 
rs, who were animated by the 
>irit, the prerogatives of the 
vere fecurod, and all the terri- 
thlt had been ufurped by the 
us nobles were recovered* To 



prevent the invafions of the Danith and 
Norman pirates, who' generally enter- 
ed France by the mouth of the river 
Sommo, Capet fortified Abbeville in the 
province of Ponthieu ; thefe are the 
principal acls of his reign, which laded 
only ten years i he died in the year 997, 
in the fifty-feventh year of his age, and 
was fucceeded by his ion Robert. 
(To be continued m our next,) 



UNT OF THE PROGRESS OF A YOUNG LADY OF 
SPIRIT, IN FASHIONABLE ACCOMPLISHMENTS. 



(IS A LETTER TO THE EDITOR.) 

am a fingle man, and have lived 
ng enough in the world to have 
rpus acquaintance, it is no un- 
1 thing with me to be invited to 
ly vifit of a month or two in the 



s my good fortune to fpend the 
his agreeable mannef, with my 
:nd Sir Gregory Sage $ this 
an and myfelf were of the fame 

the fame form of mind, and 
e vices, fuch as they were ; we 
lercd in this, that he thinking 
letter of the women of his lime 
did, ventured to marry ; while 

through the dangerous years 

any thought of it 



It was about this time lad year when 
I faw the girl in this I a ft mentioned 
lra'e, dropping me an awkward curtefy, 
on my faying (he grew a fine wench* 
and galloping to my kuee, when I b id 
her come and give me a kifs. But 
what was my furprifc at my next viilt, 
which was that I am juft now retimed 
from, to find in the place of this 
bouncing girl a delicate fine lady, 
fqucamifli as a pampered lap-dog, and 
as full of airs as a princeis of the 
theatre, when fools tell her (he is . a 
great a&refs. The girl, the hoyden, 
and the romp were all gone, and the 
ft ate ly and diliant afpe&of a lady, who 
thinks every man that fees her is, or 
friend happened on a wife of ought to be in love with her, appealed 
who die fled, played, and did ii the place of them. 
afhionable, fooliih thing of the My young lady, impatient to fee. 
there was a hard Struggle for London, the fcene of every thing that 
tars, which of this unlucky pair is gay and gallant, had in the begin- 
5reak the other's heart firft: at ning of the winter, during my abfence 

in another part, pretended a fit of fick- 
nefs, which it was no wonder none of 
the phyficians in the neighbourhood 
could tell what to make of, and which 
at length teafed the unwilling father to 
iy*vlfits had been pretty regular come to town for further advke.i 
gentleman, though at consider- When he had brought her hither, he 
A ~ " ' " * ' ' could not refufe her the choice of what 

phyfician (he would have; and the 
lady, who well knew what fort of man 
would be fitted to anfwer the nature of 
her occafions, enquired after the mod 
fafhionable do&or, not after him who 
cured moil patients. Common fame 



:he fatal lot fell upon the wife, 
good friend found himfelf at one 
ty a free man again, with al- 
e third of his fortune left, and 
fp*ight ly daughter. 



fiances of time, I had oppor 
of remarking the improvements 
little lady from time to time \ 
le days of her crying for glafs- 
r s on. her bread and butter, to 
inced period of a tall girl, with 
neck, dildaining and f welling 

t narrow bounds of the white pointed out to her the celebrated Dr f 
hat furrounded it ; and the un- * # *; and in confequence of this 
•le aukwardnefs that there is in gentleman's inftrucYions,fhc foon found 
:male that is too big for a girl, that Lady Squab and Lady Scamper 
little for a woman, were the only two fine women in town, 

and 



i 



3i6 



A YOUNG LADY'S PROGRESS. 



and that Mifs Poppet (who has often 
declared that (he mould think herfelf 
ftrangely fallen indeed, if a perfon of 
any fafliion had vilited and left London 
without being introduced to her) was 
the mo(i proper of all publick people 
for her to viiit, and of all others the 
molt proper to make her acquainted 
with the other two heroines. 

When mil's was grown fo well, that it 
was the dolor's opinion that (he might 



M4 1 

relapfe, which it coft him half a doxet 
pieces to the doctor, to reftore her 
from 5 and the whole circle of her ac- 
quaintance cried out againft the bar- 
barity of taking a poor creature, who; 
was never well ten days together, to a{ 
place where no advice was to be had 
for her. 

Matters had gone on in this jovial 
manner on the daughter's fide a long 
time, when the town began to grow 



venture out in a chair in the middle of thin, publick places were empty, and 



the day, her firil refpects were paid in 
a morning vifit to the celebrated Pop- 
pet, where the doctor had not only pre- 
pared her a proper reception, but even 
waited to introduce her in perfon. 

This mod obtequious matter of the 
ceremonies had no iooner fhown the la- 
dies one to another, than a fort of fym- 
Eathy began to work in both their 
carts, and to draw them infenfiblv to 
one another. We all naturally love 
every thing that is like ourfelves; on 
tii is principle the two ladies became in 



the whole fet of her acquaintance 
threatened Bath with a vifit. The only 
relief now was, from the doctor, whv> 
readily entered into the fcheme? and 
when the lady had been confined fe- 
veral days, with one of her returns pf 
the diforder, this ufefui phyfician told 
the father, that nothing but the bath 
could reftore her to her perfect health. 
It was with great triumph that the 
doctor carried to his patient and her 
friends the news of the fuccefs of hii 
embafly, and how readily the old gud- 



a quarter of an hour the moft intimate gcon (wallowed the hook. 



friend? in the world, and the next even- 
ing our improving country mifs was by 
her new friend introduced to the fami- 
liarity of the other two, at the eafy ex- 
pence of lofing ten guineas at cards, 
at her houfe, to them. 

What was intended by the prudent 



The knight, however, did not prove 
fo great a gudgeon as the wife doctor 
concluded ; he faw, clearly enough, 
through the fcheme they had laid for 
him, and fooled them all, by feeming 
to be fooled by them. The poft-chaiie . 
was at the door the next morning, and I 
Sir Gregory only as a fo'rtnighVs vifit the lady, having dried up the parting 
to London, with a fick daughter, who tears other friends, with the affurance 
he never intended mould Know any of feeing them again in a new fcene of 
thing of the diverfions of it ; proved a pleafure, a new elyiium ; was carried off, 
three months abode in it with a gay with no fnvill triumph on all fides. 

" The chaife had kept the Bath -road a 

whole day, when the lady's fpirits were 
fo very good, that (he had propofed to 
her father the going on all nignt, but 
his care for her health prevented it; 
they fupped in much better humour 
with one another thaa they had done a 
long time, and with the fame mutual 
fatisfa&ion got into their vehicle the 
next morning : the horfes purfucd the 
fame road about an hour, when the 
father feemed to recollect himfelf, that 
he had not feen his feat near Salisbury 
of a long time; and as they were now 
in that part of the kingdom, he would 
by all means turn out of the way, and 
fee what condition things were in there 5 
it was with fome reluctance the lady 
confentcd to this ; but what was her 
diftraction, when, on their alighting at 
the gate, the good old knight difmiffcd 
his equipage! and told her they would 

lies 



wench, who mined none of them, and 
who put him in hourly mind of her mo- 
ther. The Pantheon, Almack's, the 
Opera Houfe, and the Theatres, faw 
her almoft as often as their doors were 
opened. 

In a few weeks (he was grown as 
impudent and prophane as the firft, as 
fcandaloufly rampant as the fecond, and 
as pert, as artful, and defigning as the 
laft of her companions. A thoufand 
hearts panted for her, a thoufand fools 
wrote ibnnets on her beauty, and a 
thoufand fcandalous things were whif- 
ptred about of her. 

The di ft rafted father, who could not 
bring himfelf to the prudential eafinefs 
of an example, that he every day faw 
before him, threatened his ruined 
daughter, as he took her to be, with 
going every week j but the fight of a 
pod- chaife inevitably threw her into a 



TTT* 



Fw* 



r fatso to Bith this feafon. but that (he 
poold ttay there till (he was better t 

It was in this place that I faw him 
and his gay daughter j he had invited 
to help to make a place, fomewhat 



A YOUNG LADY'S PROGRESS. aiy 

much again ft his real inclination, and 
our going away again was a turn fo 



much in his favour, that it would not 
bear enquiring into. 
Two days had not pafled, after our 
too lonely, the more agreeable ; and by return, before this accomplished lady 



the time I came down the fury of her 
relentment was over, and the young lady 
had cooled into a refolution of making 
the beft of what (he faw (he could not 
avoid. 

Two days after my arrival there was 
a horfe-race, at about twelve miles dif- 
tance from my friend's feat, which had 



had an opportunity of (bowing that (he 
had copied as well after her little friend 
as after the great example we have al- 
ready recorded of her aiming at the per- 
fections of the other. Publick places 
had fuccceded badly with her, and 
another fcene prefenttd itfelf to her 
thoughts. A rout was a thing never, 



drawn together all the beft company of till that time, heard of in Wiltflrire ; 



the country for twenty miles round ; 
the lady petitioned hard to go to feo it, 
and her rather as obftinately refufed to 
let her go there, to expofe herfelf. I 
believe he would have been inexorable, 
but that I pleaded on the favourable 
fide: we went the next morning, faw 
the day's diverfion, and I conducted the 
lady in the evening to the ball. 

It is impoffible to defcribe the amaze- 
ment of a whole county, who were all 
dreucdin what their millcners and man- 
tua-makers told them was genteel, on 
feeing my blooming charge ornamented 
with the utmoft extravagance of tafte, 
according to the fafhions of her late 
companions : the women envied, railed, 
i exclaimed j the men were in general 
enamoured. When my lord and the 
countefs had hopped through two or 



but this excellent contriver managed fo 
well, as to have every thing of this 
modi fli diverfion, except the name, at 
her father's feat. She difpatched fifty 
meftages among the families her father 
had any acquaintarce with, without 
telling any one that (he had fent to any 
other pcrfon. The invitations were fo 
preffing, that few refufed i the country' 
was in an alarm, to fee all the coaches 
kept in it driving one way, and the 
company, not a little aftonifhed, at be- 
ing nfherecl into a firing of rooms all 
lighted up j and meeting, as they ex- 
prcflcd it, with all the world T herc. 

No lefs than twelve card tables were 
fet, ten of them were filled, and the 
lady managed it fo well as to win 
about fifteen guineas in the courfc of 
the evening, by way of pocket-money, 
three minuets, the prettied fellow of The company were not a little out of 



the company offered his hand to my 
companion ; (he refufed him with an 
air of contempt, that nettled his pride 
fo far as to provoke him to tell her, that 
fhe might repent of her pertneis, for 
that (he would not have a better offer 
that evening ; the lady, full of the 
remembrance of her dear Lady Scamper, 
returned this civil ipecch with a fmart 
(lap on the face. The whole room was 
immediately in an uproar, we were ob 
ligtd to retire in lome centurion ; and 
nothing prevented a fafuionable re- 
fentment from the affronted hero to my 
unoffending breaft, but that X wanted 
yduth, and he courage. 

It was with fome difficulty that we 
got away from the place before the 
pews of this term ble cat aft rophe reach- 
ed the cars of Sir Gregory. He could 



humour at the fcheme -they had been 
led into; and thofe who played at the 
fame table with the lady of the houfe 
knew fo little of the world, that they 
called her addrefs in winning nothing 
lefs than cheating: but what for ever 
damned this i'oit of afTemblies in that 
part of the country, was, that when 
the ladies ftomachs were juft prepared 
for hams and chickens, they were dif- 
mifTcd, at midnight, without having 
taftcd any thing but lemonade and 
weak punch. 

Whatever rcafon the lady might have 
to pride herfelf on the fuccefs of her 
imitating thofe patterns of politenefs 
(he had hitherto copied after, the father 
was far from being reconciled to it as a 
merit j he was io unfamiunahle a fel- 
low, that he could not bring himlclf to 



not indeed comprehend the reafon of think, that impudence was graceful in 

our haftening him away the next morn- a fine lady, or that cheating was a vir- 

ing, and leaving two more days diverfion tue ; in (hort, he had heard of both 

^ehind us ; but our coming had been thefe affairs, and in conference of them 

LquD. Mac, 1780, £« rigidly 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

condemnrd his fine daughter to reverend gentleman's name) 'hi 
md folitude. The rydy place him very happy, in having thi 

»»r~ 



: more 



o mate a figure pious and heavenly young lady for hit 
in was at church. Sunday at length re- daughter that ever he had met with, 
turned, and the lady prepared toappear The Friendly emiffary, who doubted 
once more in publiclc. As nothing not but ihe Ihould merit heaven by get- 
like a lady had ever appeared among ting a good wife for the doctor, 
this little flock before, (he did vat want thought (tie had made no I'mall ad- 
admiration ; the eyes of every creature vancet towards it, when, in pursuance 
were upon her during the fervice, one of this declaration to the father, (ne had 
young fellow only excepted, who, taken care to inform the young lady, 
though he fat in the pew under her, that her repealing the prayers fo de- 
nevrr turned up a Lick that way. vbutly wi; what had won the good 

My young heroine had been taught man's heart ; but alas ! what was the 

fo much of the ambition of her late horror and disappointment of this good 

companions, that if the whole world, woman, to hear mifs anfwer in the Ipi- 

eicept one man, had adored her, that rit of the dear Lady Squab, whom Hie 

one would appear of more confei]iience bad till this time had no opportunity 

than all the world. She tried a thou- of imitating, " Tell the fool, I be- 

fand wayl to awaken the youth's a:ten- lieve no more of hit nonfenfe than he 

lion ) and, when imrhing elle would does: he reads lojil, bccanle be gelt 

do, the repeated 'An prayers louder than his bread by it ; and I do it, inltead of 

the parfon. Ci'tn this had notirtit; rehearing ;i pirce of a play, hetau:e the 

for though flit had not difcerned fo doctors tell me, it ii a wholrfome fort 

much, the relentlefs youth wat blind. of exercifc." 

Though fur; had miffed of this ton- I believe it will. not he neeeSary (• 

quell, however, the made another, give you any further inftances of the 

which flic never thought of; thit was elfecls or fifliionable examples on this 

the parfon, who had been highly fmit- i ipeuinj; Mi>ITom, or to tell you what I 

ten with her, and had good opinion piogtioltic.iied to the father, would be 

enough of himlelf to think that he the end of her, if not prevented by a 

fliould carry her oil". He began the at- twelve-month's confinement to her 

tack by fending the devootclt old wo- chamber, and a cooling regimen, 

man in the panlh upon a vifit to her fa- r __ ,. , 

Iher, with'rmk,,, io tell him, in her ' m * *'*> W* &c ' 

hearing, that Mr- Role (fudi was this OBSERVATOR. 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

A Ceneife Hiflory a/ til PffittJixej of the prrf-J Srjfivn of Parliament, kigait and 
boldrrt at Welt in in iter, on Thuril'iy the \%lh D.'ti 01 November, 1775. Bring 
tie SIXTH Stji« ■■ of the FeurttttlA Parliament of Grrat-ISritain. 
(Continued from fur !nfi MafAziue, pc«e 177.) 

HOUSE OF LORDS. 



L°fJ 



', Mtrcb t, Ihrffore thit Houfe hive reafon to fufpefl 

CP.D SU&h-ih mfe antt nude 1 neijea *•* <h*y *■" *ifcu(H in ton lexeme of 

' to iheioil..win^ [.iirforts >' Wht»Jt thef""l »f«'i 't " (tfolve. therefore thittn 

the Rigni Hun. iii.- MiiqaiiriCMrmvlfaen l "™ M: rf*li«fi be prtfenttd to hn mtjefty, 

wa.dirmilTtd f,™ hiiufnte of L.ird Lira- belMtUng Mini* b; e"e'C">Ny pkiftd t#in- 

t-mnf of iSe E.r.R-iiuin -f Ynrkfldre in '™ ln( H 'ufe, whether he v,.i adiifed, 

t , ; , 1 ■: , r ]-. :.r,., :i,. ,■ .. . dilinifttfci hit 1*0 11 utile 

hii o.ininn ws, knuwn toneraing 1 quif- li<n\ U iheir c.nci,ciipi pitti-meni." 

' tim ihir »ji to b- a ii.tcd in this Houle on Hii lurdlhip fujiporitd his motion on vi- 

the.veme.g of th.i'd.): snd w!ic;cmu= (turn ( tmiinl!i ; inv-og rthert, hr tiewed tin 

R>ltfW the Kit! if Pembinkewaililte- faky-il '" '» milit»r* nature. He t™- 

wife difmifien from ih* office of L.rd merited thr mw abui-. m ih-confl.tutioB 

I .i»« tenant (ii vViltiliirr, o few o*ji sfter he "' the mililio. He fisted the total dipattqre 

had |iven hii vote u F . jn the fame queftton j «f 'l»t efl.bhihment from in original «>. 



HjSo. 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 419 



ture and ufe j and the danger to public k li- fponfible for their conduct, and to endeavour 
berty, as well as neglect of national fafcty, to know the true caufe of their fudden dif- 
from the perverfions of its inftitution. miflion. 

Jn the profecution or' his argument, he ad- Lord Stormont, in reply, declared his afto- 
▼erted to the management of the army. He ni/hment at the motion, became the law of 
itated many fa£ls of extraordinary appoint* the land has vetted in the crown the right 
menu to command, without any vifible or of appointing all the executive officers of go- 
imaginable circumflances of juft qualifka- vernment, and of exercifing that right with 
lion, accountable only on minifterial intereft difcretion j and if the king had not a right 
and on miniftcrial defigns. From the whole to difmifs a fervant, without being fubjeel to 
view of the meafures and principles of mi- the controul of parliament, he would never 
mifter*, and men in favour, he inferred that be at liberty to exenife his own opinion, 
the prefent management of the military was He admitted that abufes might arife in the 
in fact injurious to the publick fcrvice, and exercife of this power ; but till it was proved 
might be in the event injurious to publick that the abufe was highly detrimental to the , 
liberty. Among many other inftance?, he ft ate, the Houfe would not addrefs his ma- 
Hated the appointment of Mr. Fullarton to jelly for reafons why he difmilTed his fer- 
tile command of a regiment. He repre- varus. No man, he believed, would fay that 
fented, (hat many eld officers of. approved the publick fuffered any injury by the re* 
fcrvice were ready and zealous to purfue their moval of the two noble lords, and appointing 
profeftion, able and willing to raife regi- others of equal quality. 
ments, and follicitous to be employed at The Mat quit of Rockingham, in fupportof 
their head, but that ftich men were not the motion, obterved, that the fyftem of 
employed. That on the contrary, this turning men out of their places lor voting 
young man, who knew aothing of military ,againft the minify, be£an in the Earl of 
Jervfce, who had not a military idea, was ab- Bute's adminiftration, and extended from 
folotely unknown to the army, and utterly perfons of the fir ft rank down to petty 
ignorant of the common elements of ths pro- Cuftom-houfe officer?. 
feflion, was taken from the deftc of an am- The Duke of Grafton faid, that the na- 
baflfador, appointed to raifc a regiment, and tion is now in fuch a deplorable fituation, 
placed at its head. When fuch a perfon, that nothing but the fpirit and independence 
from being a commis, a clerk to an embafly of parliatnentc can poffibly favc it. 
at Paris, was at once made colonel and com- The Duke of Richmond wumly fupportcd 
teander of a. regiment, it was a monftrous the motion, and. called upon the bifhops, 
abufe in the fcrvice. It was given out, he and upon the king's brothers, to expoftulate 
undtrftood, that this was to be a buccaneering with his xnajefty on the inhumanity of raif- 
regiment j he de fired to know what trut ing men, and fending them out to battle under 
t*a#j he did not underftanditj but when a commander who had never feen fervicc. 
regiments were fo raifed, when minifterial He remarked, that the militia were now bc- 
partialities were (o exercifed, to the anni- cimc the re*l defence of the kingdom, and 
filiation of all legitimate rank ard conftiiu- are better to be depended on than the army, 
tional fucceffion in fo many uniform in- Lord Denbigh, Lord HWfborough t The Lord 
fiances, both in the militia and the army — he Chance/for, and Earl Bathurjl, lpokc againlt 
did not know whether fuch troops might not the motion. 

be intended rather to fijiht againft the liocrtics Tic Duke of Devcnfl/ire, late'in the even- 

of the country, than the enemies of the ft ite, ing, and for the ftrft tune, very unexpectedly 

to buccaneer the city of London as well as delivered his fentiments on nublick affairs j 

the coaft of America. he faid, th.'t having no great inclination for 

The Marquis cf Ccermartben declared upon politick?, and net Thinking himfr:f a com- 

his honour, he knew of no caufe for his dif- petent judge, he had hitherto been prevented 

miflion, for he had done his duty in every from t.<kir.g an active part in life *, but now 

ihape, and he mould no: have come to the the danger is io t rjat, that in his grace's opi- 

. Houfe if he had not expected to hear from nion it becomes the duty of every honeft man 

the noble lords in admi.iiftration what were to t?ke a decifive port. Mary had formed 

the motives for removing him. vsguc idejs of him, and it was fnfpectcd by 

Ibe Earl of Pembroke exprefTed his being one party that he was engaged in fome vio- 

•nw.illing to "trouble the Houfe with his lent meafures agiinft the miniftry, whils 

fentiments 5 but being unconfeious of having othrrs taxed him with being a courter. All 

given any offence whatever, he therefore he meant now to fay, w«, that the nation 

con felled his apprehrnfion?, that it was a could not have fallen into ruin fo rapidly, if 

piece of minifterial refentment, the office it had not been for dreadful mifmanagement j 

having b?en held by his family as long as and he plainly law, that the prefent admi- 

therc are records of the office itfelf. B->th niftration could not retrieve the bad fituation 

the noble lords declared they would not vote, of publick affairs; he therefore recommend* 

and that they only came there to be ic- ed an adminiftration on a more ex ten five and 

E c 1 ww*scuc«tt.\ 



Ms PARLIAMENTA 

urunimi- plan; '"d '« obliin ihii, he ap- 
proved of [he Petition* and AfPiciationi, 
tho' he thought the litter might be abuiid i 
but if that mould evei be the ore, he would 
not fupport them; but -: pretent he en- 
couraged tliem, becaufe be wat afraid with. 
set them the Petiiiom would foon be fcrqrt : 
In a word, be declared h.mfelf to be influ- 
enced by ro perfonal pioue ifiitifl idmini- 
tteation, nor yet flattered with my hopei of 
proDieiion up>n ■ change of government. 
. The rniiion an rejected, upon a dnifion 
by 91 non-content, again*. 39 content.. 



RV HISTORY. 

d been fettled on nil majefiy 



..hi. 



HOUSE of COMMONS. 
VtcfJty, Match 7. 

THE Hoofe agreed to the report of the 
loan from the Committee of Wayi and 
Meant. The bill originally brought in by 
Mr.Powy. lor the better regulation ..(couth/ 
Hcftioni, by ascertaining the qualifications of 
•otri, bring amended on the third reading, 
V ttriltin E out the clttftl refptiting rhe te- 
giftering of freehold) fi< month* before 10 
•JeQion ; the bill ifurwardi paiTerl. 
fPtitiflaj, March 8. 

Pitfioui to reading, the older of trie diy 
fee goinginto a committee on Mr. Burke', 
bill foe training bit M..jetty'i civil till, be. 

LvJCnrr'C^n moved, that it be in 
inltrufl on to the faid committee to examine 
into the necrlfity of maintainint: tbofe ea> 
penfive rfficen cj 
len of the Each 
elaufe forabolifti 



e Audin 



id Tel- 



:quw, 



hem, ifpoffible. The 
I by Mi. JolifFe, but 
wunsrawn upon tne reprefentation of Lord 
North, ihit 11 war n"t neceflary, beciufe the 



fore th 



chequer, 
office ■■ ; 
propofrd 



itir. the motion muft 
confiileration of the 



it mind, and which he 
i up before the fpeakir 
>e ommittee to fit upon 
of the bill, he bid, 
! fuppoft, particularly 
. a reform in the mode 
: account* .1 the Ex- 



incurred by thoic who held thai office, Rut 
ready D he wn to iupport fume parti nf the 
bill, there were uihen which he felr him- 
felf rather inched to tnnderoo. Ho had 
hii duut ol the power of fniliamrni 10 re. 
llUoe^WJthuut ijule any pall ol the revenue 



whether 

oulJ -tfume their trim without i violation 
of julticr. If any flagrant ibufe of that 
grant ended, and had been proved, then 
his doubij would bate been removed, and be 
would kite been perfectly clear that parlia- 
ment w»> ful'y competent .0 
but no fuel) ibufe appeared. 

It had been proposed to abolifli the offire 
of Auditor and Teller! of the Eichequer, 
' he would 11 foon tote foi 



relumptiooi 



taking I- 
»ifh ill 1 



e of t 



ie properly of the crown might 

iwi-.il.>!. in the nanie of Cod, faid be, 
begin with tbofc office), the falarie. of which 
•re faid to be too great j begin with mine, 
take half ol it, nay, tike the whole, 
but ipare the crown. If the whole of my 

make me quit mj office 1 day (ooner, and I 
Jhuuld be happy if the facriAce of my pri- 






ie properly and prerogative of 



A! to the petition!, faid be, they ire what 

fubjeflt hare 1 right to prefer to parliament; 
bur their containing a prayer ii a proof that 
parliament ha, the power to rejefl them. 
Their language .. reiprflful enough ; but 
Hill it 'i nut the language of all the people of 
England. He conclnded, by raprefling hit 

the fubjtta of iu right to re fame ill grinti; 

and that hit double on th.t heid might be 
removed, he faid he had drawn up a rcfolu- 
tion to the following purport, whith he in. 
ter.dcd to fubmit to the Hiiufe the firfl op. 
portunily. '■ Refolied, that it ir unjuft to 
deprive the crown of it* property, rightr, 
anJ pj-ncgatjvei, belore the proofi are eihi- 
bited, that by flagrant abufea the meilme be 

A very warm converfalion enfued upon 
toil occalinn, in which Mr. fu, Gcitrit 
Clr-waf, LfJ ttwlb, Til Mlllljl Cl II ■£ 
and Mr. Dunning, weie the principal fpeak- 

Mr. Pcx and hi< friend- innrled that Mr. 
Rigby nught 10 pot hi! motion dir-fily, and 

(hry proceeded to the order of the day, a* it 
m:luaied a^ainfl the principle of the bill j 

for if Hie propofition fliould be admit. ed, 
that the Htmlc h<d not a power to relume 
any part of Ih« eivil lill eilablifhment, (hen 

claie.l, that if Lui »,. cirtied, be never 



17*o. PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. nr 



weald open hit lips again within thofe walls 
Ih favour of the liberties of his country; 
however, he might ft niggle for them, and 
take all lawful means to fupport them with- 
out doors; neither ihould he any longer con- 
alder himfelf as living in a land of freedom. 

Mr, Righy, apprehending he was reflected 
trpon, warmly afferted, that he was as ftre- 
noous a friend to the liberties of his country 
as any man in the Hoofe \ but he was not to 
be terrified out of hit motion, neither was he 
to be coaxed out of it by any minifter; the 
doubt was boneft j it was founded, in his 
opinion, on the juftice and the ofage of par- 
liament, and he defired to have the matter 
cleared up. 

Lord North wilhed to wave the difcuflion 
of the motion, and to commit the bill J he 
therefore moved the order of the day. 

The queftion for the Speaker's leaving the 
chair for the Houfe to go into a committee 
on the bill being then put, a divifion follow- 
ed, when it was carried by 205 again ft 199. 

The committee then proceeded to the nrft 
enacting claufe in Mr. Burkc'i bill, which 
enacts, " That from and after — the office of 
third Secretary of State for the Colonies, the 
fame not being necetTary, (ball be abolished, 



that two were equal to the taflc of doing all 
that the laborious idlenefs of thofe offices re- 
quired. He declared, the noble earl he at* 
loded to had converted the Secretary of State's 
office into an infirmary 3 that after the noble 
earPs death it had been changed into a ce- 
metry, and kept as a kind of Jeru talent 
Chamber for hia bones to lie in ftate in, 
under a black velvet pall, for near a twelve- 
month. 

Lard George Genuine ftated in the faireft 
manner the real expenees of his office to the 
public, and what the abolifhment of it would 
favc. He declared it was by no means a fine- 
cure ; that the whole coft was 8000 /. a year ; 
that his income from it was barely 3x00/. a 
year ; that if it were aboliflied, and the bu- 
finefsdone by tjie other Secretaries, the pub- 
lick might fave 5000/. a year) but if the 
Secretary for the Southern Department was 
allowed the afliftance of two commis and 
four clerks, as Lord Sbelburne was when he 
was Secretary for the Southern Department, 
the publick would only fave 4000 /• a year by 
the abolition of the office. 

The committee at length divided on the 
motion. Noes, ao8. Ayes, 201. 

14 was then moved that the committee ad- 



together with the under- fecretaries, clerks, journ, report their progrefs to the Houic, 
&c." and afk leave to fit again. 



Mr, Pownalvcry juftly remarked, that the 
defcription of the office was wrong in this 
claufe, and he appealed to the patent by 
which Lord George Germaine held his of- 
fice, allcdging, that there are no fuch words 
in it as Secretary of State for the Colonies 3 
he therefore moved an amendment, by leav- 
ing out the words " for the Colonies $" 
which was agreed to. 

Lord George Germaine then informed the 
Houfe. that he did not confider himfelf as 
fir ft, fecond, or third Secretary of State, but 
as one of his rnajefty's principal Secretaries 
of State, by which defcription alone he had 
the honour to hold the lea Is. 

Mr. Burke readily admitting an amend- 
ment, the claufe was amended in this man- 
ner. •« That one of the offices of Secretary 
of State (hall be taken away and aboliflied, 
and the duties of the faid office mail be done 
or performed by one or both of the two re- 
maining Secretaries of State/* 

This gave rife to a long debate, which 
lafted till half after two in the morning. 

Lord Beauchamp, The Secretary at War t 



HOUSE OF LORDS. 

Friday $ March 10. 

The Earl of Effinrbam made bis prottiled 
motion. His lordjnip introduced it by a 
short fpeeob, in wh\ch he adverted to the 
petitions from moft of the counties of 
England, complaining of an undue influence 
in parliament; and as this refpecled both 
Houfes, he thought an enquiry ought to be 
fet on foot, to know if fuch a body of cor- 
rupt influence really exifted in parliament or 
not 5 that if it did, an adequate remedy to fo 
great an evil might be applied, and if not, 
that the unjuft fufpicions of the people might 
be removed 1 this matter he considered as 
of the otmoft importance in order to reftore 
the dignity and independence of parliament* 
His lordfliip's motion^was, << that a lift of all 
perfons who have a right to fit and vote at 
this Houfe, holding any places or offices of 



emolument or penfions from the crown, 

diftinguifliing the value of the faid offices or 

_ penfions ; and the faid lift be corrected up 

Lord George Germaine, Tor Lord Advocate of to the time of delivering it.to the Houfe, with 

Sat/and, Mr. Mansfield^ and Lord Grergt the dates of the appointment of the pcifrns 



Gordon, fpoke againft the bill. 

Mr. Burke, Mr. T. lownjbend, Mr. 
Dunning* Mr. Fo*, Mr. James Luttrcll, 
Mr Turner^ and Mr. Vtner, for it. 

Mr. Burke was exceedingly powerful in his 
reply to the Secretvy at War, calling (^as he 
exprcftcd it) upon the late Lord Suffolk to 
come from the dead as a witnefs, that three 
Secretaries 0/ State were one too many, and 



holding them.'* 

Lord Stormonl rofe fir ft to oppofe the mo- 
tion, declaring, that if it had appeared to him 
to be calculated to anfwer any good purpofe 
to the publick he would have fupported it, but 
conceiving the very contrary, he (hould af- 
fign his reafons for objr ctiag to it. In his 
opinion it conveyed a ftront^ irnouUlioct oa. 
lhfthoftOttt &nd '\ftAt4V\V1 %!L vWr. tiVoV} \Vk\i 




a» PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 

high birth, liberal eduction, and indepen- 
dent fortune, were nil likely to be bialled 
in their voteri by an, honour, in J emolu- 
ment! of oIIkc ;' me motion wai of i «•• 
extraordinary ruturc, of which he knew no 
example within hi. time. In the time of 
turbulence anil gmcril diArcfi, during the 
Reign of CI J, prior to the di Ablution 
■f that houfe, by i ucclaration that it was 
ufelcfs, 1 tommittee, who had Uicnif'lvei 
refolvcd toovcitu'n tin onfliiutiiri, proceed - 
ed tofuih > miaforr, but it hid not been at- 
tempted finct. A Inoft platebill hid indeed 
been Tent up from the other, hoofc m 1669 j per. 
but alter a fair cii",dlfioh by one of the great- wei 
eft and moft independent of the Peer! of thu frie 
time, it was rej^fted >■ unconftitutional. j 
Hii Lordfliip, rrfm'j.ned the idea 01 rcfloring look over the red book, a.id he wunlJ there 
the dignity of the houfe, which he faid WD rind, independent of the bench of R fliopj 
not, nor he hoped never would be, lull. and uf the lordt holding office i, a majority of 
Ibr Duke oj Rhlmnni iuppoiled themo- ?«n who hire conflamly Toted for (he 
lion, and dcKrrdib.cn Lmdlhtjii to put them- meafu-et "I government of late year!, 
felrc* upon a level with other mem fotun- LerJ Eff.ngbe* wiflied id hue the red 
left they would d.dirc that office! of emolu- book read Oy the elcik; bnt thil being Ob- 
went and pennon! cwitteH (01ru.pt men, oe jefied to, tnr Duke of Richmond only told 
■ that thty art not oi the human f pedes, the the noble Lord that he accepted hiiihallenge, 
pollibiliiy and prob ability of the influence, and would 10nvlr.ee him upon hii own 
complained of mud be .drained, and the E tound, that he and hi. friend* (bouldal- 
motion w« very proper HI Eiuund of en- »tyi be in the majority, if the Pceii holding 

but extraordinary doclrin.ee were now held Oa a ditilion, the motion wai loll by 51 

both in parliament and out of doori, in order Totei igiinll 13., 

to flop etery plan of reformation, erery at- _^__ 

tempt at publick erconomy and oa.liamen- HOUSE cf COMMONS. , 
Ury independence. He hid heard thit a 

great lawyer in company had declared that Mikity, Mats* J3. 
(he Kiog'a Civil Li 11 revenue, granted him La'i iVV/4 moved for loves to brng in ■ 
DO hii aceefiion, lor life, wal ai much hit bill lor appointing a caaimifnon of account! 
pri rate cfl ate, ind a little liahie lo the con- puriujnt 10 the notice he had before giren. 
trol of parliament, ;.= the granti made to Ni oppoh.inn wai made to the motion in je- 
himfelfand the IJnke of Grafton; for hii ncril, but a conreifiti.in ttn.kpl.ee, on tbe 
part, he considered that matter in a different confirmed isuiuiuti of Loid N'-rlfi to pro- 
light, and he only wifbed no peat lawyer pofe ComaiiiEjneti wlie are nut member* of 
whatever would pretend 10 plead hiicaule; parliament. 

it wai rather uncemmen, without a feet Mr. facie, CMtl Burt, fir Grtrf 7'tHft. 

but he did not wan; lush •oluntaryafliftance, &4,. £>c" f fi", Mr. Lmtrrb' ; and len'i.l 

When he flotd in need *f lawyen, he em- other en em bin cipnlTid then difappiobatK'n 

ployed fuch at he thought the moft able to of thii plan in the warmeft termt ; they 

eonduflhit ..ffjio, >nd paid them. With tonlidired it 1. an In Ml on thf Houfe andon 

refpeft to the principle, if it wn once id. the publit* !;■ appoint perfrm out of doori, 

mitted that the Kir.^."-. Revenue wai hii pri- perbipt men unknown to piiliamenr, to be 

rate eftote, and could not be eontrolcd. or judc,ef in 1 maitet of a national concern, 

any part of it ennfumed by parliiment, there wheiein the eipcnoimre of the publick. 

wai an end e-f ti,c toiifiiiution of thecountrj. money, voted by the icprefcnlitivei of the 

Earl Fut.nrttrg wai aftonilhed at the peo^l: in piTiiatnent, nuic be accoun-ed foe, 

fufpieioni and boid aflulinm thrswn out, Celmt Bant pj.t.cularly cumplilned of 

that men of their rank and honour iWld he the conduct of the noble Loid in liking thil 

Influenced by in; emolument of office not bufiiefioutofhii haadl, but at the fame time 

beaing any pr'poitioni to their paternal declared the bill projj.il'od by hit lordlhip wal 

eftate. An U ih c CivilLiH,unlel.any C rofi totally different Irum chat he intended is 

abufe of the money bylaw granted for it wai have brought in, and iubveifive uf the vciy 

fairly proved in pjiliament, he could not piineiple. of it. 

eonceiverbe\ ), ..,] j.-.v nj-ht tomeddle wilhii, Tar Ancr.ej Gittrtl reminded the hnufe 

Loro'Micf/.. 1 :,;; m jieH)mercmarkt on the thai the committee of aceuunta appointed by 

Duke of Richmond'! hinti concerning the former parliament!, whenever the comtnil- 

<-Jeflioni of the fnieen peeri For Scotland \ fioneri had been inemhen of that Hotifc had 

l(:c cJeflioni were liil not peiuttd, ipj j,nu4 eif t.a, itolon'. rtafon 



t7» 



o. 



PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 213 



be, the deity occafioned thereby, be- 
catjfe they had other duties to perform in 
parliament during the fsfiion, whereas other 
gentlemen could attend to this point alone, 
and fit at convenient times the whole year. 
As this fubjeet during the progrefs of the 
bill mud be re fumed, it is fufficicnt to add 
in this place, that leave was given 10 bring 
it in 

Mr. Fox prefentrd a petition funed by up- 
wards of 5 coo inhabitants of Wcftminfter 
drawn up in fimilar terms to the York/hire 
petition, it was ordered to be laid on the table. 
In a Committee of the whole Houfe on 
Mr. Burke's reformation bill, the fecond 
claufc, for abolishing the Board of Trade was 
taken into con fi deration, when Mr. Eden 
entered into an hiflcrical deduction of the 
origin and the adv.ntagrs of the office to the 
commercial inter efts of Great Britian, and 
as a proof of its utility hi mentioned that 
there a r e 3400 volumes of the transitions 
of the fevrral Boards of Trjr'c fir.ee its enm- 
mer.cemer.:. It is to bz remarked that Mr. 
Eden is one of the commiflioners of the pre- 
fect Board. Mr. Burke therefore, with 
great wit, turned his a r £uments upon him- 
felf and the former £iards; whole ufeful- 
nefs to tr-de would have b:?n mere de- 
monstrable by their wht.lefome commerci- 
cal laws and refulati »n$ eftabl fhed through- 
out the kingdom ; than by 3400 ufelefs vo- 
lumes of copies of letters and ether docu- 
ments cf office. 

In the courfe of this dtbate an incident 
happened of a very extraordinary nature. 
Mr. Fox in his fyeech declared his wifh to 
know from the higheft leeal authority in 
that H3ufe, whether Mr. Righy's opinion 
"that the Houfe had no r ; ;;ht to controul the 
king's civil lifiwas jufl :*' upon which the 
Speaker, in his place as a private member deli- 
vered his fentiments with great freedom, but 
unhappily intermixed with them, an account 
of transitions reflecting the minift-.r, which 
(hewed that he hid met w.ti a great difap- 
pointment in not being appointed to the office 
of Chief Juftice of the Comrmn p!e-s in the 
room of Mr. De Grey who is about to refign. 
In companion to Sir Fletcher we pafs over 
that part of his fpeech, and flia.l only give 
thofe opinions which re fie A the highefthonour 
on his abilities. He ft a ted, with the utmoft 
latitude, the right of the fubjeel to petition, 
and the doty of parliament to give the utmoft 
attention to the defires of their conftituents ; 
but that in the prefent inft-mce, the known 
integrity, apparent ability, and <xtenfive 
propeKy, rendered the preterit petitions at 
refpectable as if they had proceeded from the 
general voice of the people of England. 
Aflbciations and committees he thought be- 
yond the line of conftitutional application, 
and that they might run to exctfTcs that were 



ought immediately to have Ken referred to a 
committee, and the people of England ought 
to have been fatiified how far the prayers of 
the petitions could or could not be complied 
with. 

With regard to the queftion of right, 
he declared, that as parliament had grant* 
ed the civil lift for life, and given it in txuft, 
as long as the conditions of the truft were ob- 
ferved, parliament ought not, and therefore 
he would fay could not, interfere in the ex- 
penditure of that revenue which they had 
given in truft. The conditions of that truft 
were but two— to maintain his houfehold in 
dignity, and to fupport the civil government 
of the country. Had it been proved, or even 
fuggefted, that the civil government had been 
flopped, or the king's houfhold not properly 
maintained ? We have no right, then, at 
this time, to interfere with the controul of 
the king's houfehold, much lefs to impofe 
conditions on the management of his own 
domeftic affairs, in a manucr that the mean- 
eft fnbject could not bear. But the queftion 
before us involved, not only a queftion of 
domeftick arrangement, but a queftion of ftatej 
and fuch matters were in every inftance liable 
to the inflection, and were the immediate 
objects of the controul of Parliament. The 
Board of Trade was a department of ftate,not 
of the houfehold ; it was beeome not only 
ufelefs in its function*, but mifchirvoot in 
its effects : it anfwered now no purpofe what* 
ever, but to bring feven or eight pennoned 
members to vote in every queftion that came 
before parliament. He was therefore clear- 
ly, confricntioufty, and firmly of opinion, 
that the board ot trade ouzht tu be aboliflied* 
In regard to tiie influence of the crown, he 
was as much aftunifhed that any man mould 
have the effrontery to deny its increafe, at 
that any man, who hoped to retain a reputa- 
tion of publick or private integrity, could 
rife in fupport of it. Influence had grown 
upon the weaknefs of our country | and 
perhaps our conilitution had more to fear 
from its pernicious progrefs, than the foil of 
our country had to lear from the utmoft ef- 
forts of our united enemies. He added that 
he held it his fir ft and principal duty to op- 
pofe the influence of corruption : that as long 
as he was id the chair, he would ardently 
wifh for the decreafe of the influence of the 
crown j and that if he left the chair, hit 
moft zealous efforts fhovld for ever be employ* 
ed in eftablifhing and cementing the inde- 
pendence of parliament. 

The Attorney General delivered nearly the 
fame opinion With icfpect to the king's civil 
lift revenues ; but on the queftion before 
the Houfe he totally differed from the Speak- 
er, defending the board of trade as a neceOary 
and ufeful cornmmercical infthution. 
Mr Povna/I and .Sir Jofepb Maivbey clearly 



dangerous to publick peace,and tnefecurity of pointed out to the committee that all the bu- 
the ftate itfelf j but the petitions deferved a finefs tranfacted by the Board of Trade might 
better treatment than ihey had found 5 they be conducted with mote i&ttttaajtv&vniaav 

tarovfesv 



«+ PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. 



Mi 



through the channel of the Secretaries of 
States office. In fhort, it feemed to be the 
fenfe of the Houfe that the Board was totally 
ufelcfs and might he abolifhed $ accordingly 
on a divifion, the claufe for abolishing it was 
carried by 207 votes againft 199 j majority 3, 
which is fun: the number ot the commjf- 
fioners of the Board. 

Wednefdsy 15. 

Lord North in the committee of Ways and 
Means propofed the taxes that are to be the 
fecurity for and to pay the interest of the 
new loan. 

The fir ft is an aditional duty of 6d. per 
bofhel on malt) but as it is intended to affect 
chiefly private families who brew their own, 
beer, an allowance is to be made of z6d. per 
barrel on ftrong beer brewed by the publick 
brewers for fale in London, and aod. for 
beer brewed in the country. The fecond, 
an aditional duty on importation of 4'. per 
tun on Portugal wines, and 81. on French 
wines. The third, an additional Shilling 
per gallon on Rum and Brandy. The fourth, 
one penny a gallon on home made wines, 
commonly called low wines, and three pence 
on B-itifh fpirits, made for fale. The fifth, 
a further duty of 4s. per Neweaftle chaldron, 
on coals exported. The fix th, ten pence per 
bufhel additional tax on fait. The feventh, 
a licence ot 59. per year to be taken out by 
all perfons retailing tea. The eighth an ad- 
ditional ftamp finty of 6d. on every advertife- 
tnent in the Ntrw^-papers. The ninth, a 
ftamp outy ot as. 6d. on all legacies under 
20I. 5s. on all furm between 20L snd 50I. 
and 20s. on 100'. or upwards left by will, or 
under icttrrs of adminiftration. The execu- 
tors or administrator* to be empowered to de- 
duct the lime out of the bequefts, and to take 
receipts on ftamped paper, all others to be 
null and void. The tctal amount ofthefe 
taxes he computed at 701,616!* which is 
6oco>. more than the intereft of the loan. 
In an explanatory fpeech his lordfhip vindi- 
cated thofe taxes as being the moft cafy and 
productive ha could adopt; and he gave the 
Houfe this comfortable aflurance, that Great 
B-iitan has ample refources in flore for car- 
rying on the war, in cafe it (he-old be protract* 
ed beyond another year. 

All thefc taxes pa (Ted the committee the 
fame evening with very little opposition, but 
the coal tax has ftnee been laid afide, and 
the malt ux which met with great opposition 
in the pro^refs of the bill, has undergone fe- 
vcral amendments. 

Tburfaay 17. 

Mr. TftnpU Luttrell produced witneffes in 
fupport of the complaint he had made againft 
Lord North for entering into a contract with 
Mr Med I i cot of Milbourn port in order to 
fecurc the election of Maurice Lloyd Efo ; 
to be the reprefemative for that borough at 
the next general election, or any other perfon 
Lord North fhnuld be p leafed to appoint, to 
the txclufion of Mr. LuUrcll the prcfoil re- 



presentative. The witnefles on their 
mi nation did not offer any evidence to prove 
that any contract had been figned, nor 
that Lord North had entered into any nego- 
ciation for that purpofe; all he had done 
was to recommend Mr. Lloyd as bis friend 
to Mr Medlicot; but unluckily one witnefa 
faid he knew of a contract for the borougk 
figned and fealed by Mr. Luttrell in 1774 
for fecuring to him his prefent feat in the 
pre fen t parliament. The greateft part of 
two evenings were patTcd away in debate 
upon this vague accufation, againft which 
Lord North defended himfelf (b much to the 
fatisfaction of the Houfe, that the friends of 
Mr. Luttrell, among whom was M Tbomsg 
Tom*Jbend, acquitted the noble lord <.f the 
fmalleft fufpicion of guilt, either personally 
or by his agent. 

Monday *o, 

Mr. Fullarton made a complaint of the re* 
flections that had been thrown out againft 
him in the other Houfe by the Earl of Shcl. 
bourne, and in an animated fpeech vindica- 
ted his conduct in accepting a Colonel's 
commiffion and raifinga regiment/or a fecret 
expedition. An account of Lord Shelburne't 
expretTions and the doc) that followed having 
been already given, we refer to them, and 
proceed to the other bufinefs of the day. 

Sir Philip Jennings Ctcrke % t bill for cxclu-, 
ding perfons making contracts with the trea- 
fury, the navy, and victualling offices &c, 
from fitting as members of that koufe, ex- 
cept fuch contracts (hall have been laid open 
to all candidates, was read a third time and 
paftd. 

The committee on Mr. Burke's bttl pro- 
ceeded to the claufe for abolifhing thirteen 
offices in the prefent eftablifhment of hit 
majefty's houfehold, and for fuppiying them, 
by furnifbing the royal table, apartments, 
lee. by contract. So many objections had 
been made out of doors, the project of fei v- 
ing the houfehold by contract, that Mr* 
Burke agreed to ftrike out that part of the 
claufe ; and after a long debate, the whole 
was rejected. 

Tuefday, M*rcb*i % 

Lord North informed the Houfe that he 
had waited feme time in expectation that 
the Eaft India Company would have brought 
fome propofition before the Houfe lor the 
renewal of their charter, which expires at 
Lady- day next, old ftile ; that is to fay, on 
the 5th of next month $ but being difap- 
pointcd in that expectation, contrary to hit 
advice, to the gentlemen who waited on him 
with proportion* which he could not agree 
to, he now thought it his duty, in con- 
formity to the acts of parliament made in 
the late reign, to move that the Houfe would 
give the Company the notice required by 
thofe acts for three years, for calling home 
th- ir effects and fettling their affairs, and 
for being paid < ff their capita) of 4,2CO,cco/. 
due from the publick, after whioh their 

exclufifg 



WijSo. DESCRIPTION OF SOUTH CAROLINA. a*$ 

WeathKhr* trade ceafei. His lordrarp therefore the taxes, and upon a motion to read it the 

■ iiawed, that this notice fhould be gif en on fir ft time ; Mr. Turner objected, declaring 

■ the 5th or 6th of next month, and that the he would not vote a fingle tax till the troops 
I feeafcer, aa the ads direct, mould commu- were withdrawn from America. 

alette it to the company. Sir Cecil IVray would not confent to tax 

Thefe motions being feconded, occafioned the people till their petitions were cenfideredg 

*• very warm debate. and he reminded the noble lord how difficult 

JUV. F«« was the firft to oppofe them : he it would be to colled the taxrs, while the 

faid the noble lord had long had the patron- people were difTatisfied* He bad hid he 

age of the Company ; and at laft, finding he mould want no new officers, but he believed 

could not govern them in all things to his he would find he muft have red-coat officers 

mind, and force them to fubmit to hard to compel the people to pay them. 

terms, he had, out of rrfentment, deter mi n- Sir George Savile, Sir George Tonge, Mr* 

ed on this ft range method of throwing out David Hartley, and Mr. Byng, requefted the 

threats to them, which he dared not carry noble lord to put off the report till after the 

into execution, which he knew he had it petitions had been taken into confidera* 

not ib his power to carry into practice, tion. 

Where was the money to come from, in the Lord North faid it was very unufual to put 

difmal fituation of publick affairs, that was off fuch a report fo long} that the people, 

to pay off the Company ? And what a per- were burthened when the loan was voted, 

nicious effect would it have on their affairs and p-ovifion for the intereft muft be made 

at home and abroad, to have a profpect of a either by thefe or fome other adequate 

diflblution in three years ? Would they not tax;*, or the whole muft fall on the finking 

confolt their own intereft, and make the fund. Gentlemen fhould confider, that 

tnoft of their territorial acquifitionV, contrary though they Agreed to the report, the bills 

to the true intereft of the ftate ? And would could not poffibly pafs till after the petitions 

not the French, who are fending large ar- had been confidered, therefore it would make 

tnaments to that part of the woild, avail no difference in that refpect. 

themfctves of the circumftance ? In ftort, Mr, Byng and his friends pcrfifting, he 

lie considered the motions as big with ruin moved that the reading this repot t be pot off 

to this country. till the 7th of April t on which the Houfe 

Lord North denied any patronage or un- divided, when the motion waa rejected by 

doe influence over the Company, or any de- 145 sgainft 37. 

fign to threaten them } but he would • not The report was then read the firft time ; 

give op the idea of its being pofiible to carry and upon the fecond reading of the firft ar* 

an the trade with a new Company, if the tide, Mr. Hartley made fome objections to 

arefent Company would not confent to fuch the malt tax ; but what he laid was of no 

terms as are equitable for the publick. confequence, compared to Mr. Wbitbreaft . 

A general and diffufed debate took place, obfer virions : he defired the noble lord to 
In which Mr. Gregory, Lord Ongley, Mr, re- confider his calculation?, and he would 
- Rowh and others, were againft the motions; find he had laid his tax too heavy on the 
and T£* Attorney General^ Earl Nugent, Sir publick brewers J be had made his eft i mate 
George JFombtvelt, Mr. Jenkinfon, and others, by the Com million era of Excife account, of 
fupportcd them. A tirefome difcoffion of the quantity of beer drawn from two quarters 
the propositions offered to Lord North was of malt, and it was erroneous, 
entered into; but the true point of the qucf- After mowing that the taxes on malt, 
tion was this. Whether the notice ought to hops, and beer, pay the intereft of eighty mil- 
be delayed? lions of the national debt at three and a half 
Lord North and his friends declared, that per cent, he advifed the noble lord not to 
lie was obliged by law to make it, other wife ftretch the matter too far ; and he genereufly 
the Company's charter would in fjet be declared, that however the brewers might be 
continued without limitation ; and if he had opprcflTcd, he for his part would born his 
not given notice, the oppofite party, it was brewhoufe rather than raife the price of beet 
faid, would have been the firft to cenfure to the people. 

him for neglect of his duty. The report being got through about ten at 

At a late hour the motions were carried* night, the Houfe adjourned for the Eftfter * 

Wednt/day, ai. recefs, till the fourth of April. 

The order of the day being read, Mr. Ord r b continued in emt next.) 

brought up the report from the committee on * ' 

DESCRIPTION OF SOUTH CAROLINA, WITH AN ACCU- 
RATE MAP. 

AGREEABLE to the plan we have laid proper defcriprfona of the places where any 
down, and conftantly purfued, of military operation is carrying 00 by the 
giving maps of the adual feat of war, with Britifh forces, as Coon u intelligence waa 

Loxp.Mac, J7S0. Ft w«^ 



426 DESCRIPTION OF SOOTH CAROLINA. Maf 

received that Sir Henry Clinton wit em- fcription ; and feveral'handfome equipage] 

barked on an expedition againft Charles- were kept here. The planters and me* 

Town, the annexed map was ordered, but chants, before the revolt from the mothes* 

could not poflibly be completed with that country, were rich, and well-bred j and tax 

correclneft for which the ingenious artift people rtiowy and expeufive in their drefc 

is juftly admired, till the prefent month. and way of living J Jo that every thing con- ' 

By the peace of Verfailles in 1763, Flo- fpired. to make this by much the lire- 

rida having been ceded to Great Britain, l»eft, and politeft place, as it was one 0/ 

the difputes which had fub lifted for many the rich eft, in all America. It ought 

years between the Spaniards and the Eng- alfo to be obferved, for the honour of the 

iifli, about the limits of Carolina, they people of Carolina, that, when in common 

were fi na) !y adjufted ; and the whole country with the other colonies, thty refolvcd 

under that general denomination, we new againft the ufe of certain luxuries, and 

defence as being bounded on the North by even necelTaries of life; tbofe articles 1 

Virginia ; on the Ea/1, by the AtUntic Ocean ; which improve the mini, enlarge the un- 

on the rVe/l, by the river Miffififpi\ and on derftanding, and correct the tafte, were 

the Scutb, by the river St. John, excepted, the importation of books, being 

Its extent is from the latitudes of 30 to permitted as ufual. 
36 degrees North; and from the longitudes Fort Sullivan is a new work, creeled 

of 75 to 9c degrees Weft; and it is cuf- upon Sullivan's Ifland by the Americans, 

tomary to divide it into three parts, which began by them when the difputes between 

are confidered as diftinct and icparate colo- Great Britain and the Colonies were firft 

nies, viz. North Carolina, Sooth put to the decifion of the fword. This fort 

Carolina, and Georgia. was con ft r u£ted to annoy the (hipping ia | 

South Carolina, our prefent object, their palTage up the river to the town; and 

is the middle Hivifion, and comprehends though unfinished in 1776, when Sir 

five counties. The fouthern part of Cla- Peter Parker and his fquadron, and Sir 

rendon county; chief town, St. James. Henry Clinton, with the land forces, at* 

Craven county, which has no capital town* tempted to take tbe city, yet it made fuch 

Berkley county ; chief town, Chrift- a refiftance, that the Britifb admiral was 

Church. Cclleton county; the capital, obliged to defift from the attack. 
Charles-Town. Granville county; chief Port-Royal is an ifland on the coait 

town, Port-Royal. of South Carolina, about one hundred miles 

The only town in either of the Carolina* foutb of Charles- Town; it deferves notice 

worthy of notice is Charles-Town, the for having one of the moft commodious 

metropolis of South Carolina, which, for harbours in all North America. There is , 

fife, beauty, and trade, may be confidered a town in the ifland called Beaufort, but of 

as oneofthefirft in Britifh America. It is fo little note, that it is only barely mtn- 

admirably fituated on the confluence of two tioned in the topograph cal defcriptions of 

navigable rivers, the A/hley and tbe Cooper, the place. 

the former of which is navigable for (hips Savannah, the capital of Georgia, is a 
twenty miles above the town, and for boats new town, built not many years fince by 
and large canoes ne*r forty. The harbour the Truftees of Georgia. It is fituated on 
is good in every refpeel, but that of a the banks of the river of that name, which 
bar, which hinders veflels of more than is navigable fix hundred miles for canoes, 
dco tuns burthen from entering. The paf- and three hundred for European boats. The 
i'^ge up to the town is defended by Fort mouth of the river forms a commodious 
Johnfon, on James's ifland. The town is harbour ; and there is another to the fouth 
regularly and pretty ftrongly fortified byna- of the town, called Teky Sound, in which 
ture and art; the ftreets are well cut; the a large fleet may lie at anchor in fourteen 
houfes are l*rg- and well built, fome of fathom water, fecure from ft or mi. In the 
them are of brick, and others of wood ; year 1773, ^* c hundred and (even trading- 
but all of them h an. 'fome and elegant, and veflTels were cleared out at the cuftom-houft 
the rents were extremely high. The ftreets of Charles -Town. The fame year, the mi- 
are wide and ftraight, interfering each litia muflered 1400 men, and tbe inhabit 
other at right angles ; thofe running eaft cants were computed at 14,000. The mi- 
and weft extend about a mile from one river litia of the province muflered 13.000. The 
to the other. It contains about 1400 total of white inhabitants was 65,0-0. Tbe 
boufes, and is the feat of the Govern our, negroes aod mulattoes, 100,000. The gar- 
and the place of meeting of the Aflernbly. rifon in Charles-Town at prefent is fa id to 
Its neighbourhood is beautiful beyond de- be 7000 ftrong. 



ijtof. 



m' 



An Impartial Review of New Publications. 



ARTICLE XXIII. 
ya Series of Adventures in the Courfe of 
* ** Voyage up the Red Sea, on the Coafts of 
Arabia and Egypt j and of a Route through 
the Deferts of Thehais, hitherto unknown to 
the European Traveller, in the Tear 1777, 
M Letters to a Lady. By Eyles Irwin, Efa, 
in the Service of the Eaft India Company, 4.10. 
169. Dodfley. 

MATERIAL information for navigators 
And travellers is communicated in this work, 
and the narrative is enlivened by the adven- 
tores the author and his companions met 
with in a country but fcldom re for ted to by 
i Europeans. It appears that Mr. Irwin was 
charged with difpatchet from the Nabob of 
Arcot and (he late Lord Pigott for the Eaft 
India Company. They failed from Madrafs 
acrefs the ocean which divides India from 
Africa, and arrived fafe at Mocha. A plate 
exhibiting a view of that city, and of the 
Straits of Babelmandcl, together with an 
ample defcription of the government, man- 
ners, and cuftoms of the inhabitants, is the 
firft intercfting part of the voyage. The 
Best is an adventure, attended with the moft 
diftreffing circumftances, owing to the treach- 
ery of the Vixier, who governs for the Xerif 
of Mecca, at Yambo, * port into which they 
put for inciter from a ftorm, and in hopes 
not only of an hofpi table reception, but of 
procuring a pilot for Sues, to which place 
they were bound : here they were detained, 
kept prifoners, and their vefTel fcifed j but 
it was at length reftored by order of the 
^Cerif. The whole of this narrative is ex- 
ceedingly curious, and will ferve as a cau- 
tion to others to avoid the port 0/ Yambo. 

The travellers proceeded in an open boat 
for Suez, but were landed by the further 
treachery of the Arabs at Co fire 5 from 
thence they go by land with the caravan to 
Ohinnah on the Mile. There they met 
with freih difficulties, the relation of which, 
and the account of the inhabitants, is new 
and entertaining. In their route from Ghin- 
nah through the dc/arts of Thebais to Grand 
Cairo, they joined a ban a* of robbers, who 
generoufly a (lifted them when their provi- 
fions began to fail, and treated them in every 
refpect with civility and good faith. 

The occurrences they met with at Cairo, 
and at Alexandria, from which place they 
embark for Marfeilles, nil up the remainder 
of this correfpondence ; and in the appendix 
there are two edes, one to the Defa t, the 
other to the Nile. Bc6des the vitw already 
mentioned, the author has given an accurate 
map oi i)ic {led Sea from Yambo to Cofjre, 



from 24 to 30 degrres N. L ititudf, and a view 
of the towns of Yambo, Cofire, and Ghin- 
n*h, from drawings made by him on the fpot. 
XXIV. Memoir* cf the Life of David 
Garruk, Ejf t inter (per fed with CharaBert 
and Anecdotes of his Theatrical Contemporaries 
the whole forming a Hifiory of the Stage 9 
which includes a Period of thirty fix Years p 
By Thomas Davits, 8vo. % Vols. 

AUTHENTIC memoirs of a man wh# 
arrived at the fummit of perfection in hip 
profefiion, and was for many years the ad- 
miration, not only of his countrymen, but 
of all foreigners of tafle whe vifitcd England. 
cannot fail of meeting with the approbation 
of the publick ; and we are happy to find 
that Dr. John Ton encouraged Mr. Davies to 
uniertake this difficult t*/k ; which he haa 
executed with a degree of accuracy and fide- 
lity that does him honour. A long acquain* 
tsnee with the ftage, to which the editor 
was attached for many years, and on which 
he was a refpectable actor, certainly quali. 
fied him for writing fuch a hiftory of our 
theatres as was proper to refrefh the memo- 
ries of thofe who have frequented them, and 
to be connected with the life of Garriclu 
Accordingly, we find in thefe volumes fatis* 
factory memoirs, and entertaining anecdotes 
of the principal actors and actre/Tes, and of 
the drama tick writers who have nourished 
within the courfe of thirty-fix years* No 
further recommendation feems neceiTary for 
a work of this kind \ and as we have takes 
the liberty to give a i'pecimen of the execu- 
tion in another place, we flu II clofe the 
article with the ihott account of Mr. Gar* 
rick*s firft appearance on any ftage. 

" His diffidence withheld him from try* 
ing his ftrength at firft on a London theatre* 
He thought the hazard was too great, and 
embraced the advantage of commencing no* 
vitiate in acting with a company of playerc 
thrn rrady to fet out for Ipfw'ch, urtd^r the 
direction of Mr, William Giffard and Mr, 
Dunftal), in the Cummer of 1741. The fir ft 
effort of bis theatiical talents was exerted in , 
Aboan, in the play of Oroonoko, a part in 
which bis features could not eafily be dif* 
cerned ; under the difguife of a black coun- 
tenance he hoped tu efcape being known, 
ihould it be his misfortune not to pleafe. 
Though Aboan is not a fir it rate character, 
yet the fcencs of patheticL pcrfuajion and af- * 
feeling diftrefs, in which that character it * 
involved, will always command the attention 
of the audience when reprefented by a judi- 
cious actor. Our young player's app'aufie 
was equal to his moft fanguine defires. 
Ff* \jtAii* 



*l8 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



May 



Under the a(Tnmed name of Llddslf he HOC innate Mifs Rofs, who was inhumanely anaf- 



only acVd a vartery of characters in playf, 
particularly Chamont in the Orphan, Cap- 
tain Bnren in the Recruiting Officer, and 
Sir Harry Wildair, but he likewife attempted 
the active feats tf Harlequin. In every cf- 
fay he gave fuch delight to the audience, 
that they gratified him with conftant and 
loud prootf of their approbation* The town 
of Ipfwich will long boa ft of having first 
feen and encouraged fo great a gmius at Mr* 
G-niclc." 

XXV. Emma Corixtt, ar tbelfift- 
ritt of Civil War, founded §m fmt rtttwt 
Ctrcuwjiancn which bapptntd in Amtrlca, 
3 Vols. izmo. js. 6d, Baldwin. 

THIS well timed and moft affecting talc 
of woe is a frcih offeiing at the ferine of fen- 
fibiliiy, by the ingenious aod admired writer, 
who, under the a (Turned name of C*mrt*ey 
Mtlmotb, has often drawn the fympathettc 
tear from the lovely eyes of hit fair country- 
women. It is his beft pnife, that be be- 
guiles h'» readers by amufing incident* into a 
labyrinth, from which there ii no clew to 
extricate them, but that which is fpun by 
Piety and Virtue, and delivered into the 
hands of Pity, the goddefi of humanity. 

Shenftone Gieen, and The Tutor of 
Truth, have long fince pafTed mufter in our 
circumfcribed, but impartial Review. We 
thought them intitled to recommendation, 
and it was freely bellowed on thit principle i 
That fpecies of fabulous hiftory, which il 
the product of a lively imagination, fet to 
work upon fome real facti, that independent 
of the decorations of fancy would appear 
naked and unintereAing, is the moft fought 
after, and read with the greateft avidiiyj by 
the young, the i neon (i derate, and the idle, 
of both (cxt*. This being the cafe, it it the 
duty of the candid critick to difcoyrage thofe 
novels or romances which are calculated to 
inflame the pafliom, or miflead the judge- 
ment ; and to patroniie to the extent of his 
limited power fuch pictures of human life as 
are calculated to imprefs juft notions on the 
minds of youth, to make them in love with 
virtue, even in diftrefs, and to train them to 
philanthropy, to acts of benevolence, and to 
pure friendship \ to refignation under every 
•dvcrfity ; and to that calm fortitude, which 
can contemplate without defpondejicy, the 
too much dreaded hour of diflbtution. 

The flory of Emma Corbett is adapted to 
all the valuible puipofesjoA mentioned) we 
•re allured by the author, «• that the inci- 
dents owe more to their Simplicity and na- 
tive truth, than to any additions of fancy ;" 
and if we are not miftaken, the names of the 
principal characters, and fome alterations in 
the cjt-*ftr~>|>he of F.nma and Henry, are the 
moft material operations of our aothor's fer- 
tile imagination. Whether Emma Corbett, 
who in this narrative returns to England, 
and dies in her father's houfe, be the info** 



facred by the Indiana ia the fcrvice of tbj 
Brtlim army in Canada, or whether Henry 
was (lain in battle, or by the generous for- 
titude and arTection'of Emma was recovered 
by her extracting a potfoned arrow from hie 
breaft, and faking the wound, which in the 
end proved fatal to herlelf, are circumftencea 
very immaterial to the reader. It it fuf- 
fieiem to be aflured, that the difunion of 
many families, befides thofe alluded to in 
thefe volumes } that di&ftcrs as horrid, aa 
thofe related in them ; that confluences at 
fatal, have been the effect* of party-rage, 
and of that unnatural, cruel, and im politick 
civil war, which for upwards of four years 
has been carried on with circumftancea of 
barbarous refentment, difgraccful to the arms 
and to the policy of civilifed countries. 

If the tears that muft flow from the eyef of 
every feeling reader of this diftrefsftrt ftory, 
have the power to abate the phrenfy of fa- 
mily animofities, fpringing from difference 
in political opinions \ if they are able to re- 
turn fome fwords into their fcabbardt that 
have been drawn on both fide*, or to pre- 
vent others from engaging in the bloody and 
fruitlefs contest j or if while is lafts, the nor* 
rid front of war is fmoothed by humane and 
tender offices to the imprifoncd captive and 
the wounded warrior, the author will have 
performed eflential fervicesto both countries } 
but if a due consideration of all the hor- 
rors of a civil war, anting from the fym pa- 
thetic fen fat ions which this tale necelTariry 
excites, should fir.k deep into the minds of 
thofe who hsve it in their power to heal 
their country's bleeding wounds, furely they 
will be induced to ftudy the means of recon- 
ciliation with unremitting ardour, and to 
prevent, before it is too late, the ruins of a 
difmantlcd empire. Nor is this a vain 
hope, we all remember the effect of a 
pamphlet intitled, " Confederations on the 
German War ;** it was highly inftrumental- 
to the enfoing peace. It it our fincere wifh, 
that this moft pathetick cxpofereof the mi To- 
ries of civil war may be crowned with the fame 
foccefs to the immortal honour of the writer. 
The following arc ooilinca of the ftory t 
« Charles Corbett, Efq. a gentleman of fa T 
mily and property in England, and a widower, 
is a. violent parti fan for the Americans. He 
has a fon and a daughter, Edward and Emma 
Corbett. The former having accepted a 
com minion in America under General 
Wifliin^ton, after his eftate, which he had 
inherited from an uncle, had been plunder* 
cd by the Britifh army, at the opening of the 
firft volume, is fuppofed to have fallen in 
battle. The news of his fate involves 
Louifa Hammond, the friend of Emma, in 
the deepeft diftrefs, for the is fecrctly the 
wife of Edward. Emma's affections are en- 
gaged to Henry Hammond, Louisa's brother, 
with the content of her father) hut Mr* 

Corbett 



1780. 



REVIEW OF BOOKS. 



929 



Corbett finding that Henry Hammond hat 
foil ici ted and obtained a commiflion in the 
Royal army, and is by choice going to ferve 
againft the Americans, forbid* him all inter- 
coorfe with hit daughter : the mutual affec- 
tion of the young couple however continues, 
but fhe will not attempt to difluade him from 
•the line of his duty. He embarks for Ame- 



tacks the favourite meafuret tnd the greatest 
characters of the minority. The titles to 
thefs numbers will be fuflicient to point out 
the writer*! intentions, snd we (ball onfy 
give them t his portraits being fo bold and 
free, that if they are true likenetTes, it would 
be wrong to pretend to correct them } and if 
they are falfe, it, is not our bufinefs to paint 



rica • and in his a b fence, Mr. Corbett pro- them over again. 
pofct 10 marry Emma to Sir Robert Ray* No, I. Contains the motives for tolerat- 
mond, who is juft returned from India, ing the Papifts, candidly difcufled. The in- 
where he had acquired an immenfe fortune, veterate and abfurd Conduct of Oppofition 
The mod complete character of generous explained. Sir G. Savilc's Character deli- 
love and friendtiiip is drawn in the prrfon of neated ; with fome Strictures on Dr.Kippii, 
Sir Robert. Finding the affections of Emma a Diffcnting Minifter. 
Jcttled upon Henry, he declines til preten- No. II. Faction and Oppofition defended, 
lions ; but her father is fo exafperated at her The difference in both historically ftsted. 
conduct, that /he refolvcs to follow Henry to Gratitude overpowered by Vanity, exempli- 
America, and fecretly abfeonds. To Sir fied in the Conduct of Byng. The Cartha- 
Rubert in confidence Oie imparts her deftina- 
tion : he informs her faher, and refolvcs to 
attend her /ate, with the generous defign of 
being her guardian, and of conducting her to 
Heury. After a variety of interefting and 



ginian and Rockingham Factions iffimilated. 
No. III. Leaders of Faction and Keepers 
of Wild Beads aflimilated. A Sketch of 
Lord Shelburne. A more finished Drawing 
of Burke. The Spirit of the Minority Pen- 
pa*hctick adventures, fuch at are but too com- iioners Speech upon the Tax that threatens 
soon in counties that are the feat of war, them. A Hint to the Corporation of Lon- 



don. Reformation upon a wide Scale. Con- 
tinued in No. IV. and fome good advice 
given refpecting the choice of representa- 
tives at the nexr general election. 

XXVII. $<rm**t by Hugh Blolr, D, D 
9*e of the Mini/fen of the High Cb*rcb t 
and Profiffir of kbetoriek and Bollti Lot/res, 
in the Vwwrfity of Edinburgh. Vol. 2d. 
8vo. c*. Cad ell. 

THE fir ft volume of thefe excellent fer- 
mons, which are on the mod interefting 
fubjeets of morality and the Chriftiao reli- 
gion, has run through feveral editiont 



Emma, who is difguifed as a boy, finds her 
lover wounded in 'he field, after a flcirmifli 
between the Britifh and the American forces; 
me draws an Indian arrow from his breaft, 
fucks the wound, and recovers him t at a 
convenient time me difcovert hcrfelf, and 
they are married. Sir Robert Raymond acts 
as a common friend, only keeps thefecret of 
his affect' on for Emma, which is too pure 
and virtuous to difturb their happinefs. He 
correfpondt with old Corbett, who by this 
time repmts his furious zeal ; the alternate 
fcenes of joy and di ft re ft arifing from falfe 

and true intelligence between the two coon- flnce the I aft year ; and it is from the eighth 
tries is admirably defcribed. The news that, edition of that volume, and from the fecond 
his fon Edward is alive, who had difcovered of the fecond volume juft published, that aa 
his fifttr, tranfports him, and he communt- idea will be given of the whole in this 
cates it to Louifa, who now owns that ihe it fummary review. 

his daughter-in-law, and goes to live with Thefe fermons are admirably adapted to 
him. But in a fucceeding battle Edward is all ranks of men, and are calculated to 
actually (lain, and this cataftrophe carries yield folid fattafaction to the gentleman, 
Louifa to the grave, juft as Henry an«* Emma the man of letters, and the unprejudiced 
return home : the latter had long languished Chriftiaa, of every feet or denomination* 
tinder the fecret effects of the poifon, and They are equally free from the gloomy 
Henry, who forefeet the fatal conf. quence, 
is thrown into a raging fever, which carries 
him off. EmoVs death fooa follows, from 
a premature labour, and an orphan daughter, 
is with her dying breath bequeathed ro the 
care of Sir Robert Raymond. Mr. Corbett 
forvives this tragic fecne, and is encouraged 
to fubmit tp the unerring decrees of Provi- 
dence, by the piety and Chriftian philofopby 
0/ his friend. 

XXVI. Tbt Keformur J by *» Indeftu- 
dint Freeholder, is. 6d. Fielding and 
Walker : 

A Warm political pamphlet, which might 
mot improperly have been intitled; " Have 
at yoa all*" In four numbcri, the writer at* 



errors of enthu6afm on the one hand, and 
from that latitude of free-thinking and le- 
vity of ftyle which has difgraced the writ* 
ingi of fome of our modern divines. Yet 
they are difcourfet that mutt afford eater* 
tainment to readers of any tafte, and which 
may he read in the calm hour of retreat 
from company, even by ladies, who, if they 
will condefcend to cboofe fome of the more 
general topics from the two volumes, will 
fine? a charm in them more attractive than 
in the beft contrived fable of the ffloft ad* 
mired novel. 

In the fermons On the Importance of Or* 
der— On the Government of the Heart— Oai 
the U?e of Praiie—OaGcatlcti^ the, fait 



2 3 o REVIEW OF BOOKS. May 

ftn.il] find inllrutlionifuittdio their capt- violence] and contention. In the ruffled and 
ttties.and to their true iiuertfti, delivered in angry hroir, we view every appearances 
fueh elegant l.neu-ge, that it will com- Ihrougb a falfe medium. The mod incon. 
maiid thrir Mieixiori without the help of Cikulilc f oint of ininefl or honour fwella 
plot, incident,, in.1 cMiiltophe. Bui a< i™.n-i, ntoui ubjetl ; and the fliihteft 
example yicvail, beyond precept, b the alii.k fiemi lo threaten immediate ruin, 
bell recommc c ,.-:: I.e. a Iptcinien of Eut ..ft,- i paffloa u( piide hn fubllded, we 
the many b; mtiiul p.: i;-> w bt fmnd t n In. k lound in vain /or the mighty mif- 
moft of tbeic Sua i'r. m ti.jt.in ehicfr wc dtcided. The fabric which oat 

Ciiuloufi, w r.„ r-* i .t Wowing I ncs i difhubcd ioiiuinalon hid reared [orally 
" Virtue it The uonrerfrl tha/m- En4 Aiaepttli, But Hioufib the eaufe of eon- 
itt [hadow it tainted, -tien ihe i'uMlance ttnlion h^> dwindled away, ill (onfeoueueea 

roe.ee of life, ihe fin) ftudy of all who wjfh the feed, of future fofpicion, malevolence', 

either to gii.i the i lie- m, or wip the liearU or difgjft — Surpend your violence I he- 

humanity. But that gemleneii which it coclnefi, which, of itfelf will foon iniit. 
the charafle:eftick of i good man, h.i, Allow >omfel»e. to think, how little you 

like eveiy other virtue, iti tett in the heart; have iny profpefl of giining by fierce eon- 

from the heart, can rend. i even « Vina] nefi of l.fe you arc certain of throwing 

minnert truely plt'ling. Fur no aiTumed away. Eanly, and from the frrtalJerl 

behaviour can it Ml time, hide the real' think the bitter water, of ftrife are let 

character. In tbar. unatiecled civility which forth ; but their courfc cannot be forefeenj 

fpring, froma gentle mind, there it a charm »rid he fcldom faili ol fuSTning mofl from 

infinitely more po >cful, thao in ill the 'heir peifonoui eiTecli, who full allowed 

iludied man.uc.ri ui" the moll finiflicd tour- them to flow," 

tier. . The fermon on Ctn&tir ii a moil admir- 

" Trueg ■■■.;! ■"■ is founded on I fenfe able lecture <o the CuTpicioui, Ihc narrow. 

of what we u«( 10 Him whL. made til, and minded, the illiberal, and the fe fifh, i a 

to the common nature of whjeh, wc all publick ind private life ; it eipofel alUhe 

(hire. It arifet i '.m rtfleflion on our Wtoun of jealoufy and revenge ; itpainii 

own failing i ind want! | and from jufl '" lively tolouii the hrppy fereniiy of the 

viewiof the condition and of the duty of candid mind; and it it followed by the 

man. It ii naiiv: feeling, hijghiened and Character of Jofeph, another fcimon, in 

icnprovit! b) pr <- -iple. It it the heart which roTgjvnaefi nf lnutit* ippeara to bo 

which eaiii» re;-n i -, which feeli for every h tharming, that one would think it im- 

thinfthat it huminj and ii btekwat.l aiid poflible, after reading it, to httbour ferem- 

flow to ir.flitt me leaff wound. It it af- ment. The benevolent temper of the writer 

fable in in adurei-.and mild in itt demean- it ftrongly marked in ihcfc dikoutfet. 
our; e.et it-dv to cblige, and willing to The fermoni on Death, and on the Happi- 

be obliged hy ojhert; breathing habitual nef.ofaFutote Sine, infpite true fortitude, 

kindneft tov. u. : fiiendi, courufy toflnn- >°d adminiftetthat eonfolation which alone 

,ier>, long- fu ft'e ring to eninuei. It eaer- «n pnblo man to look forward to hit dif- 

cifei authority with eifc and mi-Jeilv. It fnlution without fear or trembling. The 

ii uaalluminEin opinion, and temperate in difcourfc, Onour iKooranceof GoodindEvil 

eily about ttifleii in thit Lift, ii a miller piece in itt kind. 
But if it be ifted. Are we to be favoured 
with any more volumei I The infv.tr ii. 
We ire totally ignorant, not having the 

farily with ttic .flairs, nor pritt in^uifitirt- fmtllrft infonrlaiion from the DcSor, by 

ly in:n the fetreii of otheii. It dtlighti, any ptefate, advertifemenr, or introdaction. 
■boveall thing', to alleviate diflieft, and, Thii leavci in at liberty to give advice— 

if it cannot dry i p the falling tear, to Tooth let the ingmtouB writer attend to hit own 

at lean the grieving heart. Where it haa fermon, On the Love of Priife, and he will 

not the power uf bring uleful, it it never not be deluded hy furtefi ; there is > point 

buiihtnfome. It fc-.k< 10 pleife rather >t which humin j^crftclion arrives, beyond 

th >n to rhine and daetlej antf tunieali whieh it it in vain to pufli ourtalentt. He 

wilii rate that fupciiniuy cither of talentl hat flone enough j the ptincipal duliei of 

or rar.k. which •= "lon-fl-ve to thofe that religion and morality lie ably ineulcaied in 

are benetlh it .'.(turtom yowltlvct the volumei before ui; and in out humble 

alfo tortflefl: on the fnuil mometit of thofe opinion, " the fine fpitit" of the luthor 

thinst which ut tie ulual incentive! to bceim to etapoiatt in the fecond. 

4 xxv.n. 



II flower to blim. 
: nfion. and reflr, 



"1780. 



POETICAL ESSAYS. 



2Jf 



XXVIII. Strmoms by Coli* Milne, LL. D 
&c. 8vo 5*. Cadell. 

THE known popularity of this eminent 
preacher in London it fuf&cient to excite 
an ardent curiofity to read fome of hit fce- 
mont in print j for very ofien there is a 
great difference between the preacher and 
the writer. There are fermons delivered 
with the affifhnce of a melodious voice, and 
the other powers of oratory, which make 
but a poor figure in the clofet j and. there 
are others of cxquifite composition, that 
have been murthered in the pulpit, becaufe 
the preacher could neither read nor fpeak 
with propriety. The fermons before us 
want not the aid of delivery, they are cal- 
culated to make due impreflions on the 
hearts of the wel!-difpoferf; they con ajn 
ftrong appeals to the real Chriftian, and 
guide him in his duty 5 bat they will not 
fuit the Deift, for they are all founded on 
the principles of orthodox Chriftianity. As 
to the ftyle, the writer telis us, " he has 
•Tailed himfelf of the be ft and moft ap- 
proved models of pulpit eloqtren e, both 
Englifh and French.** In this he has fo far 
fucceeded, as to enliven his fubjecls j and 
he hat taken care not to make his fermons 
too long. 

There are nine fermons in the volume : 
two on the Confolation which Religion af- 
fords under Afflictions, One on Death. 
One on Chriftian Charity. The Chriftian 
Patriot. Two on the Deceitferlnefs of Sin. 
Piety, the be ft Principle, and firmtft Sup- 
port of Virtue. The Concefliona of the 
Enrmies of the Gofpel, a Proof of its 



Truth. They are dedicated to the Prince 
of Bntifh Orators in the Law, The Earl of 
Mansfield, and are worthy of his patronage. 

XX 1£. Sermons on vancut Subject, by 
Jacob bucbe t M. A- UtSlr of Cbrijl Church 
and St. Peter's, Philadelphia, gvo. 2 Vols. 
IOS. Dilly. 

THESE difcourfes are the production of 
a gentleman, who has been obliged to leave 
America on account of his loyalty ; and the 
pubiica'ion has been fupported by a profit- 
able fubfeription \ the names in the lift 
(how the high degree of eftimation the au- 
thor it held in by refpectabie prrfuns of dif- 
ferent ranks and perfuafient. They are not 
however fo well calculated for general read- 
ing as moft of the fermons publifhed of late 
years. The reaibn is apparent, they are 
what * the fafhtonable world term Mci*j- 
difticJ ; but the devout Chriftian will let 
the greater value on them. ' The author's 
own account of the ftyle will beft explain 
our meaning. " I have conftantly ufed 
fcriptural ideas, and fcriptur.il language in 
preference to wha; are called moral and 
philosophical. Deviations from the fim- 
plici'y of evangelical truths have too often 
been occasioned by deviations from the lim- 
plicity of evangelical language. A Chrif- 
tian ought never to be a foamed of the gofpd 
of Chrift, which h the power of God unto 
falvation." The reader after this will 
know what to expect f/< m the titles of fomo 
of the fermons.— Such are, Evangelical 
Righteoufnefs. Faith tnuTphant over the 
Powers of Darknef*. Chrift icn-iwn or un- 
known. TheUniverfal^aviour, Sec. Sec. Sec* 



POETICAL ESSAYS. 



THE SLEEPY CONGREGATION. 
A TALE. 

TN Cumbria dwelt (no matter when) 
A parfon, tcrm'd, «« The beft of men;" 
Who kept his fermons ready marte, 
For preaching folely was his trade ; 
Well could he boaft, with conscience clear, 
He told no. text twite in a year, 
Advanc'd in age to fifty- three, 
He ft';ll retained virginity ; 
Leading a pure religious life, 
Without a mi ft r; ft or a wife j 
And tho* he drurly lov'd to eat, 
On Fridays; he ne'er tailed mot : 
He'd (moke bis pipe, indeed 'tis true. 
And then he'd choofe his bottle too j 
Thie did enlarge his corporation, 
That mattert not, 'twas then in fafhion ; 
Th* ex ten five parifh coulJ at lead 
Afford to keep a jolly pneft j 
He did, in truth, his pulpit grace, 
With powder'd wig and purple face, 



icrp, 

nd then J 

len, V 

igain j J 



The good old vicar here before yon 
Mult be the f'ubjecl of my ftory s 
Full often he'd exirt his 'flock, 
Tn build their faith upon a rock ; 
What more could man do in his Ration? 
How wak= a droufy congregation ? 
Aaron the clerk could fcarcely keep 
His eye-lids up ; but oft would flerp, 
E'en during prayers, fave now and then 
Hr'd wake, and faintly cy, Ami 
Then hang his head, and fleep *| 
But yet, it was by all allow'd, 
Th't Aaron's voce was fhrill and loud $ 
H- fung, with caU-, the treble part, 
A id turn'd fol fa with niceft art. 
Our prirtt, as vou'il fuppofe, was vext, 
And firmly fixV, on Sunday next, 
That, foon as he*d explain'd his text, 
HVd give fomr plain demonfl ration 
To this, his flecpy congregation } 
Thai he could ail as well as preach, 
And more by deeds than words could teach* 
The week run O'er j we'll now fuppofe 
Our vicar drift in Sunday's clothes j 



} 



*3* 

The breakfaft o'er, fwine fed, and the* 

The par Ton's clock proclaim/ it tea l 

The parifh bell has rung to church } 

The people wait within the porch } 

Whither, at our divine trudg'd on, 

He Ipy'd a horfe's knuckle-bone. 

«• Thh ! This I will fcrvemy turn (fays he) 

Twill fuit my purpofe to a tee.'* 

Then with his gown he cover'd o'er 

His prize, and walk'd juft at before. 

With aukward bows, and (craping feet« 

The gaping croud their p^ftor greet; 

With, " Your fervant, fir, how d'ye do?" 

'< I thank you, neighbours, how are you?** 

Then, tir'd with talking country newt, 

They all get feated in their pews* 

The two grand actors next prepare, 

Aaron for fleep, the prieft for pray'r; 

r i*he people rarely choofc to Aire on, 

But moftly nod with hone ft Aaron. 

The prayers o'er, a plalm is fung, 

The choir with tuneful notes has rung; 

The parfon, rais'd in pulpit high, 

Around his hearers carts his eye. 

•• Beloved brethren (he fays) 

Thcfe fubtle bale degen'ratc dayt 

Of vJehypocrify, btw«re, » 

And tread Religion's paths with care.'" 

Thus lead the vicr, thus he preach'd, 

Thu? he exhorted, and thus teach'd ) 

Alas ! his rhetoric's all in vain, 

To roufe the ftupid drowfy brain: 

Tor, whilft he reads hit lecture o er 9 

Some think of dinner, and fome fnore } 

And true it is, as I'm a finncr* [ n€T i 

Some, whilft they're flccping, dream ot din- 

And ftarfng up, all on a ludderj, 

Are vex'd to loofe the f;jht of pudding. 

The book is (hut, the fermon o'er, 

And all proceeds as heretofore. 

•« Dear brethren (the parfon cries, • 

And all around him calls hit eyes) 

Thcfe twenty year*, with thoughtful brain, 

J here have preach'd to you in vain I 

Now, what by words I can*t find out, 

I'll try if deeds will bring about. 

Beloved friends, mind what I fay, 

Ere I go hence, one here (hall pray 

For me aloud j yet what is worfe, 

When one has blcft, one more will curfe." 

So faid, io done, the vicar fpy'd 

A good old woman by hit fide ; 

And whilft the people ftare and gape, 

He threw a ihilling on her lap, 

Which aid fo well the matron pleafe,. 

She flraightway fell upon her knees : 

«« Lord keep your rev'rence free from ftrife, 

God grant you long and happy life/* 

Th' old woman cry'd : fl»e icarce had done. 

The vicar wields his trufty bone) 

And looking round, he fpy*d a lout, 

With mouth extended, ftare about) 

At him, with well mark'd aim, Jje threw, 

Right is> his pate ihe weapon flew. 

•« De'il dam the man ! Oh Lord ! my head I 

The pried it mad," the fellow laid i. 



POETICAL ESSAYS. 



May 



Then fnatcVd hit bit, exciaim'd, "by Gad ! 
I won't ftay here, the parfon't mad.*' 
Atnaz'd, confds'd, the people ft »re. 
With chatt'ring teeth, erected hair. 
•* Oh ! ye vile vipers (cry'd the prieft) 
I hope I*ve match'd you now at )e«ft 1 
If in this church you here pre fume 
Again to fleep, this it your doom ; * 

This bone mail break each drowfy pate; 
Prom this my fentence learn your fate.** 
The vicar was well pleas'd, no doubt, 
To have his endt thus brought about. 
•« I fee 'tis plain (and (hook his head) 
To cure the lethargy (he faid) 
Ye heavy laden, come to me, 
And I will give yon reft," cry'd he. 
Then took his hat, walk'd out of church, 
And left hit heaters in the lurch. 

J. A »» 



THE GLOW-WORM. 

THOU ray clad in fed of the night. 
From whence doft fteal that fitver light ? 
Thou emblem fair, of truth divine, 
That in thyfelf art lecn to mine. 
When Error*! night is on thee fet, 
Then brighter do you fools beget. 

» • 

None ever fees thy guiding fuaik, 
But he who wanders in the dark. 
We never flioold,«i«»r being know, 
Did not the made jrour prefence (how t 
If always day 'twere to remain, 
You might be crutn'd by carelefs fwauu 

Thus darknefs— it is all we fee, 
Preferves exiftcrrce unto thee; 
And Truth no longer would appear* 
Un'efs by Error's made made clear. 
Therefore, ye carping witlinet vain, 
Of Nature never more complain. 

Afk, now, ao more— why falfehood, pain. 

Should our creation's fa/rnefs ftain } 

Why beaoty mould attended be 

By hideous, foul deformity ? 

Left Glow-worm anfwer, that -y— were 

Created to contraft the fair. 

A.* 



MAY 
ANEW 



.DAY, 
BALLAD. 



ALL hail ! aofpiciotjt firft of May, 
Thou'rt kindly welcome here, 
With all thy vegetating fway, 
Th? lab'rtng bind to cheer* 
The silver lily and the rofe, 
Impatient wait thy birth J 
Myriads of beauties now difclofe. 
That winter lock'd in earth. 

The glitt'ring dewt upon the thorns 

Like gemt cranfparent are, 
While cowslips fweet embofs the lawn, 

And fcent the ambient air i 

-Aroint) 



1780. 



MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



23J 



Around each field and meadow giy, 
The fUw'ry mantle fprcad, 

^Vith vernal bloom adorn the fpray, 
While daifies rear their head. 

The lofty bills in green attire, 
Delight the wand*ring fight j 

-Sore this the feafon of defire 

- That speeds the minutes flight. 

High pois'd in air the tuneful lark* 
Proclaims the birth of day ? 

While through the wide sethereal arch 
He rings his warbling fway. 

In fplendid pride, the gardens blase, 

DifFufiog odours fwect J 
Beneath the fui/s enlivening rays* 
' Of propagating heat t 
The rofy milkmaid joyful hails 

May's fwift return again } 



Neglected throws aGde her pails, 
To dance upon the plain. 

induftrious (hepherds leave their bedf # 

To teiH their fleeCy care ; 
While cits in London lull their heads, 

And cards dtftracl the fair. 
Each rural nymph and hone ft fwain, 

Now true their promile prove j 
Blytnethey aflemfcle on the plain, 

And hail the dame of love. 

A gaudy wreath their heads entwine, 

Made of the choked flowVs, 
Meet to approach Love's holy fhrine, 

And wing the pafling hours. 
May Hymen btefs, make h ppy fuch, 

And ftill their blifs prolongs 
f< Msa toann but little" he wants hot much, 

Nor ivants that littk hag*' H. L. 



THE MONTHLY CHRONOLOGER. 



LONDON. 
Thursday, April 27; 

JHPJT Jrn ESTERDAY a juftice of the 

Ka^l peace furrendered himfelf at 
Y nr the bar of the Court of King's 
JFS Bench to receive judgement 
JiYy W on an indictment whereof he 

sifter laft term, for aflaultiog and falfe-im- 
prifoning Jofeph Lefter, a felJowlhip porter, 
who was imprcfled, and being brought be- 
fore the magistrate, clearly thowed himfelf 
tier to be an obfeft of the act 5 but he was 
committed to prifon, and confined twelve 
days in the Savoy, until a Writ of Habeas 
Corpus, iflued by the city, liberated him. 
From a loath fome confinement: the two 
conftables who apprehended the mail were 
joined in the indictment, and by the direc- 
tion of the noble judge acquitted, it not 
appearing that they had exceeded their au- 
thority, the evidence of the exemption be- 
ing fubfequent. Earl Mansfield, after the 
motion for judgement was made by Mr. 
Dunning, reported the evidence upon the 
trial, and made obfervations t his lord/hip 
Rated theclaufes of the Imprefs A3 reff ced- 
ing the power of the commiffioners to levy 
men, and of the conftables to fearch in their 
refpe&ivediftricts for men whom they con- 
ceived to be within the description of the 
ad : he then concluded, by remarking, that 
in the prefent in fiance Lefter was not a per- 
fm liable to be apprehended, as it cams out 
by the teftimony of reputable witneff:s y he 
was an induftrious man. 

Mr. Dunning, in his animadverfions upon 
the conduel of the juftice, prcfled ftrongly 
to have him ftrudt out of the commi/lion 
of the peace, as he had a&ed wrong in both 
characters of a magi ft rate and ctmmtffioncr 

Lowd. Mac. 17 So, 



under the alt, and therefore very unfif, In 
his opinion, to be any longer entrufted with 
magifterial power. Mr. Howarth, in ex- 
tenuation of the punishment, made a dif- 
tinclibn between the two characters extr- 
cifed by the defendant; he contended, that 
the juflice at all events mould he found 
criminal only for .the fir ft day*s examina- 
tion, and not to be confidered any ways re* 
fponfible for his determination as a com-- 
miffioner, when Lefter was fent to the 
Savoy by the unanimous vote of the Boards 
' Lord Mansfield anfwered' this observation 
by faying, that if the counfel wiffied to 
have the juftice be thought miftaken in hit 
duty, it was necefiary to controvert it, as 
the jury had found him guilty of a wilful 
pcrvcrfion of his office. He was to exercife 
a judgement on hearing witnefifes j but it 
appeared, that he had refuted to hear the 
evidence offered to remove any fufpicitns 
entertained by the conftables of his charac- 
terj particularly, he would not hrar one 
Dodd, a witnefs, and waved him afide;, 
one BUke was alfo rejected; and the juf- 
tice told Lefter, if he could produce any 
body to his character, to fend for them the 
next day, and committeihimfor that night 
to jail j his lord/hip faid, the whole * as a 
continual train of oppreflion. What hap- 
pened the next day, whilft evidence was" 
given of the man being a fcllowfliip-porier ? 
He was fent up ftiirs to be examined by 
a furgeon before it was determined if b". was 
an object of the a£c. Lord Mansfield a iked 
Mr. Howarth, what he had to fay as to the 
fir'ft day's bufinefs ? The counfel anfwered, 
therein indeed he allowed !.i* client to be 
culpable. 

Judge Willes ' proceeded to pronounce 
judgement; he /aid that the Imprefs A& 
was a very o^ttflhe, t&» txA Wt W\ 



234 MONTHLY CHRONOLOGE JL Mty 

upon the liberty of the fubjeft t It wit a very land. rWhcld.the doftrine in this cafe to a* 

fiwe aft, extorted from the leg Mature, and applicable to that rcfaefting pieces of tVeaaf * 

warranted only by the neceffity of the times, in* water, and fopeofiitg die water to leave it, 

Ne then addrcOed himfelf to the defendant* what it called in the otd law books, dcrlleS 

and commented on his behaviour; he pail land, where there had been no flax or refiux, 

noregird to his certificate, or the appearance and the foil of which has been hitherto con* 

of circumftances in the man's favour, the aft fidered to be appropriated eg reeably to the 

directed the juftice to ufe difcretion, hot he above mode of division r he kid, that the rf- 

had exercifed none. The learned judge, after ver at Richmond was not natnrally a nevtga* 

recapitulating the cafe, fentenced the justice We water, and bad been rendered fo ertinV 

to pay i oo J. fine, which his attorney under* dally, lie took therefore the djnjiaftion to 

took to fatisfy, and he was discharged. • be a good one in this cafe, aa to rivers nattt- 

Tuesday, Msy a. rally navigable, and thofe become (o through 

The Board of Ordnance have come to the improvement. He treated tfie aft of parjta* 



refolution of bnilding a rrdoubt battery for the 
protection of the port of Leith agaioft any at? 
tempts which may be made by the enemy. It 
is to be erefted immediately to the weftward 
of the citadel, to contain a gusrd-hoofe, and 1 
accommodation for a company of Jbldters. A 
battery is like wife to be erefted at Camble- 
toon; both to be undertaken without loft of 
time, under the direction of Capt. Andrew 
Frafer, chief engineer iot Scotland. 

By the navy lift it appears, that Great* 
Britain has built fince the laft -peace 46 mips 
of the line, befidrs more than a dvnble nam* 
her of vcflels of different rates* 
Friday, 5. 

Yeflerday the very intcrefting qoeJIiao, re* 



ment, by virtue of which the work is carried 
on at Richmond by the city of London, with 
great freedom, and called it a trick praftifed 
upon the legislature, a trick upon indiriduala, 
meaning the inhabitants of Richmond 1 no* 
thing bdt publick arfriry or publick neceffity 
could induce parliament to great a power of 
letting loofe bargemen upon the inhabitants s 
if the private mifchiefs had been discufled in 
the Houfc. the aft would never have patted. 
The learned coentel arranged his argument 
under three headi, ill. That when the legs, 
flature graated the aft, it was never intended 
that the city mould embank on the bed of the 
river; ad. That admitting the soil to be ia 
the city, the owners were protefted by the 



ttrved at the laft affifes for the county of reftriftiva daofe In the aft of poxlfancnr* 
Surry, on the trial of one Smith and others, that pteafure -grounds were exempt ; ad. That 
who were employed by the inhabitants of the city had not performed the faith. sspoa 



which the power of making towing-pathe 
was granted, be the right of the mil in whom 
it may. The Hon. Mr, Ermine was about to 
reply, when the Earl of Mansfield oWervea, 



Richmond to obftruft the making a towing* 
pith by direction of the court of common* 
council, was argued in the court of King*! 
Bench, when Mr. Hunter for the defendants, 

in a very ingenious fpecch, endeavoured to that part of Mr. Hunter's arnmeat 

cftabliih a right of